UNT Theses and Dissertations - 23 Matching Results

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Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934): African-American Musician, Music Educator and Composer

Description: This study is a biography of the life experiences of Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934), an African-American musician, music educator and composer who lived during the early part of America's music education's history. Smith became one of the first international bandmasters to organize bands, orchestras, and glee clubs in schools and industries in the United States. Smith was raised and attended school on a military post. He later received a B.S.M.A. from the Chicago Musical College and a Masters in Composition from the Sherwood School of Music. He taught music at five educational institutions: Tuskegee Institute, Western University, Lincoln, Wendell Phillips and Sumner High Schools. Some of his students became prominent musicians. They were Lionel Hampton, Nat "King" Cole, Milton Hinton, Bennie Moten and Charlie Parker. Smith also worked with industries. He conducted the newsboys band for the Chicago Defender Newspaper and he became the music supervisor for the porters of the Pullman Railroad Company. Smith was stated to have introduced the saxophone to African-Americans and he was considered as one of the first composers to notate spirituals. Smith published over fifty works in America. One of his compositions received a copyright from England. His Negro Folk Suite, published by the Lyon and Healy Publishing Company, was performed by the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. It received a John Wanamaker Award. His Negro Choral Symphony received a copyright in 1934. Smith became co-owner of the first Music Publishing Company owned by African-Americans, the Smith Jubilee Music Company.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Lyle-Smith, Eva Diane
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Self-perceptions Certified Fine Arts Teachers Have Toward Their Roles as Artist and Instructional Staff Member in Selected Public High Schools of Oklahoma

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-perceptions certified public high school teachers in the fine arts have toward their roles as artist and instructional staff member.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Clinton, John E. (John Eric)
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Wiggles and Volcanos": an Investigation of Children's Graphing Responses to Music

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in selected children's Graphing Response Patterns to elemental changes in compositions in theme and variation form. The research problems were (1) to determine points and degrees of elemental change in the compositional structure of the musical examples; (2) to determine number, degree, and nature of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to aurally presented musical examples; (3) to determine percentages of agreement between changes in graphing response patterns and points of elemental change within the compositional structures; (4) to determine the relationship of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to the quality and magnitude of elemental change within the compositional structure. Twenty second- and fourth-grade children were individually videotaped as they listened to and graphed a series of aurally-presented musical examples. Each musical example was analysed according to such parameters as timbre, range/interval size, texture, tempo/meter, attack/rhythmic density, key/mode, dynamic level, and melodic presentation. Change in each parameter was scored using an interval scale reflecting change/no change and degree of change. Changes in graphing response pattern were determined by an interval scale which reflected the presence of change/no change and amount of change, using as analytical units speed, size, shape, type, and pause. The following conclusions were made: findings showed an observable, quantifiable relationship between changes in children's graphing response patterns and elemental changes in music parameters. This relationship encompassed not only change/no change judgements but also magnitude of response. Overall, frequency and magnitude/degree of student response was proportionate to the frequency and magnitude of change in the music parameter/s. Results indicated the existence of high-ranking correlations between student response and certain parameters regardless of the degree-of-change/points-of-change ratio. Findings showed that one degree of change in a single music parameter was not sufficient to cause an observable change in the attention ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Lehmann, Sharon Fincher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to measure music performance program enrollments and course availability for educationally disadvantaged and non-educationally disadvantaged groups (grades 9-12) in Texas, and to further examine relationships which could help music educators understand the role which music performance programs play in the lives of educationally disadvantaged students. Data analyzed were collected by Texas' Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Educationally disadvantaged groups under consideration included economically disadvantaged, at risk (as defined by Texas Education Agency guidelines), limited English proficient, as well as Black and Hispanic students. Separate analyses were conducted for band, choir, and orchestra. Subjects included 907,327 students from 1,048 school districts.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Nabb, David B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation into the Stability of Students' Timbre Preferences from the Sixth through the Tenth Grade

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students' timbre preferences in the sixth grade remain stable through the tenth grade. The investigation also examined whether gender, band instruction, or musical home environment makes any difference in influencing the stability of students' timbre preferences from grade six through ten. Students' timbre preferences at the beginning of the study were compared to their preferences four years later. The students' timbre preferences were obtained by employing Gordon's Instrument Timbre Preference Test (ITPT). A questionnaire was also utilized at the conclusion of the study to determine which students had musical home environments and which did not. All sixth grade students enrolled in a single school district took the ITPT. Each student's scores were tallied and ranked in order to determine their timbre preferences; four years later they were retested and their scores were ranked again.
Date: May 1995
Creator: May, Brack M. (Brack Miles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Professional Socialization of Arkansas Music Teachers as Musicians and Educators : The Role of Influential Persons from Childhood to Post-college Years

Description: The purpose was to investigate the role of influential persons in the professional socialization process of music educators as musicians and teachers. The problems were to determine: who encouraged subjects toward music and teaching during pre-college, college, and post-college years; and the interrerationships of gender and teaching specialty with influential persons in subjects' lives.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Cox, Patricia Huff
Partner: UNT Libraries

Vocal Self-identification, Singing Style, and Singing Range in Relationship to a Measure of Cultural Mistrust in African-American Adolescent Females

Description: The purpose was to determine the relationship between high or low cultural mistrust and vocal characteristics in African-American adolescent females. The vocal characteristics were vocal self-identification, singing style, and singing range.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Johnson, Beverly Yvonne
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Selected Muscle Potential Activity in Violin/Viola Vibrato

Description: The purpose was to investigate muscle potential during the vibrato motion for successful, healthy violin/viola performers. Electromyography was used to analyze parameters of muscle potentials during performance of a standardized exercise. These parameters were (a) evidence of potentials, (b) patterns of potentials, and (c) timing relationships (24 muscles). This study also sought to replicate and expand performance data from previous studies. Procedures from three pilot studies were used to standardize collection of EMG data. Synchronized video recordings were used to determine vibrato speed and conduct motion analysis. EMG data processing prior to analysis included power spectrum analysis and rectification, low-pass filtering, and smoothing data. Motion analysis findings (£D) were 1.09 for the elbow joints and 3.25 for the wrist joints. which was an indication of range of motion, suggested much greater activity in muscles controlling wrist movement than those moving the elbow. The degree of muscle potential and control were generally related to distance from the vibrating hand. Forearm muscle groups (8) demonstrated the greatest evidence of potential (76.5%) and were 18.1% non-periodic. Muscles of the upper arm (7) were off 59.4% and 57.0% non-periodic. Upper arm muscles had greater individual differences. Muscles of the chest and back (9) were collectively inactive (89.1%) and non-periodic (73.3%). With timing relationships, the forearm muscles demonstrated consistent firing patterns. Inconsistent firing patterns were evident in the upper arm, and to a greater degree in the chest and back muscles. Based on evaluations of performer motion and muscle potentials, it was strongly implied that there are (a) distinct roles for various muscles during vibrato (control vs. stabilization/support), (b) significant differences in potential between variables of rest, playing position, and performing, (c) significant differences in potential between some fingers, and (d) no significant differences between violinists and violists. The vibrato motion appeared to be controlled ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Weber, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Student Interpretations of Teacher Verbal Praise in Selected Seventh and Eighth Grade Choral Classes

Description: This study investigated the effect familiarity with a teacher had on student interpretations of teacher verbal praise in seventh and eighth grade choral ensembles. A stimulus tape was constructed of 16, 30-second videotaped clips containing verbal praise of four teachers. Teachers identified their intent in the use of praise in each example. Students (n = 80) from the four choirs responded to the tape by labeling the praise in each clip as deserved or as one of three types of instructional praise (i.e., praise to encourage, to send a message to other students, or to seek student cooperation). Comparisons were made between choirs in labeling the praise. Comparisons were made also between each teacher's stated purpose in praising and the interpretations of choirs familiar and unfamiliar with the teacher. Choirs who were unfamiliar with the teacher differed from the teachers' own students in interpreting the praise: Students who knew a teacher labeled the praise as deserved in five clips, but unfamiliar choirs thought the praise served an instructional purpose. In four clips, choirs differed in their interpretations of the type of instructional praise. Students familiar with a teacher recognized their teacher's intent in praising in 12 of 16 clips. In some situations, familiarity with a teacher and context made a difference in detecting the teacher's purpose for praising. In five clips where teachers identified the praise as deserved, students unfamiliar with the teacher and context thought the praise was intended to encourage students. Students across choirs were particularly sensitive to a teacher's use of praise to send a message to other students. Students are keen observers of teacher praise. Findings suggest students discriminate between praise directed at the performance and praise used for instructional purposes, suggesting that observation instruments that rely on a single label for praise might miss important ...
Date: December 1995
Creator: Taylor, Ouida O. (Ouida Oswalt)
Partner: UNT Libraries

American Indian Music in Elementary School Music Programs of Oklahoma : Repertoire, Authenticity and Instruction

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the instructional methods of Oklahoma's elementary school music educators with respect to the inclusion of an authentic repertoire of American Indian music in the curriculum. The research was conducted through two methods. First, an analysis and review of adopted textbook series and pertinent supplemental resources on American Indian music was made. Second, a survey of K-6 grade elementary music specialists in Oklahoma during the 1997-1998 school year was conducted.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Damm, Robert J., 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Making the Change": Middle School Band Students' Perspectives on the Learning of Musical-Technical Skills in Jazz Performance

Description: Students' perspectives in jazz education have gone largely ignored. A modified analytic inductive design allowed me to look broadly at the students' jazz band experience while specifically investigating their views about playing individualized parts, improvising, and interpreting and articulating swing rhythms. A focus group procedure was altered (Krueger, 1995) and incorporated into my teaching of 19 students. Two 30 minute sessions per week over a 12 week period were video- and audiotaped. Audiotaped exit interviews provided data in a non-social environment. All data were transcribed and coded in order to identify major themes and trends. Conclusions were verified through member checks, several types of triangulation and other qualitative analysis techniques. Trustworthiness was determined through an audit. Cognitively and physically, students had to accommodate musical techniques as these differed from those used in concert band. Some students were confused by the new seating arrangement and the playing of individualized parts. While some students could perform distinctly different swing and straight interpretations of the same song without external cues, others could only perform this task with external cues. Some changes in articulation were well within the students' capabilities while other techniques were more difficult to accommodate. Several students felt 'uptight' while they improvised alone in front of their peers, noting group improvisation and rhythmic embellishment of familiar tunes as being helpful in assuaging these feelings. Students recognized the environmental differences between concert band and jazz band, and reported more freedom of expression in jazz band. Particularly enjoying this freedom, the more willing improvisors banded together as a clique. The students' learning was viewed as being situated in the context of jazz band. 'Musical perturbation' and cognitive apprenticeship described students' physical and cognitive accommodation of the new context. The instructional strategies students found to be most helpful were student-centered and derived from cognitive ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Leavell, Brian K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theoretical Constructs of Jazz Improvisation Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and test systematically a theoretical model that delineated the constructs and subsumed variables of jazz improvisation performance. The specific research questions were; what specific performance variables are related to single line jazz solo improvisation performance? and; what is the most cogent groupings of variables into underlying constructs which characterize single line jazz solo improvisation performances for all performers, student performers, and professional performers?
Date: December 1991
Creator: Tumlinson, Charles D. (Charles David)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Kinetic Structures of Metric Temporal Patterns in Selected Beginning Piano Method Series

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic structures or reinforcement schedules of metric temporal patterns (metric combination of note values within a measure) in five best-selling beginning piano method series. Based upon a survey mailed to 98 music dealers, the five best-selling beginning piano method series in 1992 and 1993 were identified as: the Alfred Basic Piano Library, Bastien Piano Basics, David Carr Glover Piano Library, John. W. Schaum Piano Course, and John Thompson Modern Course for Piano. A coding system was developed for identifying the numerical appearances and occurrences of various metric temporal patterns per learning piece within each method series. Several computer programs were written to compute the kinetic structures, scope, and pacing of metric temporal patterns for each method series. The derived data were then compared to delineate relationships between the three analytical variables.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Chan, Alton
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Presence of Schön's Concept of "Reflective Conversation" as a Defining Component in the Applied Studio Music Lesson

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of Schön's concept of reflective conversation as a defining component in the applied studio music lesson. The research problems were (1) to determine the presence of complete and incomplete reflective conversations; (2) to determine the verbally exhibited knowledge base within complete conversations in relationship to conversation length; and (3) to establish an instructional profile of stable behaviors based on reflective conversation as a distinguishing characteristic among selected teachers. Videotapes of twenty-six applied studio music lessons of thirteen university teachers were analyzed according to problem solving, on-the-spot experimentation, and evaluation. An observation form was developed and was a reliable tool to collect information concerning number and type of reflective conversations, conversation length, and the teachers' verbally demonstrated knowledge base. Knowledge base was obtained by using the procedural model of Flanagan's critical incident technique. Reflective conversations existed and were a distinguishing characteristic of the teachers. With the exception of two teachers, a stable use of both number and length of reflective conversations, and knowledge base areas, was found. A discernible difference in the teachers' knowledge base within conversation length existed, and thus established instructional profiles for the teachers. Complete reflective conversations ranged from one-sixth to over half of total lesson time. Within instrument categories, teachers generally revealed a dissimilar knowledge usage. Some teachers exhibited fast-paced problem solving, in one minute or less, and named one or two knowledge areas. Others had longer conversations, up to five minutes, with more deliberate problem solving, and as many as twelve knowledge areas named. Results indicated that a practically significant situation can be examined by establishing teacher instructional profiles based upon reflective conversation. Methods employed in this study could be used to document teacher problem-solving and teacher knowledge in a variety of settings.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Murphy, Vanissa B. (Vanissa Braswell)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Dugger, Richard Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Survey of Singers: Is Mental Imagery Used in the Conceptualization of Pitch and Vowel?

Description: Mental imagery is a common theme in research that clarifies how musical thought relates to musical performance. Unfortunately, minimal information exists regarding mental imagery and singers. The purpose of this study was to probe the role, if any, mental imagery plays in the conceptualization of pitch and vowel. By interviewing singers at differing levels of expertise, basic information was obtained about the mental processes used by singers. Through evaluations of the singers' mental processes, it was concluded that 95% of the singers in the study employed mental imagery. All singers described using kinesthetic imagery, while the majority implemented sensory and auditory imagery. Viso-spatial imagery was implemented among the more experienced singers. The majority of singers also reported: imaging pitch and vowel interactively; imaging from an internal perspective; and utilizing mental rehearsal. Less than half of the singers described using methods other than mental imagery to conceptualize pitch and vowel.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Moyer, Karen E. (Karen Elizabeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of a Group of Third Graders' Pitch Matching Skills When Using Male Voice, Piano, and Resonator Bells as Melodic Models

Description: The purpose was to measure any statistically significant differences in pitch-matching skills among three classes of third grade students when using either adult male voice, piano, or resonator bells as melodic models for rote instruction of classroom singing. Each class was randomly assigned one of the three melodic models for a ten week treatment phase. Results indicated no significant differences in pitch matching skills between any of the three groups. No significant differences in pitch matching skills were found according to gender of subjects or among class piano students and non-piano students. Findings indicated overall improvement in pitch matching skills of subjects from pre-test to post-test phase.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Franks, Douglas Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries

Vocal Pitch-Matching: The Effect of Singing into the Right Ears of Fifth-Grade Students

Description: This study investigated whether fifth-grade students would sing more accurately when responding to pitch stimuli presented to the right ear as compared to left and both ears. Students were also classified as either strongly right-handed or other (left-handed or mixed) to see if ear treatment responses would differ with handedness. Sixty-six students were tested on their attempts to match 12 model pitches. Identical tests were given to each subject on 3 different days, with a different ear treatment each day. Vocal response scores were significantly better for both-ear presentation than for left-ear. No significant difference was found between right and both ears, right and left ears, or between handedness groups.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Watkins, Sharon C. (Sharon Carp)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Toward a Rationale for Music Education in the Public School Context Framed with both Progressive and Essentialist Considerations: Operationalizing the Ideas of William Chandler Bagley

Description: In music education, aesthetic education and praxial music education serve as two major, guiding philosophical frameworks, yet supporters of each often conflict with one another. Furthermore, both are slightly problematic with respect to the specific context of the public school. Each framework is primarily music-based, however, music education has existed in the wider context of general education since the 1830s. Given the recent core-status designation for music education, as part of all fine arts, in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, a framework from general education that supported music education could offer benefits for the domain. However, the wider context of general education is messy as well. Two groups occupy most of the space there, and remain locked in a fundamental disagreement over the purpose of a formal education. The progressive educators, historically framed by Dewey and Thorndike, contend that education functions as societal improvement. In contrast, the essentialists contend that education functions as cultural transmission. Therefore, a more specific need for music education involves selecting a framework from general education that resolves this conflict. The writings of William Chandler Bagley indicate that he balanced both considerations of a formal education while also advancing his notion of essentialism. Bagley differed from the progressive educators predominately associated with Dewey over definitions and ideas surrounding a democratic education. Emergent points of contrast with Thorndike include distinctions between social efficiency and Bagley's alternative idea of social progress. Bagley also diverged from other essentialists over definitions concerning liberal and cultural education. To make these viewpoints of Bagley explicit, I describe characteristics of a progressive education, and an essentialist education separately, before introducing Bagley. Finally, I apply Bagley's ideas into the domain of music education. Ultimately, I contend that through common outcomes of creativity, competition, and literacy, the domain of music education ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Price, Benjamin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Novice Texas Band Directors' Perceptions of the Skills and Knowledge for Successful Teaching

Description: The purposes of this descriptive survey research study were (a) to describe novice band directors' perceptions of the importance of skills/knowledge used n effective music teaching, (b) to describe novice band directors' perception of the difficulty of acquiring each skill or knowledge component, (c) to compare novice band directors' perceptions of the importance and difficulty of the skills/knowledge used in their classrooms, (d) to describe ways that novice band directors perceived university coursework as helpful in acquiring teaching skills/knowledge, and (e) to describe improvements to university coursework that novice band directors perceived could help future band directors. The personal skills/knowledge category (M = 4.64) was rated highest for importance, followed by the teaching (M = 4.60) and musical (M = 4.29) categories. Additionally, participants rated the personal skills/knowledge category (M = 3.57) as the easiest to acquire, followed by musical (M = 3.14), and teaching (M = 3.09) categories. There was a statistically significant difference between teaching importance ratings and teaching acquisition ratings, with the teaching importance category rated higher by participants. Participants perceived secondary instrument instruction, teaching experiences, core music curriculum, and practical skills/knowledge as positive aspects of university coursework. Finally, secondary instrument instruction, field experiences, non-instructional aspects of teaching, and musical pedagogy were reported by participants as areas for possible improvement.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Denis, John M
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predictors of Music Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians

Description: Music performance anxiety is an issue that affects musicians at all levels but can begin in early adolescence. The researcher investigated three variables and their ability to predict music performance anxiety: catastrophization, self-regulation, and goal-setting style. Catastrophization is a negative thought that amplifies perceived criticism. Self-regulation is a metacognitive skill that allows students to plan strategies and evaluate learning. Goal-setting style refers to a student's framework when establishing learning objectives – whether they are focused on mastering the subject matter, or only trying to avoid being the worst in the class. A sample of adolescent wind musicians (n = 68) were administered four self-reporting measures for the predictor variables and music performance anxiety. Catastrophization, self-regulation, and goal-setting style were all statistically significant in predictor music performance anxiety, with catastrophization alone explaining 69% of the variance in the predictor variable. Overall, the whole model was able to explain 46% of the variance in music performance anxiety.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Edmonson, Jordan Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries