UNT Theses and Dissertations - 48 Matching Results

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Adhesion/Diffusion Barrier Layers for Copper Integration: Carbon-Silicon Polymer Films and Tantalum Substrates

Description: The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has identified the integration of copper (Cu) with low-dielectric-constant (low-k) materials as a critical goal for future interconnect architectures. A fundamental understanding of the chemical interaction of Cu with various substrates, including diffusion barriers and adhesion promoters, is essential to achieve this goal. The objective of this research is to develop novel organic polymers as Cu/low-k interfacial layers and to investigate popular barrier candidates, such as clean and modified tantalum (Ta) substrates. Carbon-silicon (C-Si) polymeric films have been formed by electron beam bombardment or ultraviolet (UV) radiation of molecularly adsorbed vinyl silane precursors on metal substrates under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies show that polymerization is via the vinyl groups, while Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) results show that the polymerized films have compositions similar to the precursors. Films derived from vinyltrimethyl silane (VTMS) are adherent and stable on Ta substrates until 1100 K. Diffusion of deposited Cu overlayers is not observed below 800 K, with dewetting occurred only above 400 K. Hexafluorobenzene moieties can also be incorporated into the growing film with good thermal stability. Studies on the Ta substrates demonstrate that even sub-monolayer coverages of oxygen or carbide on polycrystalline Ta significantly degrade the strength of Cu/Ta chemical interactions, and affect the kinetics of Cu diffusion into bulk Ta. On clean Ta, monolayer coverages of Cu will de-wet only above 600 K. A partial monolayer of adsorbed oxygen (3L O2 at 300 K) results in a lowering of the de-wetting temperature to 500 K, while saturation oxygen coverage (10 L O2, 300 K) results in de-wetting at 300 K. Carbide formation also lowers the de-wetting temperature to 300 K. Diffusion of Cu into the Ta substrate at 1100 K occurs only after a 5-minute induction period. This induction period increases ...
Date: December 1999
Creator: Chen, Li
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Enzyme Catalysis: an Ab Initio and DFT Investigation

Description: Hartree-Fock, Moller-Plesset, and density functional theory calculations have been carried out using 6-31+G(d), 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets to study the properties of low-barrier or short-strong hydrogen bonds (SSHB) and their potential role in enzyme-catalyzed reactions that involve proton abstraction from a weak carbon-acid by a weak base. Formic acid/formate anion, enol/enolate and other complexes have been chosen to simulate a SSHB system. These complexes have been calculated to form very short, very short hydrogen bonds with a very low barrier for proton transfer from the donor to the acceptor. Two important environmental factors including small amount of solvent molecules that could possibly exist at the active site of an enzyme and the polarity around the active site were simulated to study their energetic and geometrical influences to a SSHB. It was found that microsolvation that improves the matching of pK as of the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor involved in the SSHB will always increase the interaction of the hydrogen bond; microsolvation that disrupts the matching of pKas, on the other hand, will lead to a weaker SSHB. Polarity surrounding the SSHB, simulated by SCRF-SCIPCM model, can significantly reduce the strength and stability of a SSHB. The residual strength of a SSHB is about 10--11 kcal/mol that is still significantly stable compared with a traditional weak hydrogen bond that is only about 3--5 kcal/mol in any cases. These results indicate that SSHB can exist under polar environment. Possible reaction intermediates and transition states for the reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase were simulated to study the stabilizing effect of a SSHB on intermediates and transition states. It was found that at least one SSHB is formed in each of the simulated intermediate-catalyst complexes, strongly supporting the LBHB mechanism proposed by Cleland and Kreevoy. Computational results on the activation energy for ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Pan, Yongping
Partner: UNT Libraries

Explorations with Polycarbocyclic Cage Compounds

Description: A variety of novel cage-functionalized pyridyl containing crown ethers have been prepared for use in selective alkali metal complexation studies. A highly preorganized, cage-functionalized cryptand also has been designed and has been synthesized for use as a selective Li+ complexant. The alkali metal picrate extraction profiles of these cage-functionalized crown ethers also have been studied. Novel cage-functionalized diazacrown ethers have been prepared for selective alkali metal complexation studies. Alkali metal picrate extraction experiments have been performed by using this new class of synthetic ionophores to investigate the effects of cage-annulation and the influence of N-pivot lariat sidearms upon their resulting complexation properties. Novel pyridyl containing calix[4]arene receptors were prepared. Analysis of their respective 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra suggests that calix[4]arene moieties in the ligand occupy the cone conformation. The complexation properties of these host molecules were estimated by performing a series of alkali metal picrate extraction experiments. An optically active cage-functionalized crown ether which contains a binaphthyl moiety as the chiral unit was prepared. The ability of the resulting optically active crown ether to distinguish between enantiomers of guest ammonium ions (i.e., phenylethylamonium and phenylglycinate salts) in transport experiments was investigated. Hexacyclo[11.2.1.02,12.05,10.05,15.010,14]hexadeca-6,8-diene-4,11-dione was prepared from hexacyclo[7.4.2.01,9.03,7.04,14.06,15] pentadeca-10,12-diene-2,8-dione. Unanticipated but remarkable acid and base promoted rearrangements of this new cage dione to novel polycyclic systems were observed and subsequently were investigated. The structures of the new systems thereby obtained were determined unequivocally by application of X-ray crystallographic methods. It is noteworthy that the reactions reported herein each provide the corresponding rearranged product in high yield in a single synthetic step. Pi-facial and regioselectivity in the thermal Diels-Alder cycloaddition between hexacyclo[11.2.1.02,12.05,10.05,15.010,14]hexadeca-6,8-diene- 4,11-dione and ethyl propiolate have been explored. This reaction proceeds via stereospecific approach of the dienophile toward the syn face of the diene p -system. However, [4+2]cycloaddition proceeds with ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Chong, Hyun-Soon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thermodynamic Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Ternary Solvent Mixtures

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutes dissolved in ternary solvent mixtures, and to develop mathematical expressions for predicting and describing that behavior in the solvent mixtures. Thirty-four ternary solvent systems were studied containing either alcohol (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol), alkane (cyclohexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) or alkoxyalcohol (2-ethoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol) cosolvents. Approximately 2500 experimental measurements were performed. Expressions were derived from the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Redlich-Kister, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Bertrand, Acree and Burchfield (BAB) and the Modified Wilson models for predicting solute solubility in ternary solvent (or even higher multicomponent) mixtures based upon the model constants calculated from solubility data in sub-binary solvents. Average percent deviation between predicted and observed values were less than 2%, documenting that these models provide a fairly accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutions. Moreover, the models can be used for solubility prediction in solvent mixtures in order to find the optimum solvent composition for solubilization or desolubilization of a solute. From a computational standpoint, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent/Redlich-Kister equation is preferred because the needed model constants can be calculated with a simple linear regressional analysis. Model constants for the Modified Wilson equation had to be calculated using a reiterative trial-and-error method. The C++ program for the Modified Wilson equation applied to ternary and heptanary solvent mixtures is attached.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Deng, Tʻai-ho
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Polycarbocyclic Compounds

Description: Part I. Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1α,4α,4aα,8aβ-tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (32) and 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-lα,4α,6,7- tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (33) to 4-methyl- and 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione [MTAD and PTAD, respectively] and to N-methylmaleimide (NMM) have been studied. The structures of several of the resulting cycloadducts were determined by X-ray crystallographic methods. The observed stereoselectivity of each of these Diels-Alder reactions was further investigated via application of theoretical methods. Thus, semiempirical (AMI) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations were used to calculate relative energies. Ab initio calculations were employed to perform frontier molecular orbital analyses of diene-dienophile interactions.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Shukla, Rajesh, 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions of Clean and Sulfur-modified Reactive Metal Surfaces with Aqueous Vapor and Liquid Environments : A Combined Ultra-high Vacuum/electrochemistry Study

Description: The focus of this research is to explore the molecular-level interactions between reactive metal surfaces and aqueous environments by combined ultra-high vacuum/electrochemistry (UHV-EC) methodology. The objectives of this work are to understand (1) the effects of sulfate ions on the passivity of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, (2) the effects of sulfur-modification on the evolution of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, and (3) the effects of sulfur adsorbate on cation adsorption at metal surfaces.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Lin, Tien-Chih, 1966-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls

Description: Pulsed laser flash photolysis with both visible and infrared detection has been applied to the study of the displacement of weakly coordinating ligands (Lw) by strongly "trapping" nucleophiles (Ls) containing either an olefinic functionality (Ls = 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-tetradecene) or nitrogen (Ls = acetonitrile, hydrocinnamonitrile) from the photogenerated 16 electron pentacarbonylchromium (0) intermediate. 5-Chloropent-l-ene (Cl-ol), a potentially bidentate ligand, has been shown to form (ol-Cl) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to Cr via a lone pair on the chlorine, and isomerize to (Cl-ol) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to the olefinic functionality on the submillisecond time scale. This process has been studied in both the infrared and visible region employing both fluorobenzene or n-heptane as the "inert" diluent. Parallel studies employing 1-chlorobutane and 1-hexene were also evaluated and showed great similiarity with the Cl-ol system. The data supported a largely dissociative process with a possibility of a small interchange process involving the H's on the alkyl chain. Studies were also carried out for various Cr(CO)6/arene/Ls systems (arene = various alkyl or halogenated substituted benzenes). The data indicated that for both C6H5R (R=various alkyl chains) or multi-alkyl substituted arenes (i.e. o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) containing an "unhindered" ring-edge, bonding to the the Cr(CO)5 moiety occurs "edge on" via a partially delocalized center of unsaturation on the ring. The data indicated that both electronic and steric properties of the arenes influence the kinetics, and that an interchange pathway takes place at least, in part, through the alkyl chains on both the arenes and "trapping" nucleophiles. Moreover, halogenated arenes bond through the lone pair on the halogen for both CI- and Br- derivatives but "edge-on" for the fluorinated arenes. Finally, in the case of arene complexes without and "unhindered" ring-edge (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylbenzene) bonding can occur either "edge-on" or through the ring ...
Date: May 1998
Creator: Ladogana, Santino
Partner: UNT Libraries

Part I: Solid State Studies of Larger Calixarenes : Part II: Synthesis and Characterization of Metallocalixarenes

Description: Calixarenes are a class of macrocyclic compounds that have garnered interest in large part because of their ability to form host-guest complexes with various types of molecules. For all of the studies of complex formation by calixarenes, most of the work to date has concentrated upon the smaller calixarenes, and little is understood about the relationship between the complexes formed when in solution and that observed in the solid state. The first part of the study, presented in Chapter 3, is of the solid-state properties of two of the larger calixarenes, and in comparison to other reported structures reveals patterns to the observed conformations both in the solid state and in solution. The formation of metal complexes has also been investigated and has focused extensively upon the metals as guests. Thus, the ability of the calixarenes to act as ligands in inorganic complexes has been virtually untapped, despite the polyoxo binding site they can easily provide, and very few metallocalixarenes have been reported. The second part of this study goes beyond the simple solid-state properties of such compounds, and involves the synthesis of several metallocalixarenes as part of a project directed at the functionalization of calixarenes with the components of a class of catalysts known to polymerize various olefins. These catalysts, commonly referred to as Ziegler-Natta catalysts, are introduced in Chapter 4. The new compounds presented here--three new aluminocalixarenes in Chapter 5 and a new titanocalixarene in Chapter 6--were synthesized so as to contain some of the same components observed in several of the other catalysts. These new compounds have been characterized crystallographically as well as through proton and multinuclear NMR, and observed conformational patterns are discussed.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Smith, Janna Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Quenchofluorometric Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Molecularly Organized Media

Description: Detection, identification and separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in environmental samples are of extreme importance since many of these compounds are well known for their potential carcinogenic and/or mutagenic activities. Selective quenching of molecular fluorescence can be utilized effectively to analyze mixtures containing different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecularly organized assemblies are used widely in detection and separation of these compounds mainly because of less toxicity and enhanced solubilization capabilities associated with these media. Feasibility of using nitromethane and the alkylpyridinium cation as selective fluorescence quenching agents for discriminating between alternant versus nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is critically examined in several molecularly organized micellar solvent media. Fluorescence quenching is used to probe the structural features in mixed micelles containing the various combinations of anionic, cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Experimental results provide valuable information regarding molecular interactions between the dissimilar surfactants.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Pandey, Siddharth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Layered Double Hydroxides

Description: The preparation of layered double hydroxides via titration with sodium hydroxide was thoroughly investigated for a number of M(II)/M(III) combinations. These titration curves were examined and used to calculate nominal solubility product constants and other thermodynamic quantities for the various LDH chloride systems.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Boclair, Joseph W. (Joseph Walter)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Solvent and Ionic Complexes of the Calix[6]arenes

Description: One of the more attractive attributes of calixarenes is their wide variety of possible conformations and hence cavity shapes. However, the flexibility that allows this long-range benefit gives rise to major synthetic challenges when working with the larger members of the family. O-alkylations have proven to be the most widely employed synthetic routes to "functionalization" of the calixarenes, and these have shown a dependence upon both solvent and the metal ions present. Surprisingly, there have been no structural data presented concerning the complexes between the simple unsubstituted calix[6]arenes and the metal ions of groups 1 and 2. The structures of four complexes, containing cesium, rubidium, and calcium are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. The solution behavior of the complexes for both representative groups is also discussed, in particular with regard to conformational stabilization of the calix[6]arenes and the role of solvent upon this stabilization. These complexes are also investigated as starting materials for the selective functionalization of the calix[6]arenes.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Wolfgong, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structural Elucidation of tert-Butyllithium/Lithium Alkoxide and Lithium Hydride/Lithium Alkoxide Mixed Aggregates

Description: The effects of lithium alkoxides on the rates of reactions and on the structures of a series of tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were studied, where the alkoxides were iso-butoxide, tert-butoxide and menthoxide. It was found that their effects depend not only on their amount present, but also on their steric bulk. The tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were exposed to UV light or heat to form lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates. The aggregation states were assigned from either 13C-6Li coupling or a new technique based on the relative intensity of NMR peaks using different nuclei. The compounds formed depend upon the method of formation and the alkoxide. The unique properties of the lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates are their high solubility in hydrocarbon solutions, very reactive bases, showing 6Li-1H couplings, and having only one hydride ion per aggregate. Their formation, reactivity, solubility, and aggregation states were found to depend on the size of lithium alkoxides. X-ray crystal structures of lithium tert-butoxide and lithium menthoxide were also studied and found to be hexameric.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Nguyen, Hanh D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Surface and Interfacial Studies of Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper

Description: The nucleation and successful growth of copper (Cu) thin films on diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter substrates during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are strongly dependent on the initial Cu precursor-substrate chemistry and surface conditions such as organic contamination and oxidation. This research focuses on the interactions of bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II), [Cu(hfac)2], with polycrystalline tantalum (Ta) and polycrystalline as well as epitaxial titanium nitride (TiN) substrates during Cu MOCVD, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and low substrate temperatures (T < 500 K). The results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) measurements indicate substantial differences in the chemical reaction pathways of metallic Cu formation from Cu(hfac)2 on TiN versus Ta surfaces.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Nuesca, Guillermo M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chemical Equilibria in Binary Solvents

Description: Dissertation research involves development of Mobile Order Theory thermodynamic models to mathematically describe and predict the solubility, spectral properties, protonation equilibrium constants and two-phase partitioning behavior of solutes dissolved in binary solvent mixtures of analytical importance. Information gained provide a better understanding of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions at the molecular level, which will facilitate the development of better chemical separation methods based upon both gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography, and better analysis methods based upon complexiometric and spectroscopic methods. Dissertation research emphasizes chemical equilibria in systems containing alcohol cosolvents with the understanding that knowledge gained will be transferable to more environmentally friendly aqueous-organic solvent mixtures.
Date: August 1997
Creator: McHale, Mary E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sulfur-induced Corrosion at Metal and Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces

Description: Sulfur adsorbed on metallic and oxide surfaces, whether originating from gaseous environments or segregating as an impurity to metallic interfaces, is linked to the deterioration of alloy performance. This research dealt with investigations on the interactions between sulfur and iron or iron alloy metallic and oxide surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Sulfur was either intentionally dosed from a H2S source on an atomically clean metal surface, or segregated out as an impurity from the bulk to the metal surface by annealing at elevated temperatures.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Cabibil, Hyacinth (Hyacinth Liesl)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spectrofluorometric and Solubility Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen Bonded Binary Solvent Mixtures

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in binary solvent systems and determine and/or develop predictive mathematical expressions for describing solutions in which hydrogen-bonding occurs.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Powell, Joyce R., 1968-
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Materials Approach to Silicon Wafer Level Contamination Issues from the Wet Clean Process

Description: Semiconductor devices are built using hyperpure silicon and very controlled levels of doping to create desired electrical properties. Contamination can alter these precisely controlled electrical properties that can render the device non-functional or unreliable. It is desirable to determine what impurities impact the device and control them. This study consists of four parts: a) determination of acceptable SCI (Standard Clean 1) bath contamination levels using VPD-DSE-GFAAS (Vapor Phase Decomposition Droplet Surface Etching Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), b) copper deposition from various aqueous HF solutions, c) anion contamination from fluoropolymers used in chemical handling and d) metallic contamination from fluoropolymers and polyethylene used in chemical handling. A technique was developed for the determination of metals on a silicon wafer source at low levels. These levels were then correlated to contamination levels in a SCI bath. This correlation permits the determination of maximum permissible solution contaminant levels. Copper contamination is a concern for depositing on the wafer surface from hydrofluoric acid solutions. The relationship between copper concentration on the wafer surface and hydrofluoric acid concentration was determined. An inverse relationship exists and was explained by differences in diffusion rates between the differing copper species existing in aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions. Finally, sources of contamination from materials used in chemical handling was studied. The predominant anion contamination from fluoropolymers was found to be fluorides. Metallic contamination from fluoropolymers and polyethylene was also studied. The primary metal contamination comes from the actual fabrication of the polymer and not from the polymer resin.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Hall, Lindsey H. (Lindsey Harrison)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computer Simulations of Dilute Polymer Solutions: Chain Overlaps and Entanglements

Description: Chain conformations and the presence of chain overlaps and entanglements in dilute polymer solutions have been analyzed. The fundamental problem of existence of chain overlaps in dilute solutions is related to the drag reduction phenomenon (DR). Even though DR occurs in solutions with the concentration of only few parts per million (ppm), some theories suggest that entanglements may play an important role in DR mechanism. Brownian dynamics technique have been used to perform simulations of dilute polymer solutions at rest and under shear flow. A measure of interchain contacts and two different measures of entanglements have been devised to evaluate the structure of polymer chains in solution. Simulation results have shown that overlaps and entanglements do exist in static dilute solutions as well as in solutions under shear flow. The effect of solution concentration, shear rate and molecular mass have been examined. In agreement with the solvation theory of DR mechanism, simulation results have demonstrated the importance of polymer + polymer interactions in dilute solutions.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Drewniak, Marta
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies of the Reactions of Alkyl and Silyl Hydrides

Description: The Kinetics of the reactions involving alkyl and silyl hydrides were studied by the flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence technique. The reactions of alkyl radicals (R = C₂H₅, i-C₃H₇, t-C₄H₉) with HBr have been studied at room temperature and the rate constants obtained (units are in cm³ s^-1 ) are: k₃.₃ = (7.01 ± 0.15) x 10^-12, k₃.₂ = (1.25 ± 0.06) x 10^-11, k₃.₁ = (2.67 ± 0.13) x 10^-11 These results, combined with previously determined reverse rate constants and other kinetic information, yield bond dissociation enthalpies (units in kJ mol^-1) at 298 K : primary C-H in C₂H₅-H (423.6 ± 2), secondary C-H in i-C₃H₇-H (409.9 ± 2), tertiary C-H in t-C₄H₉-H (405.1 ± 2). These rate constants and bond energies are in good agreement with previous results.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Yuan, Jessie (Jessie Win-Jae)
Partner: UNT Libraries

NMR Study of the Reorientational and Exchange Dynamics of Organometallic Complexes

Description: Investigations presented here are (a) the study of reorientational dynamics and internal rotation in transition metal complexes by NMR relaxation experiments, and (b) the study of ligand exchange dynamics in transition metal complexes by exchange NMR experiments. The phenyl ring rotation in Ru3(CO)9(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh) and Re(Co)2(CO)10(μ3- CPh) was monitored by 13C NMR relaxation experiments to probe intramolecular electronic and/or steric interactions. It was found that the rotation is relatively free in the first complex, but is restrained in the second one. The steric interactions in the complexes were ascertained by the measurement of the closest approach intramolecular distances. The rotational energy barriers in the two complexes were also calculated by using both the Extended Hiickel and Fenske-Hall methods. The study suggests that the barrier is due mainly to the steric interactions. The exchange NMR study revealed two carbonyl exchange processes in both Ru3(CO)9(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh) and Ru3(CO)8(PPh3)(μ3-CO)(μ3-NPh). The lower energy process is a tripodal rotation of the terminal carbonyls. The higher energy process, resulting in the exchange between the equatorial and bridging carbonyls, but not between the axial and bridging carbonyls, involves the concerted formation of edge-bridging μ2-CO moieties. The effect of the PPh3 ligand on the carbonyl exchange rates has been discussed. A combination of relaxation and exchange NMR found that PPh3 ligand rotation about the Ru-P bond is slow on the exchange NMR time scale and the phenyl rotation about the P-Cipso bond is fast on the exchange NMR time scale but is slow on the NMR relaxation time scale.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Wang, Dongqing
Partner: UNT Libraries

Part 1. Investigation of Aluminum Amino Acid Complexes; Part 2. Structural Studies of Aluminum Chalcogen Bonds

Description: Five different complexes of aluminum and amino acids have been synthesized and characterized. Reaction between aluminum halides and amino acids that do not contain either a carboxylate or a hydroxy group in the side chain produce complexes of the general formula, [Al(amino acid)_n(halide)_3-n]_m. The most prevalent form of this form of complex is where n = 2, and an example of this in which the halide is replaced by hydroxide ligand has been structurally characterized. The complex for which n = 3 may be obtained by employing a large excess of acid, and that for which n = 1 may be obtained by employing either equimolar conditions or an excess of aluminum halide. Reactions of aluminum halides with amino acids that contain either a carboxylate or hydroxy-containing side chain may result in complexes in which the side-chain is also bound. These proved impossible to characterize fully in the case of aspartic acid. For serine, however, a complex in which the amino acid binds in a chelating fashion through both the carboxylate and hydroxy groups was isolated. It was possible to form complexes when utilizing aluminum alkyls as the metal source. However, these complexes could only be isolated when the reactivity of the species was controlled by the presence of bulky groups. In these cases, the monomeric R_2Al(amino acid) complexes were obtained. Four complexes that contain aluminum-chalcogen bonds were structurally characterized. These included the bulky alkoxide complexes (BHT)_2AIH(OEt_2), (BHT)_3Al(cyclohexanone), and the cubane [(t-amyl)AlS]_4.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Gravelle, Philip W. (Philip Wyn)
Partner: UNT Libraries