UNT Theses and Dissertations - 550 Matching Results

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Beliefs of Internal Versus External Control and Their Relationship to Stage of Moral Judgment

Description: This investigation sought to explore the relationship of Julian Rotter's concept of internal versus external control (I-E) to stages of moral judgment. The I-E dimension is defined as the attribution by the individual of responsibility for behavioral outcomes to either oneself or to outside entities. The internal oriented person believes that the events in which he is involved lie within his control. Conversely, the external oriented person believes that the events that happen to him are controlled by other factors.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Coulter, Wylie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Bender-Gestalt Test and Its Relationships with Intelligence and Organicity in Neurologically Impaired and Emotionally Disturbed Children

Description: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differences in performance of a sample of children with organically based test behavior and learning disabilities and those children whose disorders are functional in origin. It is the purpose of this paper to determine if there exists a particular profile on the Bender Gestalt and the WISC that would help to differentiate these two diagnostic categories which at some levels of behavior are quite similar. The present study is an attempt to compare the WISC and the BGT of emotionally disturbed children with the WISC and the BGT of those children who have been diagnosed as neurologically impaired. It is more important today than ever before to ascertain a correct estimate of ability, the reasons for difficulties in learning and behavioral problems of young school age children, while at the same time taking into consideration the global intelligence and potentials of the individual. This eminates from the growing interest in, and work with, the different diagnostic categories of children by clinics and schools. This increased interest is evident in the larger number of diagnostic personnel associated with the school systems and more individualized types of instruction for the child with unusual difficulties or abilities.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Brown, Carl Hadley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Benefits and Costs of Social Interactions Among Firefighters

Description: Despite high levels of exposure, firefighter posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates are unclear. Likewise, questions remain regarding how social interactions and beliefs about emotion might interact to influence PTSD in firefighters. In this study, U.S. urban firefighters (N = 225) completed measures of social support, negative social interactions, and fear of emotion which were then used via regression analyses to predict PTSD symptoms. Each independent variable predicted PTSD beyond variance accounted for by demographic variables. Additionally, fear of emotion emerged as the strongest individual predictor of PTSD and a moderator of the relation between social interactions and PTSD symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of beliefs about emotion; both in how these beliefs might influence the expression of PTSD symptoms, and in how the social networks of trauma survivors might buffer distress.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Farnsworth, Jacob
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Understanding, Subtyping, and Treating Depression: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey - Replication.

Description: The most effective and useful way to diagnose and subtype depression has been a long debated topic which even now does not have a definite answer. The biopsychosocial approach to diagnosis may be a solution to this problem by linking various etiologies to symptom presentation. The biopsychosocial model, in regard to depression, takes into account biological risk factors/contributors, psychological or cognitive risk factors/contributors, and social risk factors/contributors to depression when making diagnosis and subtyping determinations. However, the most effective way to use this model in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of depression is not yet clear. In this study, the utility of the biopsychosocial model as an effective approach to conceptualizing and treating depression was assessed by testing hypotheses that showed that etiological contributors are related to the presence and differential presentation of depression, and that these etiologically-based subtypes of depression respond differently to different forms of treatment. These hypotheses were tested using data from the National Comorbidity Survey - Replication (NCS-R). Results showed that the biopsychosocial model can effectively predict the presence, severity and chronicity of depression, and may inform specific biopsychosocially-based subtypes. No conclusions could be drawn regarding success in treatment based on the biopsychosocial model. Future directions for research based on the current study are discussed.
Date: May 2011
Creator: McGill, Brittney C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Birth Order and Parent-Child Relations

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the birth order differences in perception of parental child-rearing practices in one-and two-sibling families. The two-sibling families were separated into all the possible sex permutations (male-male, female-female, male-female, female-male) to assess the influence of sex of sibling in viewing the parents' child-rearing practices.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Hale, Allyn Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Body Dissatisfaction, Disordered Eating Behaviors and Body Image Quality of Life in African American Women with Hiv

Description: The purpose of the current study was to further our understanding of the subjective experience of middle-age African American women who are HIV+ and on highly active antiretroviral therapy, particularly how self-reported lipodystrophy (LD), levels of body dissatisfaction, body image quality of life, and engagement in disordered eating behaviors are related. Multiple regression, MANOVA, MANCOVA, ANOVA, and chi-square were utilized to test hypotheses. Results revealed that HIV+ and HIV- women did not differ significantly on their levels of body dissatisfaction or drive for thinness. When HIV+ women were examined in more detail a pattern emerged: women who self-reported fat hypertrophy had significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, bingeing, but not purging, and dietary restriction and fear of weight gain compared to women who did not self-report LD. About 75% of the sample was overweight or obese, and when BMI was controlled for, these differences persisted for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors for fat hypertrophy, but not fat atrophy. Overall, the findings indicate that the type of LD, specifically hypertrophy, is more related to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, than LD in general. Clinical implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Hammon, Sarah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of Women of Mexican Descent: A Grounded Theory Approach

Description: A culturally-based theoretical model about how cultural beliefs about cancer and breast cancer screening techniques influence the screening behaviors of women of Mexican descent was developed using grounded theory. Across levels of acculturation and socioeconomic status, 34 women (49 to 81 years old) were interviewed through focus groups. Women who hold more traditional health beliefs about causes, nature, and responsibility with regard to breast cancer are more likely to "feel healthy" and not engage in breast cancer screening. Women who hold more traditional beliefs about propriety of female and health care provider behavior are more likely to "feel indecent" and also not engage in screening. The cultural health belief model is integrated within a sociocultural and a socioeconomic context.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Borrayo, Evelinn A. (Evelinn Arbeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cardiovascular Response to a Behavioral Restraint Challenge: Urge Magnitude Influence in Men and Women

Description: Agtarap, Wright, Mlynski, Hammad, and Blackledge took an initial step in providing support for the predictive validity of a new conceptual analysis concerned with behavioral restraint, defined as active resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. The current study was designed to partially replicate and extend findings from their study, employing a common film protocol and a procedure for inducing low- and high levels of fatigue. Analyses on key data indicated that the fatigue manipulation was ineffective. On the other hand, they supported the suggestion that behavioral restraint should be proportional to the strength of an urge being resisted so long as success is perceived as possible and worthwhile. Analyses also provided evidence of gender differences for this behavioral restraint task. Women showed relatively enhanced CV responses to my manipulation of urge magnitude, performed less well, rated the behavioral restraint challenge as harder, and rated success on the more difficult behavioral restraint task as more important. A broad indication is that men and women can differ in the strength of impulses they experience in response to stimulus presentations as well as in the importance they place on resisting the impulses.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Mlynski, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Causal Attributions, Attributional Dimensions, and Academic Performance in a School Setting

Description: The attribution model of achievement motivation has been applied to academic achievement as a way of understanding underachievement and as a basis for developing intervention programs. There has been little applied research in this area, however, that supports the use of the model in school settings. The purpose of the present study was to test the applicability of the model to an actual school setting. Subjects were 149 tenth grade students in a large urban school district. In accordance with the model, specific attributions for success or failure were assessed, as well as subjects' perceptions of the locus, stability, and controllability of attributions. Attribution patterns found in previous analog research were not found in a school setting. Immediate effort attributions were the most prevalent, regardless of performance level or outcome. Causal beliefs were found to relate to performance in ways predicted by the model but also in some ways not predicted. Relationships were generally stronger for high performers. Comparing subjects' perceptions of the dimensional properties of attributions across outcomes showed a strong outcome bias. Attributions were perceived as more internal and stable following successes, consistent with previous research. In addition, a performance level bias was found. Low performers rated attributions as less internal, stable, and controllable following successes and more so following failures than did high performers. This bias, termed the underachievement bias, was discussed in terms of its detrimental effects on school performance. The differences between high and low performers regarding perceptions of dimensionalities were consistent with the predictions of the attribution model. It was concluded that the attribution model is applicable to school settings. Suggestions were made that more applied research be conducted, that intervention programs based on this model should target subjects' perceptions of attributions rather than just the specific attributions themselves, and that because of the ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Huffine, John Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries

Change in Depression of Spousal Caregivers of Dementia Patients.

Description: Caring for a family member or loved one with dementia places a heavy burden on those providing the care. Caregivers often develop chronic depression because of having to deal with this burden. A great deal of literature has been published discussing coping effectiveness, effects of social support, and other internal and external means of support for the caregiver. However, little has been written about the changes, if any, in depression that the caregiver experiences after the termination of care, either through institutionalization or death of the person with dementia. This study examined whether there is a change in depression of spousal caregivers after institutionalization of the dementia care recipient as well as any changes in depression that may have occurred as a result of the death of the dementia care recipient. Two theoretical models, the wear and tear model and the adaptation model were discussed in terms of caregiver depression after institutionalization of the dementia care recipient. Two other theoretical models, the relief model and the stress model, were discussed in terms of caregiver depression after the death of the dementia care recipient. Datasets from the National Institute on Aging sponsored Health and Retirement Study were analyzed. Results indicate that both male and female spousal caregivers report an increase in depression after the institutionalization or death of the dementia care recipient, but that as time passes, males report a decrease in depression while females continue to report an increase in depression.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Tweedy, Maureen P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characteristics of Children With Behavior Disorders Who Drop Out of Therapy

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics that distinguish children with behavior disorders who drop out of psychotherapy treatment from those who remain in treatment. The sample included 379 children (268 male and 111 female) who were diagnosed with a behavior disorder at Dallas County Mental Health/Mental Retardation (MH/MR), a community mental health clinic in Dallas, Texas. The results indicated that certain characteristics increased the likelihood that a child would drop out of therapy, including reliance on aid, the presence of maternal psychopathology, and more severe externalizing and internalizing behaviors. This study also found that younger children with behavior disorders had a greater probability of dropping out of treatment. Minority status, gender, parent marital status, and referral source were not found to be associated with dropping out of treatment. Future studies should focus on specific interventions that clinicians could employ to deter premature termination from treatment.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Durrant, Sarah L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Tolerance and Cross-tolerance between Noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Antagonists in Rats Trained to Self-administer Ketamine

Description: Ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) are noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of ligand-gated glutamate receptors. Both agents have high abuse liability, and may produce dependence. Tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is widely regarded as a key component of the dependence process. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether tolerance develops to the reinforcing effects of ketamine, and whether PCP and dizocilpine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with negligible abuse liability, produce cross-tolerance to the reinforcing effects of ketamine. Further, identification of the neural mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs may yield information regarding drug dependence.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Ward, Amie S. (Amie Sue)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chemical Aversion Therapy for Morphine Addiction

Description: These studies led the experimenter to investigate the use of chemical aversion therapy using anectine as the aversive stimulus with a morphine addict. The success of Thomason and Rathod with heroin addicts suggested that their experimental method would be useful as a reference while designing this study. The treatment hypothesis was that the patient's use of intravenous narcotic drugs would be eliminated through the application of chemical aversion therapy. Chemical aversion therapy was operantly defined as the injection intravenously of anectine into the patient concurrent with his self-injection of his narcotic of choice.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Childhood Bereavement and Parents’ Relationship With Children

Description: It has long been recognized that childhood bereavement is a risk factor for depression in adulthood. Research also has consistently demonstrated that parental depression is linked to poor parent-child relationship quality. The current study examined whether bereavement in childhood increases likelihood of current depressive symptoms among parents and explored whether this vulnerability in the parent then alters the quality of the parent-child relationship. Archival data for a sample of 86 families (N=176 parents) are drawn from the Family & Kid Connection project led by Dr. Shelley Riggs. Instruments utilized include the Background Information Questionnaire, the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire, and the Parenting Relationship Questionnaire. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, Multilevel Modeling procedures explored the hypothesis that parental depression mediates the association between parents’ childhood bereavement and their perception of the parent-child relationship. Results show a significant relationship between parental (actor) depressive symptoms and parent-child attachment, indicating the need for therapeutic interventions targeting the parent-child relationship, and not just parents, for parents suffering from depression.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Benson, Karen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Childhood Learning: Examining Attitudes toward School and Learning Ability

Description: A child's ability to learn in school and school performance are affected by various factors. Variables that affect learning and academic performance in 46 children, 4 - 7 years old, were examined. Children, parents, and teachers completed questionnaires rating children's attitudes and behavior toward school. Children completed a computerized matching-to-sample (MTS) task. The MTS trained the children to form 3 stimulus classes. One stimulus class included three arbitrary stimuli, the others contained a positively or negatively valenced stimulus, a school-related stimulus, and an arbitrary stimulus. Class formation performance was assessed. Rate of learning predicted attitudes toward school, school attitudes predicted academic performance; however a hypothesized mediation effect of attitudes was not demonstrated. No significant differences in rate of forming stimulus classes containing emotionally valenced and school stimuli were found. Future directions for intervention in the early education of students who have poor attitudes toward school are discussed.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Geddes, Jeffrey D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's Causal Attributions in Success and Failure Situations and Academic Performance

Description: To determine correlates of better academic performance, a scale was devised for this study to measure children's attributions to ability and effort in academic success and failure situations. These measures as well as measures of locus of control an d perceived contingency of teacher rewards and punishments were related to achievement test scores, grades, and a teacher's ratings of the helplessness or competence of classroom behaviors. Subjects were 137 sixth-graders (66 girls and 71 boys). Intercorrelations of the variables show consistent relationships between attributions to lack of effort in failure situations and to ability in success situations and better academic performance. Locus of control was only weakly related to academic achievement measures. The contingency measures, also devised for this study, were disappointingly unreliable.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Riley, Mary Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's Cognitive and Moral Reasoning: Expressive Versus Receptive Cognitive Skills

Description: Past research has shown that there are differences between children's ability to express verbally moral judgment or social cognitive principles (cognitive-expression) and their ability to understand and utilize these principles when making evaluations about others (cognitive-reception). This study investigated these differences.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Parker, Deborah A. (Deborah Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's Perceived Contingencies of Teacher Reinforcements, Perceptions of Competence, and Academic Performance

Description: There are two principal definitions of response-reinforcer contingency in the current literature which Scott and Piatt (1985) have labeled the phi coefficient and Rescorla index. For both definitions, contingencies are sensitive to two conditional probabilities of reinforcement, that given the occurrence and that given the non-occurrence of the criterion response. However, phi coefficient is sensitive also to the probability of the criterion response. In order to examine the relationship between children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, and the children's perceptions of competence and measures of their academic performances, 119 5th grade children (54 boys and 65 girls) were studied. Two variables derived specifically from the phi coefficient, the probability of children's responses and the probability of teacher reinforcements, were also examined in their relationship to perceived contingencies and academic performance. In general, children's perceptions of teachers as both contingently rewarding and punishing, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, were predictive of good academic performance by the children and teachers rating them as academically competent. Childrens' perceptions of their academic competence were also predictive of their academic performances and teacher ratings. The children's perceptions of academic competence were related to their reporting themselves as likely to produce positive achievement behavior but unlikely to produce negative achievement behavior. No significant relationship was found between the children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements and their perceptions of their own academic competence. These results were discussed as supporting Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Thus, expectations of reinforcement contingency and expectations of personal competence jointly determine actual competence. The contingency findings support the utility of the Children's Perceived Contingencies of Reinforcements Questionnaire as a measure of contingency in the applied setting.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Dietz, Don Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children's Perceived Contingency of Teacher Reinforcements Measured with a Specific Scale, Helplessness and Academic Performance

Description: A specifically oriented instrument was used to partially replicate a study by Dietz (1988) in an effort to compare the utility of the phi coefficient and Rescorla index measures of perceived contingency of reinforcement in children and examine the relationship of these measures to locus of control, teacher ratings of helplessness and academic performance.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Mayo, Albert Elton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Chronological Age as a Factor in Motor Learning in the Mentally Retarded

Description: The problem investigated is that of determining if there are differences in the ability of mentally retarded persons over age 21 to learn motor skills as opposed to those under 21. Data were gathered at the Denton State School on 110 subjects. The first chapter is concerned with the theoretical background, purpose, and the hypothesis. The second chapter contains information on subjects, materials, method, and statistical treatment. The third chapter covers presentation and discussion of the data, and the fourth chapter includes the summary, conclusions and recommendations. Results of the study indicated that there were few differences between the two groups. Future studies should be run with samples from individual age groups extending from 6 through 21. This would be realistic in establishing a motor learning curve for this population.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Farrar, William Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries