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Effects of a Play-Based Teacher Consultation (PBTC) Program on Interpersonal Skills of Elementary School Teachers in the Classroom

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a play-based teacher consultation (PBTC) program on individual teachers’ interpersonal classroom behaviors and teacher-child relationships. The research questions addressed the application of child-centered play therapy principles and PBTC increasing teacher responsiveness, decreasing teacher criticism, and enhancing teachers‟ perceptions of the teacher-child relationship in elementary school classrooms. Single-case design was utilized to examine eight teachers‟ perceptions over 16 weeks. The sample included 8 White female teachers from three local elementary schools. Teacher ages ranged from 28 to 59 years old. There were 5 kindergarten, 1 first grade, and 2 second grade teachers. The teachers participated in one educational training session followed by play sessions with children of focus and interactive modeling sessions. Trained observers, blind to the study’s purpose, utilized the Interaction Analysis System in classroom observations of the teachers, three times per week, to examine teachers’ interpersonal skills. Additionally, the teachers completed the Student Teacher Relationship Scale for the children of focus before and after the play session phase to examine change in the teacher-child relationship. Visual analysis of the data indicated the PBTC’s overall positive impact. 5 out of 8 teachers demonstrated increases in teacher responding scores at mildly to very effective criteria levels. All 8 teachers demonstrated decreases teacher criticism at effective to very effective criteria levels. The teacher-child relationships indicated mixed results, with 5 out of 8 teachers indicating positive changes in teacher-child relationships. Discussion includes implications for future research regarding single-case design, measurement of teacher change, and modifications of the PBTC model.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Carlson, Sarah E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of a Self-care Intervention for Counselors on Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction

Description: This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational and experiential structured counselor self-care curriculum, developed by Drs. Charles and Kathleen Figley, on compassion fatigue and the prevention of professional impairment as measured by the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL), Version 5. Volunteer licensed professional counselors, supervisors, and interns from four children's advocacy centers in Texas were assigned to treatment group (n = 21; 20 females, 1 male; mean age 34.4 years) or waitlist control group (n = 21; 19 females, 2 males; mean age 34.6 years). Participating counselors identified themselves ethnically as 64% Caucasian, 26% Hispanic, 7% African-American, and 2% Native-American. Employing a quasi-experimental design, three reliability-corrected analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were utilized to analyze the data with an alpha level of .05 to assess statistical significance and partial eta squared to assess effect size. With pre-test scores as the covariate, results revealed in the experimental group a statistically significant reduction with large treatment effect for burnout (p = .01; partial ?2 = .15), a statistically nonsignificant reduction with a medium effect for secondary traumatic stress (p = .18; partial ?2 = .05), and a statistically nonsignificant increase with a medium effect for compassion satisfaction (p = .06; partial ?2= .09). Findings supported the use of this curriculum to train counselors on self-care as required of professional counselors by the American Counseling Association code of ethics and listed as a necessary skill in the standards of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Koehler, Christine Marie Guthrie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of a Trained Therapy Dog in Child-Centered Play Therapy on Children's Biobehavioral Measures of Anxiety

Description: This study was concerned with reducing children's anticipatory anxiety when entering mental health services for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining two effective modalities, play therapy and animal-assisted therapy, would be effective in decreasing children's biobehavioral measurements of anxiety. Specifically, this study examined the effects of the presence of a trained therapy dog during one individual 30-minute play therapy session. The experimental group consisted of 26 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session with the presence of a trained therapy dog. The comparison group consisted of 25 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session without the presence of a trained therapy dog. The SenseWear® PRO 2 armband monitor measured children's biobehavioral measurements such as galvanic skin response, temperature, and activity level (BodyMedia, Inc., Pittsburgh , PA , www.bodymedia.com). The Tanita 6102 Cardio® digital heart rate monitor measured children's pre-treatment and post-treatment heart rates (Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., Arlington Heights , IL , www.tanita.com). Five hypotheses were tested using repeated measures ANOVA with mixed factors and eta squared. All five hypotheses in this study were retained based on statistical significance at the .05 level. The combination of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and animal-assisted therapy was shown to have little practical significance in decreasing children's first 5-minute biobehavioral measurements, middle 5-minute biobehavioral measurements, last 5-minute biobehavioral measurements as measured by the SenseWear Pro 2 armband monitor. The combination of CCPT and animal-assisted therapy was shown to have little practical significance in decreasing children's pre-treatment and post-treatment heart rate. The results of the two factor repeated measures analysis of variance with mixed factors were not statistically significant. Although, research has shown that play therapy is an effective modality in reducing children's anxiety over time, children's anticipatory anxiety was increased in the ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Athy, Annette L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Adlerian Play Therapy on Maladaptive Perfectionism and Anxiety and in Children

Description: I used singlecase A-B-A experimental design to examine the effectiveness of Adlerian play therapy (AdPT) for children identified with clinical levels of perfectionism on the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised. Participants were 2 children, a 10 year-old Hispanic male and a 7 year-old Caucasian female. To examine the effect of AdPT on maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety, the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered to the children twice weekly over 3 phases of the study: baseline (6 administrations), intervention (12-16 administrations), and maintenance (6 administrations) for a total of 24 to 29 data points. Additionally, parents and teachers completed the Conners Rating Scales-Revised5 times: (1) prior to study, (2) following baseline/prior to treatment, (3) midpoint of treatment, (4) following treatment, and (5) following maintenance phase.During the intervention phase, the male and female participants attended 21 and 16 play therapy sessions, their mothers attended 6 and 5 parent consultations, and their teachers attended 6 and 3 teacher consultations, respectively. Analysis of the child self-report assessments indicated mixed and inconclusive results regarding the effects of AdPT on target behaviors. However, results of the parent and teacher reports indicated clinically significant reductionsin maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety over the five points of measurement for both participants. The participants’ maladaptive perfectionism moved from the clinical to the normal range. Implications for practice and future research are indicated.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Akay, Sinem
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of an Oral History Interview on Counselor Trainees' Confidence and Couples' Intimacy

Description: A major concern many counselor trainees face when preparing to see their first couple-client is that of confidence because they have had little to no experience in interacting in a professional capacity with couples. Many beginning counselors experience anxiety, which can inhibit their effectiveness with clients (Scanlon & Baille, 1994). Introducing counselor trainees to a relatively non-threatening interaction with couples might reduce the initial anxiety that characterizes the neophyte counselor venturing into new clinical territory. The interaction may also enhance feelings of warmth and closeness of the couples. John Gottman's Oral History Interview (Gottman, 1999) was the protocol used in the interaction between trainee and couple. An instrument developed for this study to measure couple counseling confidence, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (Schaefer & Olson, 1981) were used to assess levels of counselor confidence, counselor anxiety, and couple intimacy, respectively. The confidence instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 37 students who were enrolled in four graduate level introductory couple counseling classes and who interviewed couples, as well as to 34 counselor-trainees who were enrolled in five graduate level counseling courses other than couple counseling and who did not interview couples. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in confidence between trainees who interviewed a couple and trainees who did not interview a couple. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. The Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships was administered to 67 individual couple participants who were interviewed by counselor trainees, and 35 individual couple participants who were not interviewed by counselor-trainees. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in couples who participated in the Oral History Interview and those who did not. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. Regarding ...
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Toler, Jane K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Child-Centered Play Therapy and Curriculum-Based Small-Group Guidance on the Behaviors of Children Referred for Aggression in an Elementary School Setting

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy and curriculum-based small-group guidance on the behaviors of aggressive children in an elementary school as determined by (a) the reduction of aggressive behaviors, (b) the decrease in internalizing problems, and (c) the decrease in externalizing problems of aggressive children. Two types of behavioral instruments, the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-Teacher Rating Scale/Parent Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form, were used to provide multiple measures of the same construct in this matched pretest-posttest comparison group experimental designed study. Qualitative data was also collected. The population studied was comprised of 37 volunteer children identified as aggressive in kindergarten through fourth grade, ages 5-12, who qualified for counseling services at a Title I public elementary school in North Texas . Children who were referred by teachers and parents, and met the required criteria, were matched in pairs on grade level and randomly assigned to one of the two real-world setting interventions; play therapy treatment group (n=20), which received 12-15 individual child-centered play therapy sessions, or the curriculum-based small-group guidance group (n=17), consisting of 12-19 lessons. Major strengths of the study included utilizing students referred for counseling due to behavioral difficulties (students demonstrating at-risk and clinically significant aggressive behaviors) and servicing them at school, a real-world setting. Another strength was the use of 30-minute play therapy and guidance sessions, which conform to typical school practice. Twelve hypotheses were tested using two-factor mixed repeated measures and eta squared. The data of this study tentatively support the effectiveness of both modalities in decreasing the aggressive behaviors, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems of aggressive children. The data seems to indicate that school-based child-centered play therapy is as effective at improving the behaviors of aggressive children as a nationally recognized guidance ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Schumann, Brandy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) for Adoptive Families

Description: Adoptive parents often struggle to understand and meet the social-emotional behavioral needs of their adopted child, particularly when the child's pre-adoption experience lacked a secure relationship with an attuned and responsive caregiver. This randomized controlled study, a replication of Carnes-Holt and Bratton's 2014 research, investigated the effects of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) for adoptive families who reported attached-related concerns such as difficulties establishing a mutually satisfying parent-child relationship as well as concerns about the adopted child's behavior and parental stress. Participants were 49 adoptive parents (61% female; 7% couples; 86% European American, 6% Latino, 6% Asian, and 2% Black American) with adoptees between the ages of 2.5 to 9 (50% female; 35% European American, 22% Asian, 12% Latino, 10% Black American, and 21% Biracial or other). Eighty-four percent of children were adopted internationally or from the foster care system. Parents were randomly assigned to CPRT or treatment as usual (TAU). Results from 2 (group) by 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that compared to the TAU control group, parents who participated in CPRT reported statistically significant improvement in child behavior problems, parent-child relationship stress, and parental empathy, with a large treatment effects on all measures. Findings confirmed results from Carnes-Holt and Bratton's study and provided strong support for CPRT as a responsive intervention for adoptive parents and their children.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Opiola, Kristie K
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Culturally Responsive Child-centered Play Therapy Compared to Curriculum-based Small Group Counseling with Elementary-age Hispanic Children Experiencing Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Study.

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy when compared to a curriculum-based small group counseling intervention as a school-based intervention for Hispanic children experiencing behavioral problems that place them at risk for academic failure. Specifically, this study measured the effects of the experimental play therapy treatment, compared to Kids' Connection, on reducing Externalizing and Internalizing behavior problems of elementary school-age Hispanic children. Twenty-nine volunteer Hispanic children were randomized to the experimental group (n=15) or the comparison group (n=14). Subjects participated in a weekly 30 minute intervention for a period of 15 weeks. Pre- and posttest data were collected from parent and teachers using the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC). A two factor mixed repeated measures analysis of variance was computed for each hypothesis, to determine the statistical and practical significance of the difference in the pretest to posttest behavior scores of children in the two groups. According to parents' reports, the children receiving play therapy showed statistically significant decreases in externalizing behaviors problems, specifically conduct problems, and moderate improvements in their internalizing behavior problems, specifically anxiety. Teacher BASC results showed no statistical significance and negligible-to- small practical significance between the two groups at posttest as a result of treatment; however, problems with integrity of data collection of teacher BASCs were noted. This study determined that, according to parents' reports, culturally responsive child-centered play therapy is an effective intervention for school-aged, Hispanic children referred for behavioral problems that have been shown to place them at risk for both academic failure and future, more serious mental health problems. Additionally, culturally responsive considerations regarding counseling Hispanic children and families were explored. This was a progressive research study that, according to a review of the literature, is the first of its kind to focus on the ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Garza, Yvonne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students

Description: Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade's rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.149. HR showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.143. HRV showed statistical significance at p=.000 level and a large effect size eta2=.698. This study demonstrated practical/clinical significance of a relatively quick and inexpensive biofeedback training that had large effect at decreasing mental, emotional, and physiological symptoms of MPA for university students.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Thurber, Myron Ross
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptomatology on Marital Satisfaction

Description: Many women reporting PMS symptoms state their symptoms affect their mood, social, and family functioning. This study attempted to provide clinicians with information to assist in psychotherapeutic intervention, by determining the effect PMS has on marital satisfaction. Nineteen female subjects reporting PMS symptoms and their partners completed the study. The Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R) and the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire-Form T (MDQ-form T) were used to determine if the nineteen couples reported marital distress as a result of the women's cyclical premenstrual symptoms. The results of the study suggested that the women and their partners, report high levels of marital distress that is not reflective of the cyclical nature of the PMS symptomatology. Scores on the MSI-R for the subjects and their partners indicated the couples perceived level of distress in the t-50 to t-70 range on scales 3-8 is consistent throughout the menstrual cycle. The couples reported higher levels of marital distress than would be the expected norm, suggesting that PMS may be a contributing factor to the level of distress they reported experiencing. This study did not include a control group, which would have provided a norm for couples who do not report PMS by which to compare the MSI-R scores.
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Date: August 2003
Creator: Rodgers, Glenda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Description: This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) and large treatment effects (partial η2 = .33, .24, and .31, respectively), thus indicating all three may be considered effective mental health treatments to target international students' total behavior problems. Results of the post hoc analysis for Internalizing Problems indicated that the interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention was statistically significant (p = .02) in lowering internalizing problems and had a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .22). The expressive group counseling intervention also demonstrated a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .15) although not a statistically significant level (p = .04). The large treatment effects obtained for both interventions highlight the benefit ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Eunah Kim
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Efficacy of Equine Assisted Group Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of equine assisted group counseling as compared to in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling. Research examined externalizing, internalizing, maladaptive, and adaptive behaviors of elementary and middle school students who were considered at-risk of academic or social failure. Two types of behavior instruments, the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC)-Self-Rating, Parent-Rating, and Teacher-Rating Scales; and the Animal Assisted Therapy-Psychosocial Session Form (AAT-PSF), were used in a pretest-posttest comparison group quasi experimental design. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Self-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in five behavior areas, and the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in four areas, with only one behavior area the same as the equine assisted counseling group. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Parent-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in twelve behavior areas, whereas the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling showed statistically significant improvement in only one behavior area. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Teacher-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed no statistically significant improvement; however the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in one area. An ANCOVA comparison of equine assisted counseling group verses in-school curriculum guidance/counseling group using the BASC Self, Parent, and Teacher-Reports indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in seven behavior areas that the in-school curriculum guidance/counseling group did not. Results of the repeated measures ANOVA of the AAT-PSF (equine assisted counseling group only) showed statistically significant improvement in all 3-scale scores: 1) overall total behaviors; 2) increased positive behaviors; and 3) decreased negative behaviors.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Trotter, Kay Sudekum
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ego development and theoretical orientation among counseling students.

Description: This study investigated potential relationships between master's level counseling students' levels of ego development and their identified orientations to one of six guiding theories of counseling; students' theoretical orientation classifications when classified according to the theory's domain of emphasis: affective, behavioral, or cognitive; students' degrees of confidence in identifying their theoretical orientations; and students' degrees of comfort in applying their theories in clinical practice. Seventy participants enrolled in a master's level practicum course completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, a measure of ego development, and the Counseling Theory Survey, a survey developed by the researcher, in order to identify students' identified theoretical orientations, students' degrees of confidence in identifying their theoretical orientations, and students' degrees of comfort in applying their theories in clinical practice. Ego development level was operationalized as a dichotomous variable consisting of level E5 and below and E6 and above, based on the developmental task attained at E6: a shift from emphasis on in-group identity to self-evaluated standards. To determine potential relationships between the students' ego development levels and their theoretical orientations and their orientations when classified by domain of emphasis, 2 x 4 and 2 x 3 Chi-square analyses were used. Independent t-tests were conducted to determine if the students' degrees of confidence in identifying their theoretical orientation and their degrees of comfort in applying their orientation varied across the two groups. No statistically significant results were found. Alternative explanations for the identification of theoretical orientation, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are discussed with emphasis on the need for greater integration of current theories related to the identification of theoretical orientation.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Warren, Edward Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electromagnetic aftereffects of near-death experiences.

Description: The purpose of this quantitative study was first to investigate the comparative incidence of electromagnetic aftereffects (EMEs) during the past year among near-death experiencers (NDErs), people who experienced a close brush with death without an NDE (CBrs), and people who reported never having experienced a close brush with death (LCErs). The second purpose was to investigate a possible change in EME incidence among the three groups before and after a critical life event. The third purpose was to investigate the relationship between the reported overall depth and specific components of the subjective experiences of people who have had a close brush with death -- NDErs and CBrs -- and their reported incidence of EMEs. I used the Near-Death Experience Scale (Greyson, 1983), and developed the Close Brush with Death Question form, Life Changing Event Question form, and Electromagnetic Effects Questionnaire for this study. The final sample included 36 NDErs, 20 CBrs, and 46 LCErs. The results of this study firmly supported more reported problems with EM devices experienced by NDErs compared to CBrs or LCErs. Especially with respect to EM devices such as lights and cell phones, as well as the emotional state of individuals affecting EM devices, this study showed more reports of problems with these devices between before and after NDEs for NDErs compared to before and after a life changing event for LCErs. Moreover, findings of this study showed a correlation between the depth of NDEs and EMEs. This study has important implications for counselors working with NDErs. Findings from this study show that NDErs have a strong possibility of experiencing electromagnetic interferences when close to electromagnetic devices such as cell phones, computers, lights, and watches after their NDEs. This phenomenon can be a stressor in the lives of NDErs and their families and friends. As some ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Nouri, Farnoosh Massoudian
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Emotional Needs of Mothers of Multiple Birth Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional support needs of mothers of multiple birth children based on administration of a survey the researcher developed. The survey consisted of 25 demographic items, six 6-point Likert scale items, and three open-ended questions. Likert scale items were based on amount of perceived emotional support mothers received in their environments at the time of survey administration. Open-ended questions addressed negative and positive aspects of parenting multiples and emotional support needs. The sample consisted of 171 mothers of multiple birth children from 23 states in the United States. Participants ranged in age from 20-50 years old with 38% not reporting age. Participants were 95.3% Caucasian, 0% African-American, 1.8% Asian, 0% Native American and 1.2% other; of these, 5.8% were Hispanic. We used demographic statistics and constant comparison to determine basic demographic characteristics of this sample and to identify emotional support needs of mothers of multiple birth children. We used Pearson product moment correlation to determine potential relationships between variables. Results indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between overall life satisfaction and partner satisfaction (r = .420, n = 170, p < 0.01). Therefore, mothers of multiples experience increased satisfaction with their lives when they receive greater support from partners. Also, results indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between partner satisfaction and partner caretaking responsibilities (r = .305, n = 169, p < 0.01). As partners of mothers of multiples increase contribution to caretaking of children, mothers demonstrate greater relationship fulfillment. Implications for mental health professionals working with mothers of multiple birth children are discussed.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Walker, Emily N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Essence of African Americans’ Decisions to Seek Professional Counseling Services: a Phenomenological Study

Description: Mental health disparity is an emerging national concern with evidence suggesting individuals from non-dominant populations are less likely to seek and persist in mental health services compared to their dominant culture peers. In particular, African Americans may underutilize professional counseling services due to factors such as stigma, healthy cultural mistrust, and cultural values. To date, researchers have paid limited attention to ways to break through barriers to mental health equity. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore African Americans’ experiences and decision-making seeking professional counseling services. I addressed the following questions: How do African Americans make meaning of their decision to seek counselor services? What considerations are involved in decision- making with African Americans who decide to seek professional counseling services? Participants included 10 African American women who had attended counseling with a licensed professional counselor (LPC) or LPC Intern in the past three years. I identified six emergent themes through adapted classic phenomenological analysis: feelings prior to attending counseling, coping mechanisms utilized prior to counseling, barriers to treatment, motivation to attend counseling, characteristics of counselor, and post counseling experiences. Participants reported increased personal growth, insight, and desire to recommend counseling to others. Findings inform communities about what counseling is (and is not) as well as different types of support that can be obtained from a professional counselor. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Yaites, LaToya D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors - gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity - and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2) educational factors - parents' level of education and grade level of their student (9-12) - and parents' preferences for professional activities; and (3) parents' experience parenting high school students and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities. I utilized a 7-item demographic questionnaire and an adapted version of the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale (SCARS; Scarborough, 2005). The SCARS is a 48-item standardized instrument that measures how school counselors actually spend their time engaged in professional activities compared to how they would prefer to spend that time. The format was adapted from a verbal frequency scale to a 5-point Likert-type scale. In the current study, parents indicated their preference for school counselors to enact certain tasks, with higher scores indicating greater endorsement of the task. Cronbach's alpha for each of the SCARS subscales indicated good internal consistency: Counseling .879; Consultation .831; Curriculum .933; Coordination .867; and "other" .828. The sample was composed of 250 parents from a school district in the southwestern United States. The study population consisted of 198 female and 52 male participants ranging in age from 31 to 66 years old and included 6.4% African American, 1.6% Asian/Pacific Islander, 8.0% Hispanic, 4% Native American, and 83.6% White. Results indicated that parents overall preferred counselors to engage, from most to least, in Coordination, Counseling, "other," Curriculum, and Consultation activities and that they most strongly endorsed counselors providing students with academic advising and counseling for school related behavior. Regarding the primary focus of this study, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient ...
Date: December 2010
Creator: Wilder, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Relationships Between Affective Traits and Existential Life Positions

Description: There were two major goals of this study - to examine validity of scores for the Boholst Life Position Scale and to examine potential associations between life positions and affective traits. Two hundred seventy-seven students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at a large university volunteered for the study. Concurrent validity of scores for the life position scale was supported based on two compared instruments. Pearson product-moment correlations for the comparisons were -.765 and .617, both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Factor analysis demonstrated that the scale could accurately be conceptualized as consisting of two factors - an "I" factor and a "You" factor. MANOVA, ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and canonical correlation analysis were used to examine associations between life positions and the affective traits of angry, sad, glad, social anxiety, loneliness, and satisfaction with life. Subjects were catagorized into four groups representing their life position: "I'm OK, you're OK," "I'm OK, you're not OK," "I'm not OK, you're OK," and "I'm not OK, you're not OK." A MANOVA employing life position as the independent variable with four levels and the six affective traits as the dependent variables demonstrated statistical significance (p < .001 level) and h2 was .505. All six separate ANOVAs, with life position as the independent variable and each separate affective trait as the dependent variable, revealed statistical significance (p < .001) and h2 varied from a high of .396 for the sadness variable to a low of .116 for social anxiety. Six separate multiple linear regression equations using two independent variables, a measure of self-esteem and a measure of the perceived OK-ness of others, and each separate affective trait as the dependent variable, showed statistical significance (p < .001). The average Adjusted R2 was .475. Both canonical correlation functions were statistically significant (Rc12 = ...
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Wiesner, Van
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experiences Learning Interpersonal Neurobiology: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Description: Neuroscience is increasingly part of the national dialogue regarding mental health. The field of interpersonal neurobiology may offer a framework for helping mental health professionals identify and apply the most relevant neuroscience principles to counseling. This study explored mental health professionals’ experiences learning IPNB. I conducted semi-structured interviews with participants (n = 6), all of whom were licensed mental health professionals and had completed a year-long study in the application of IPNB through Nurturing the Heart with the Brain in Mind. I analyzed the data, along with a research partner, according to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) protocol. Four super-ordinate themes emerged from the analysis: (1) learning process as dynamic and engaging, (2) deepening knowledge and understanding of self and others, (3) personal and professional growth, and (4) impact on therapeutic practice. A number of sub-ordinate themes also emerged through the analysis , including experiential learning; learning through group process; influence of the past on the present; increased understanding of the change process; increased compassion, empathy, and acceptance for self and for others; increased confidence; using IPNB to educate clients; using IPNB to conceptualize clients; and using IPNB to select interventions. Finally, I identified three higher-order constructs that appeared embedded within and across themes: learning as ongoing, person of the participant, and person of the instructor. The findings in this study suggest that participants’ learning of IPNB had a significant impact on their personal and professional development, specifically in areas related to characteristics of effective counselors. The findings also suggest that these meaningful changes occurred in a learning environment characterized by emotional engagement, experiential activities, and group process. Limitations to this research, as well as further discussion of the results are included. Implications for future research, clinical practice, and counselor education are also offered.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Miller, Raissa
Partner: UNT Libraries

An exploration study of the relationship between effectiveness of filial therapy training groups and group cohesion.

Description: This study examined the relationship of group cohesion among heterogeneous and homogeneous groups on individual treatment outcome of child-parent relationship therapy (CPRT). CPRT is a filial therapy model that targets the parent-child relationship as a means for preventing or improving child and/or family problems. This study included 30 parents or caregivers from 9 groups which met for 10 sessions. Participants qualified for this study if their groups ended with at least 3 group members and 2 leaders, all pretest and posttest data on their child between the ages of 2-11 was completed, and if they attended at least 6 of the 10 sessions. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, and effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated no statistically significant differences between pretests and posttests on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for all 30 participants; however, differences in measured effect (η2) between children identified with borderline and clinical behavior problems and children with normal behavior problems suggest that CPRT is more effective among children who demonstrate significant behavior problems. Perceived and observed group cohesion measurements demonstrated no significant difference at the individual outcome level. This finding suggests that group cohesion may not be related to individual outcome. Although there was no significant relationship between group cohesion and individual outcome for this study, results of the group measurements regarding engagement and group cohesiveness, coupled with previous studies on CPRT effectiveness, suggest that CPRT should be utilized in homogeneous groups.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Reed, Kelly Layne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploratory Study of Animal Assisted Therapy Interventions Used by Mental Health Professionals

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the various animal assisted interventions mental health professionals incorporate in the therapeutic treatment process, as well as the various therapeutic purposes intended with each technique. Participants were recruited from animal assisted therapy related databases. Participants included professionals who practiced in the mental health field. Thirty one participants qualified for the study. A survey was developed based on information found reviewing literature related to animal assisted therapy. Nineteen animal assisted therapy techniques and ten therapeutic intentions were identified from a review of the literature. Participants were asked to rate on a Likert scale how often they incorporated each technique in their treatment process. Additionally, participants were asked to identify which therapeutic purposes they intended with each technique. Results indicated participants incorporated a variety of animal assisted techniques for various therapeutic intentions. Results indicated seven animal assisted techniques were incorporated by more than 50% of the participants. Building rapport in the therapeutic relationship was the most common therapeutic intention reported with a variety of animal assisted techniques.
Date: May 2008
Creator: O'Callaghan, Dana M.
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Expressive Arts Therapy with Bereaved Families

Description: Most current grief programs support the children and/or parents of bereaved families rather than the family as a whole. This exploratory study was a quantitative and qualitative investigation of the use of expressive arts therapy with bereaved families during a weekend camp experience and a series of followup sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of using expressive arts activities in improving the functioning of the bereaved family as a whole as well as individual family members. Participants included eight families who lost a child to a chronic illness between 2 to 36 months months prior to the onset of the study. Children ranged in age from 3 to15, and parents ranged in age from 26 to 66, for a total of 27 participants. The Child Life Department at Children's Medical Center of Dallas, a division of The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas recruited the families. Participants received flyers and invitational letters and registered through the mail. Families attended a weekend camp where they experienced a wide variety of expressive arts activities in a combination of group formats: multi-family groups, parents' group, developmental age groups for children, total childrens' group, individual family group, mothers' group, and fathers' group. The research design was a pretest/posttest quasi-experimental control group design, but a control group could not be established. Therefore, one-tailed t-tests were used to compare participant functioning between the beginning and end of the study. Instruments used in this study included the Family Environment Scale, the Behavior Assessment System for Children the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, the researcher used qualitative analysis to assess contents of family members' and counseling staff's journals, expressive arts products, and family members' evaluations. Results of this exploratory study indicated some improvements in children's, ...
Date: August 2001
Creator: Webb-Ferebee, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Affecting Academic Interest and Self Perception of Adolescent Hispanic Females

Description: This investigation identifies deterrents to the educational, social, and cultural success of Latina adolescent females. Across the nation, and especially in states such as Texas and California, the Hispanic population is fast becoming the largest minority in society. Because the adolescent Hispanic population within the United States today will comprise much of America's future economic and social base, identifying and addressing educational, cultural, and social deterrents to their success becomes important not only for personal well-being, but for the well-being of future society as a whole. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of group-centered psychoeducational therapy in improving self-esteem and decreasing anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescent female Hispanic high school students. The experimental groups consisted of one group of seven female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. and a second group of five female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. The control group consisted of fourteen female Hispanic students who received no treatments. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of depression, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of anxiety, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire and the Index of Self-Esteem were used to measure pre and post levels of self-esteem.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Abel, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries