UNT Theses and Dissertations - 136 Matching Results

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Room and Elevated Temperature Sliding Wear Behavior of Cold Sprayed Ni-WC Composite Coatings

Description: The tribological properties of cold sprayed Ni-WC metal matrix composite (MMC) coatings were investigated under dry sliding conditions from room temperature (RT) up to 400°C, and during thermal cycling to explore their temperature adaptive friction and wear behavior. Characterization of worn surfaces was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy to determine the chemical and microstructural evolution during friction testing. Data provided insights into tribo-oxide formation mechanisms controlling friction and wear. It was determined that the steady-state coefficient of friction (CoF) decreased from 0.41 at RT to 0.32 at 400˚C, while the wear rate increased from 0.5×10-4 mm3/N·m at RT to 3.7×10-4 mm3/N·m at 400˚C. The friction reduction is attributed primarily to the tribochemical formation of lubricious NiO on both the wear track and transfer film adhered to the counterface. The increase in wear is attributed to a combination of thermal softening of the coating and a change in the wear mechanism from adhesive to more abrasive. In addition, the coating exhibited low friction behavior during thermal cycling by restoring the lubricious NiO phase inside the wear track at high temperature intervals. Therefore, cold sprayed Ni-WC coatings are potential candidates for elevated temperature and thermally self-adaptive sliding wear applications.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Torgerson, Tyler B.
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Laser Surface Modification of AZ31B Mg Alloy Bio-Implant Material

Description: Magnesium and its alloys are considered as the potential biomaterials due to their biocompatibility and biodegradable characteristics but suffer from poor corrosion performance. Various surface modification techniques are employed to improve their corrosion resistance. In present case, laser surface melting was carried out on AZ31B Mg alloy with various laser energy densities using a continuous wave ytterbium laser. Effect of laser treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated by X ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Multi-physics thermal model predicted time temperature evolution along the depth of the laser treatment zone. Additionally, electrochemical method and bio-immersion test were employed to evaluate the corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid medium. Microstructure revealed grain refinement and even distribution of Mg17Al12 phase along the grain boundary for laser treated samples leading to substantial enhancement in the corrosion resistance of the laser treated samples compared to the untreated alloy. The laser processed samples also possessed a superior wettability in SBF solution than the untreated sample. This was further reflected in enhanced bio-integration behavior of laser processed samples. By changing the parameters of laser processing such as power, scanning speed, and fill spacing, a controllable corrosion resistance and bioactivity/biocompatibility of the implant material was achieved.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Wu, Tso-chang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ultrasonic Processing of Aluminum 2139 and 7050

Description: Acoustics is the study of all sound waves, with ultrasound classified as those frequencies above 20,000 Hz. Currently, ultrasound is being used in many industries for a variety of purposes such as ultrasonic imaging, ultrasonic assisted friction stir welding, and ultrasonic spot welding. Despite these uses, the effects of ultrasound on phase stability and resultant mechanical properties has been minimally analyzed. Here we study the impact waves play in ultrasonic welding and design an apparatus to maximize waves entering aluminum alloy samples. Aluminum 2139 and 7050 are used because they are precipitation strengthened by metastable phases so temperature change, and the corresponding phase stability, can greatly impact their strength. Results suggest that the ultrasonic welder primarily imposes a localized temperature spike due to friction, averaging over 200°C in a few seconds, which generally lowers the Vickers hardness due to coarsening or even dissolution of strengthening precipitates. Conversely, the new design increases the Vickers hardness by up to 30% over the initial hardness of approximately 63HV for aluminum 2139 and 83HV for aluminum 7050, respectively, while only increasing the temperature by an average of approximately 10°C. This new design was unable to achieve peak hardness, but the strengthening it achieved in two minutes was equivalent to one month of natural aging. If this system was able to be fine-tuned, it could serve as a quick strengthening process for recently weakened aluminum alloys, such as after friction stir welding.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Reed, Jordan Derek
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Alloy Development and High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Studies of NiTiZr and NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

Description: NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer a good combination of high-strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility that has served them well and attracted the attention of many researchers and industries. The alloys unique thermo-mechanical ability to recover their initial shape after relatively large deformations by heating or upon unloading due to a characteristic reversible phase transformation makes them useful as damping devices, solid state actuators, couplings, etc. However, there is a need to increase the temperature of the characteristic phase transformation above 150 °C, especially in the aerospace industry where high temperatures are often seen. Prior researchers have shown that adding ternary elements (Pt, Pd, Au, Hf and Zr) to NiTi can increase transformation temperatures but most of these additions are extremely expensive, creating a need to produce cost-effective high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs). Thus, the main objective of this research is to examine the relatively unstudied NiTiZr system for the ability to produce a cost effective and formable HTSMA. Transformation temperatures, precipitation paths, processability, and high-temperature oxidation are examined, specifically using high energy X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements, in NiTi-20 at.% Zr. This is followed by an in situ XRD study of the phase growth kinetics of the favorable H-phase nano precipitates, formed in NiTiHf and NiTiZr HTSMAs, based on prior thermo-mechanical processing in a commercial NiTi-15 at.% Hf HTSMA to examine the final processing methods and aging characteristics. Through this research, knowledge of the precipitation paths in NiTiZr and NiTiHf HTSMAs is extended and methods for characterization of phases and strains using high energy XRD are elucidated for future work in the field.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Carl, Matthew A
Partner: UNT Libraries

Preventing Thermal Degradation of Pvc Insulation by Mixtures of Cross-Linking Agents and Antioxidants

Description: Poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) wire and cable insulation has poor thermal stability, causing the plasticizer to separate from the PVC chain and produce an oily residue, lowering the tensile elongation at break and thus increasing brittleness. We have added 4 wt.% of three different types of cross-linking agents and antioxidants, as well as mixtures of both, to improve the thermal stability of the plasticizer and tensile properties of PVC after thermal exposure. We performed tensile tests, tribological tests, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and water absorption determination before and after thermal exposure at 136 ℃ for 1 week. After adding the agents, elongation at break increased by 10 to 20 % while the wear rate and water absorption were lower than for the control sample. Less voids are seen in the SEM images after adding these two kinds of agents. The thermal resistance of the PVC cable insulation is best enhanced by combinations of cross-linking agents and antioxidants.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Kim, Taehwan
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Recycling of PVC and XLPE for High Impact Resistance in Spool Development

Description: My work focuses on taking waste wire-grade PVC = poly(vinyl chloride) and waste XLPE = cross-linked polyethylene and recycle them into small wire/cable spool technology in order to reduce waste cost and reduce cost of spool production. The PVC and XLPE were provided by Encore Wire Corp. of McKinney, TX; they have also defined the standard to which I am comparing my results. The end goal is to incorporate as much PVC and XLPE into the spools while maintaining material toughness, impact resistance, as well as cost-effectiveness in the implementation of the waste materials. The work has been divided into two primary sections, the first is focused on improving material strength through the addition of ceramic fillers. The second section is focused on adding PVC and XLPE into a stronger and highly cohesive polymer matrix and optimizing the concentration of the waste products. Since XLPE is non-polar while PVC is strongly polar, compatibilizers such as CPE (chlorinated polyethylene) and MA-DCP (maleic anhydride with dicumyl peroxide) were used to improve interactions between polar and non-polar constituents. Testing involved the tensile mechanical properties, tribology and thermal properties, namely dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and evaluation of thermal degradation by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Combining PVC and XLPE together is not economically feasible with current compatiblizers. At the same time, introduction of PVC waste or XLPE waste with sufficient properties of the resulting composites is doable.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Granowski, Gregory A
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A Study on NiTiSn Low-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and the Processing of NiTiHf High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

Description: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) operating as solid-state actuators pose economic and environmental benefits to the aerospace industry due to their lightweight, compact design, which provides potential for reducing fuel emissions and overall operating cost in aeronautical equipment. Despite wide applicability, the implementation of SMA technology into aerospace-related actuator applications is hindered by harsh environmental conditions, which necessitate extremely high or low transformation temperatures. The versatility of the NiTi-based SMA system shows potential for meeting these demanding material constraints, since transformation temperatures in NiTi can be significantly raised or lowered with ternary alloying elements and/or Ni:Ti ratio adjustments. In this thesis, the expansive transformation capabilities of the NiTi-based SMA system are demonstrated with a low and high-temperature NiTi-based SMA; each encompassing different stages of the SMA development process. First, exploratory work on the NiTiSn SMA system is presented. The viability of NiTiSn alloys as low-temperature SMAs (LTSMAs) was investigated over the course of five alloy heats. The site preference of Sn in near-equiatomic NiTi was examined along with the effects of solution annealing, Ni:Ti ratio adjustments, and precipitation strengthening on the thermomechanical properties of NiTiSn LTSMAs. Second, the thermomechanical processability of NiTiHf high-temperature SMA (HTSMA) wires is presented. The evolution of various microstructural features (grain size reduction, oxide growth, and nano-precipitation) were observed at incremental stages of the hot rolling process and linked to the thermal and mechanical responses of respective HTSMA rods/wires. This work was carried out in an effort to optimize the rolling/drawing process for NiTiHf HTSMAs.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Young, Avery W
Partner: UNT Libraries

Surface Chemistry and Work Function of Irradiated and Nanoscale Thin Films Covered Indium Tin Oxides

Description: In this study, we used UV-ozone Ar sputtering, X-ray photoelectron and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies and sputtering based depositions of RuO2 and Se nano-layers on indium tin oxides (ITOs). We elucidated the effect of Ar sputtering on the composition and chemistry of Sn rich ITO surface. We demonstrated that while a combination of UV-ozone radiation and Ar sputtering removes most of the hydrocarbons responsible for degrading the work function of ITO, it also removes significant amount of the segregated SN at the ITO surface that's responsible for its reasonable work function of 4.7eV. We also demonstrated for the first time that sputtering cleaning ITO surface leads to the reduction of the charge state of Sn from Sn4+ to Sn2+ that adds to the degradation of the work function. For the nano-layers coverage of ITO studies, we evaluated both RuO2 and Se. For RuO2 coated ITO, XPS showed the formation of a Ru-Sn-O ternary oxide. The RuO2 nano-layer reduced the oxidation state of Sn in the Sn-rich surface of ITO from +4 to +2. The best work function obtained for this system is 4.98eV, raising the effective work function of ITO by more than 0.5 eV. For the Se coated ITO studies, a systematic study of the dependence of the effective work function on the thickness of Se overage and its chemistry at the Se/ITO interface was undertaken. XPS showed that Se reacts with Sn at the Sn-rich surface of ITO determined the presence of both negative and positive oxidation state of Se at the Se/ITO interface. The Se also reduced the oxidation state of Sn from Sn4+ to Sn2+ in the Sn-rich ITO surface. The highest effective work function obtained for this system is 5.06eV. A combination of RuO2/Se nanoscale coating of optimally cleaned ITO would be a good alternative for ...
Date: May 2018
Creator: Che, Hui
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation into the Semiconducting and Device Properties of MoTe2 and MoS2 Ultra-Thin 2D Materials

Description: The push for electronic devices on smaller and smaller scales has driven research in the direction of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) as new ultra-thin semiconducting materials. These ‘two-dimensional' (2D) materials are typically on the order of a few nanometers in thickness with a minimum all the way down to monolayer. These materials have several layer-dependent properties such as a transition to direct band gap at single-layer. In addition, their lack of dangling bonding and remarkable response to electric fields makes them promising candidates for future electronic devices. For the purposes of this work, two 2D TMDs were studied, MoS2 and MoTe2. This dissertation comprises of three sections, which report on exploration of charge lifetimes, investigation environmental stability at elevated temperatures in air, and establishing feasibility of UV laser annealing for large area processing of 2D TMDs, providing a necessary knowledge needed for practical use of these 2D TMDs in optoelectronic and electronic devices. (1) A study investigating the layer-dependence on the lifetime of photo-generated electrons in exfoliated 2D MoTe2 was performed. The photo-generated lifetimes of excited electrons were found to be strongly surface dependent, implying recombination events are dominated by Shockley-Read-Hall effects (SRH). Given this, the measured lifetime was shown to increase with the thickness of exfoliated MoTe¬2; in agreement with SRH recombination. Lifetimes were also measured with an applied potential bias and demonstrated to exhibit a unique voltage dependence. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination effects, driven by surface states were attributed to this result. The applied electric field was also shown to control the surface recombination velocity, which lead to an unexpected rise and fall of measured lifetimes as the potential bias was increased from 0 to 0.5 volts. (2) An investigation into the environmental stability of exfoliated 2D MoTe2 was conducted using a passivation layer of amorphous boron nitride as a ...
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Sirota, Benjamin
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Processing-Structure-Property Relationships of Spark Plasma Sintered Boron Carbide and Titanium Diboride Ceramic Composites

Description: The aim of this study was to understand the processing – structure – property relationships in spark plasma sintered (SPS) boron carbide (B4C) and B4C-titanium diboride (TiB2) ceramic composites. SPS allowed for consolidation of both B4C and B4C-TiB2 composites without sintering additives, residual phases, e.g., graphite, and excessive grain growth due to long sintering times. A selection of composite compositions in 20% TiB2 feedstock powder increments from 0% to 100%, was sintered at 1900°C for 25 minutes hold time. A homogeneous B4C-TiB2 composite microstructure was determined with excellent distribution of TiB2 phase, while achieving ~99.5% theoretical density. An optimum B4C-23 vol.% TiB2 composite composition with low density of ~3.0 g/cm3 was determined that exhibited ~30-35% increase in hardness, fracture toughness, and flexural bend strength compared to commercial armor-grade B4C. This is a result of a) no residual graphitic carbon in the composites, b) interfacial microcrack toughening due to thermal expansion coefficient differences placing the B4C matrix in compression and TiB2 phase in tension, and c) TiB2 phase aids in crack deflection thereby increasing the amount of intergranular fracture. Collectively, the addition of TiB2 serves as a strengthening and toughening agent, and SPS shows promise for the manufacture of hybrid ceramic composites.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Rubink, William S
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Defining a Relationship between the Flexibility of Materials and Other Properties

Description: Brittleness of a polymeric material has a direct relationship with the material's performance and furthermore shares an inverse relationship with that material's flexibility. The concept of flexibility of materials has been understood but merely explained with a hand-waving manner. Thus, it has never been defined by a calculation, thereby lacking the ability to determine a definite quantitative value for this characteristic. Herein, an equation is presented and proven which makes determining the value of flexibility possible. Such an equation could be used to predict a material's flexibility prior to testing it, thus saving money and valuable time for those in research and in industry. Substantiating evidence showing the relationship between flexibility of polymers and their respective mechanical properties is presented. Further relating the known tensile properties of a given polymer to its flexibility is expanded upon by proving its relationship to the linear coefficient of thermal expansion for each polymer. Additionally, determining flexibility for polymers whose chemical structures have been compromised by respective solvents has also been investigated to predict a solvent's impact on a polymer after exposure. Polymers examined through literature include polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), teflon (PTFE), styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), poly(ethersulfone) (PES), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Further testing and confirmation was made using PC, PS, ABS, LDPE, PP, and PMMA.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Osmanson, Allison Theresa
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Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structure and Properties of Boron Containing Oxide Glasses: Empirical Potential Development and Applications

Description: Potential parameters that can handle multi-component oxide glass systems especially boron oxide are very limited in literature. One of the main goals of my dissertation is to develop empirical potentials to simulate multi-component oxide glass systems with boron oxide. Two approaches, both by introducing the composition dependent parameter feature, were taken and both led to successful potentials for boron containing glass systems after extensive testing and fitting. Both potential sets can produce reasonable glass structures of the multi-component oxide glass systems, with structure and properties in good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, we have tested the simulation settings such as system size and cooling rate effects on the results of structures and properties of MD simulated borosilicate glasses. It was found that increase four-coordinated boron with decreasing cooling rate and system size above 1000 atoms is necessary to produce converged structure. Another application of the potentials is to simulate a six-component nuclear waste glass, international simple glass (ISG), which was for first time simulated using the newly developed parameters. Structural features obtained from simulations agree well with the experimental results. In addition, two series of sodium borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate glasses were simulated with the two sets of potentials to compare and evaluate their applicability and deficiency. Various analyses on the structures and properties such as pair distribution function, total correlation function, coordination number analysis, Qn distribution function, ring size distribution function, vibrational density of states and mechanical properties were performed. This work highlights the challenge of MD simulations of boron containing glasses and the capability of the new potential parameters that enable simulations of wide range of mixed former glasses to investigate new structure features and design of new glass compositions for various applications.
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Date: December 2017
Creator: Deng, Lu
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Modeling of High Strain Rate Compression of Austenitic Shape Memory Alloys

Description: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the ability to absorb large dynamic loads and, therefore, are excellent candidates for structural components where impact loading is expected. Compared to the large amount of research on the shape memory effect and/or pseudoelasticity of polycrystalline SMAs under quasi-static loading conditions, studies on dynamic loading are limited. Experimental research shows an apparent difference between the quasi-static and high strain rate deformation of SMAs. Research reveals that the martensitic phase transformation is strain rate sensitive. The mechanism for the martensitic phase transformation in SMAs during high strain rate deformation is still unclear. Many of the existing high strain rate models assume that the latent heat generated during deformation contributes to the change in the stress-strain behavior during dynamic loading, which is insufficient to explain the large stress observed during phase transformation under high strain rate deformation. Meanwhile, the relationship between the phase front velocity and strain rate has been studied. In this dissertation, a new resistance to phase transformation during high strain rate deformation is discussed and the relationship between the driving force for phase transformation and phase front velocity is established. With consideration of the newly defined resistance to phase transformation, a new model for phase transformation of SMAs during high strain rate deformation is presented and validated based on experimental results from an austenitic NiTi SMA. Stress, strain, and martensitic volume fraction distribution during high strain rate deformation are simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS/standard. For the first time, this dissertation presents a theoretical study of the microscopic band structure during high strain rate compressive deformation. The microscopic transformation band is generated by the phase front and leads to minor fluctuations in sample deformation. The strain rate effect on phase transformation is studied using the model. Both the starting stress for transformation and ...
Date: December 2017
Creator: Yu, Hao
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Effects of HALSs and Nano-ZnO Worked as UV Stabilizers of Polypropylene

Description: This work reports the outdoor weathering performance of ultraviolet (UV)-stabilized polypropylene (PP) products (using PP resins from Encore Wire). Different hindered amine light stabilizers (HALSs) and nano-ZnO were used to stabilize PP-film-based formulations that were exposed under UV light for 6 weeks simulating for in harsh outdoor weather of Dallas, Texas, USA in 2016. Characterization of the exposed PP film products was done in terms of mechanical and friction spectroscopic properties. The PP film formulations were divided into 15 categories based on the type of HALS and nano-ZnO incorporated. This was done to derive meaningful comparison of the various film formulations. Following exposure under UV light, the lifetimes of certain formulations were determined. On the basis of the mechanical and friction properties, it was determined that generally, the HALS or nano-ZnO stabilized PP film give better properties and if those two kinds of UV stabilizers can work together.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Lu, Xinyao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructure and Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

Description: My work presents a novel approach to fabricate binder free three-dimensional carbon nanotubes/sulfur (3DCNTs/S) hybrid composite by a facile and scalable method increasing the loading amount from 1.86 to 8.33 mg/cm2 highest reported to date with excellent electrochemical performance exhibiting maximum specific energy of ~1233Wh/kg and specific power of ~476W/kg, with respect to the mass of the cathode. Such an excellent performance is attributed to the fact that 3DCNTs offers higher loading amount of sulfur, and confine polysulfide within the structure. In second part of the thesis, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is typically studied for three electrochemical energy storage devices including supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, and hybrid Li-ion capacitors. The intrinsic sheet like morphology of MoS2 provides high surface area for double layer charge storage and a layered structure for efficient intercalation of H+/ Li+ ions. My work demonstrates the electrochemical analysis of MoS2 grown on different substrates including copper (conducting), and carbon nanotubes. MoS2 film on copper was investigated as a supercapacitor electrode in three electrode system exhibiting excellent volumetric capacitance of ~330F/cm3 along with high volumetric power and energy density in the range of 40-80 W/cm3 and 1.6-2.4 mWh/cm3, respectively. Furthermore, we have developed novel binder-free 3DCNTs/ MoS2 as an anode materials in half cell Li-ion batteries. The vertically oriented morphology of MoS2 offers high surface area and active electrochemical sites for efficient intercalation of Li+ ions and demonstrating excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacity and cycling stability. This 3DCNTs/ MoS2 anode was coupled with high surface area southern yellow pine derived activated carbon (SYAC) cathode to obtain hybrid 3DCNTs/ MoS2 || SYAC Li-ion capacitor (LIC), which delivers large operating voltage window of 1-4.0V with excellent cycling stability exhibiting capacitance retention of ~80% after 5000 cycles.
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Date: December 2017
Creator: Patel, Mumukshu D
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Surface Degradation Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses and High Entropy Alloys

Description: In this study, the surface degradation behavior was studied for typical examples from bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), metallic glass composites (MGCs) and high entropy alloys (HEAs) alloy systems that are of scientific and commercial interest. The corrosion and wear behavior of two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses, Zr41.2Cu12.5Ni10Ti13.8Be22.5 and Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5, were evaluated in as-cast and thermally relaxed states. Significant improvement in corrosion rate, wear behavior, and friction coefficient was seen for both the alloys after thermal relaxation. Fully amorphous structure was retained with thermal relaxation below the glass transition temperature. This improvement in surface properties was explained by annihilation of free volume, the atomic scale defects in amorphous metals resulting from kinetic freezing. Recently developed MGCs, with in situ crystalline ductile phase, demonstrate a combination of mechanical properties and fracture behavior unseen in known structural metals. The composites showed higher wear rates but lower coefficient of friction compared to monolithic amorphous glasses. No tribolayer formation was seen for the composites in sharp contrast to that of the monolithic metallic glasses. Corrosion was evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP) analysis and potentiodynamic polarization. Site-specific corrosion behavior was studied by scanning vibration electrode technique (SVET) to identify formation of galvanic couples. Scanning kelvin probe microscope was used to map elecropositivity difference between the phases and linked to wear/corrosion behavior. Phases with higher elecropositivity were more susceptible to surface degradation. Wear and corrosion synergy in marine environment was evaluated for two high entropy alloys (HEAs), CoCrFeMnNi and Al0.1CoCrFeNi. Between the two alloys, Al0.1CoCrFeNi showed better wear resistance compared to CoCrFeMnNi in dry and marine conditions due to quicker passivation, a higher magnitude of polarization resistance and significantly larger pitting resistance.
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Date: December 2017
Creator: Ayyagari, Venkata A
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P-type Doping of Pulsed Laser Deposited WS2 with Nb

Description: Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are potentially ideal semiconducting materials due to their in-plane carrier transport and tunable bandgaps, which are favorable properties for electrical and optoelectronic applications. However, the ability to make p-n junctions is the foundation of semiconductor devices, and therefore the ability to achieve reproducible p- and n-type doping in TMD semiconducting materials is critical. In this work, p-type substitutional doping of pulsed laser deposited WS2 films with niobium is reported. The synthesis technique of the PLD target with dopant incorporation which also ensures host material stoichiometry is presented. Hall electrical measurements confirmed stable p-type conductivity of the grown films. Structural characterization revealed that there was no segregation phase of niobium in the fabricated films and x-ray phtoelectron spectroscopy (xps) characterization suggest that the p-type doping is due to Nb4+ which results in p-type behavior. Stable hole concentrations as high as 10E21(cm-3) were achieved. The target fabrication and thin film deposition technique reported here can be used for substitutional doping of other 2D materials to obtain stable doping for device applications.
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Date: December 2017
Creator: Egede, Eforma Justin
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Non-Isothermal Laser Treatment of Fe-Si-B Metallic Glass

Description: Metallic glasses possess attractive properties, such as high strength, good corrosion resistance, and superior soft magnetic performance. They also serve as precursors for synthesizing nanocrystalline materials. In addition, a new class of composites having crystalline phases embedded in amorphous matrix is evolving based on selective crystallization of metallic glasses. Therefore, crystallization of metallic glasses and its effects on properties has been a subject of interest. Previous investigations from our research group related to laser assisted crystallization of Fe-Si-B metallic glass (an excellent soft magnetic material by itself) showed a further improvement in soft magnetic performance. However, a fundamental understanding of crystallization and mechanical performance of laser treated metallic glass was essential from application point of view. In light of this, the current work employed an integrated experimental and computational approach to understand crystallization and its effects on tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass. The time temperature cycles during laser treatments were predicted using a finite element thermal model. Structural changes in laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass including crystallization and phase evolution were investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by uniaxial tensile tests with an InstronTM universal testing machine. Fracture surfaces of the metallic glass were observed using scanning electron microscopy and site specific transmission electron microscopy. Fe-Si-B metallic glass samples treated with lower laser fluence (<0.49 J/mm2) underwent structural relaxation while higher laser flounces led to partial crystallization. The crystallization temperature experienced an upward shift due to rapid heating rates of the order of 104 K/s during laser treatments. The heating cycle was followed by termination of laser upon treatment attainment of peak temperature and rapid cooling of the similar order. Such dynamic effects resulted in premature arrest of the crystallite growth leading ...
Date: December 2017
Creator: Joshi, Sameehan Shrikant
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Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

Description: A matrix of variably processed Fe-30at%Ni was deposited with variations in laser travel speeds as well and laser powers. A complete shift in phase stability occurred as a function of varying laser travel speed. At slow travel speeds, the microstructure was dominated by a columnar fcc phase. Intermediate travel speeds yielded a mixed microstructure comprised of both the columnar fcc and a martensite-like bcc phase. At the fastest travel speed, the microstructure was dominated by the bcc phase. This shift in phase stability subsequently affected the magnetic properties, specifically saturation magnetization. Ni-Fe-Mo and Ni-Fe-V permalloys were deposited from an elemental blend of powders as well. Both systems exhibited featureless microstructures dominated by an fcc phase. Magnetic measurements yielded saturation magnetizations on par with conventionally processed permalloys, however coercivities were significantly larger; this difference is attributed to microstructural defects that occur during the additive manufacturing process.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Mikler, Calvin
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Developing Precipitation Hardenable High Entropy Alloys

Description: High entropy alloys (HEAs) is a concept wherein alloys are constructed with five or more elements mixed in equal proportions; these are also known as multi-principle elements (MPEs) or complex concentrated alloys (CCAs). This PhD thesis dissertation presents research conducted to develop precipitation-hardenable high entropy alloys using a much-studied fcc-based equi-atomic quaternary alloy (CoCrFeNi). Minor additions of aluminium make the alloy amenable for precipitating ordered intermetallic phases in an fcc matrix. Aluminum also affects grain growth kinetics and Hall-Petch hardenability. The use of a combinatorial approach for assessing composition-microstructure-property relationships in high entropy alloys, or more broadly in complex concentrated alloys; using laser deposited compositionally graded AlxCrCuFeNi2 (0 < x < 1.5) complex concentrated alloys as a candidate system. The composition gradient has been achieved from CrCuFeNi2 to Al1.5CrCuFeNi2 over a length of ~25 mm, deposited using the laser engineered net shaping process from a blend of elemental powders. With increasing Al content, there was a gradual change from an fcc-based microstructure (including the ordered L12 phase) to a bcc-based microstructure (including the ordered B2 phase), accompanied with a progressive increase in microhardness. Based on this combinatorial assessment, two promising fcc-based precipitation strengthened systems have been identified; Al0.3CuCrFeNi2 and Al0.3CoCrFeNi, and both compositions were subsequently thermo-mechanically processed via conventional techniques. The phase stability and mechanical properties of these alloys have been investigated and will be presented. Additionally, the activation energy for grain growth as a function of Al content in these complex alloys has also been investigated. Change in fcc grain growth kinetic was studied as a function of aluminum; the apparent activation energy for grain growth increases by about three times going from Al0.1CoCrFeNi (3% Al (at%)) to Al0.3CoCrFeNi. (7% Al (at%)). Furthermore, Al addition leads to the precipitation of highly refined ordered L12 (γ′) and B2 precipitates in ...
Date: August 2017
Creator: Gwalani, Bharat
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Evolution of Precipitates and Their Influence on the Mechanical Properties of β-Titanium Alloys

Description: Over the last few decades, body-centered-cubic (bcc) beta (β) titanium alloys have largely been exploited as structural alloys owing to the richness in their microstructural features. These features, which lead to a unique combination of high specific strength and ductility, excellent hardenability, good fatigue performance, and corrosion resistance, make these alloys viable candidates for many applications, including aerospace, automobile, and orthopedic implants. The mechanical properties of these alloys strongly depend on the various phases present; which can be controlled by thermomechanical treatments and/or alloy design. The two most important and studied phases are the metastable ω phase and the stable α phase. The present study focuses on the microstructural evolution and the mechanical behavior of these two phases in a model β-Ti alloy, binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy, and a commercial β-Ti alloy, β-21S. Microstructures containing athermal and isothermal ω phases in the binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The formation and the evolution of the ω-phase based microstructures are investigated in detail via various characterization techniques such as SEM, TEM, and 3D atom probe tomography. The mechanical behavior was investigated via quasi-static tensile loading; at room and elevated temperatures. The effect of β phase stability on the deformation behavior is then discussed. Similar to the Ti-12wt. %Mo, the formation and the evolution of the athermal and isothermal ω phases in the commercial β-21S alloy was studied under controlled heat treatments. The structural and compositional changes were tracked using SEM, TEM, HR-STEM, and 3D atom probe tomography (3D-APT). The presence of additional elements in the commercial alloy were noted to make a considerable difference in the evolution and morphology of the ω phase and also the mechanical behavior of the alloys. The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) like effect was observed in iii this alloy at ...
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Mantri, Srinivas Aditya
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Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

Description: Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Yannetta, Christopher James
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structure Evolution and Nano-Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Multi-Principal Element Alloys

Description: Bulk metallic glasses and multi-principal element alloys represent relatively new classes of multi-component engineering materials designed for satisfying multiple functionalities simultaneously. Correlating the microstructure with mechanical behavior (at the microstructural length-scales) in these materials is key to understanding their performance. In this study, the structure evolution and nano-mechanical behavior of these two classes of materials was investigated with the objective of fundamental scientific understanding of their properties. The structure evolution, high temperature nano-mechanical behavior, and creep of two Zr-based alloys was studied: Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22 (Vitreloy1) and Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6All0 (Vitreloy105). Devitrification was found to proceed via the formation of a metastable icosahedral phase with five-fold symmetry. The deformation mechanism changes from inhomogeneous or serrated flow to homogenous flow near 0.9Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature. The creep activation energy for Vitreloy1 and Vitreloy105 were 144 kJ/mol and 125 kJ/mol, respectively in the range of room temperature to 0.75Tg. The apparent activation energy increased drastically to 192 kJ/mol for Vitreloy1 and 215 kJ/mol for Vitreloy105 in the range of 0.9Tg to Tg, indicating a change in creep mechanism. Structure evolution in catalytic amorphous alloys, Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20, was studied using 3D atom probe tomography and elemental segregation between different phases and the interface characteristics were identified. The structure evolution of three multi-principal element alloys were investigated namely CoCrNi, CoCrFeMnNi, and Al0.1CoCrFeNi. All three alloys formed a single-phase FCC structure in as-cast, cold worked and recrystallized state. No secondary phases precipitated after prolonged heat treatment or mechanical working. The multi-principal element alloys showed less strain gradient plasticity compared to pure metals like Ni during nano-indentation. This was attributed to the highly distorted lattice which resulted in lesser density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Dislocation nucleation was studied by low load indentation along with the evaluation of activation volume and activation energy. This was ...
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Date: May 2017
Creator: Mridha, Sanghita
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Exceptional Properties in Friction Stir Processed Beta Titanium Alloys and an Ultra High Strength Steel

Description: The penchant towards development of high performance materials for light weighting engineering systems through various thermomechanical processing routes has been soaring vigorously. Friction stir processing (FSP) - a relatively new thermomechanical processing route had shown an excellent promise towards microstructural modification in many Al and Mg alloy systems. Nevertheless, the expansion of this process to high temperature materials like titanium alloys and steels is restricted by the limited availability of tool materials. Despite it challenges, the current thesis sets a tone for the usage of FSP to tailor the mechanical properties in titanium alloys and steels. FSP was carried out on three near beta titanium alloys, namely Ti6246, Ti185 and Tiβc with increasing β stability index, using various tool rotation rates and at a constant tool traverse speed. Microstructure and mechanical property relationship was studied using experimental techniques such as SEM, TEM, mini tensile testing and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Two step aging on Ti6246 had resulted in an UTS of 2.2GPa and a specific strength around 500 MPa m3/mg, which is about 40% greater than any commercially available metallic material. Similarly, FSP on an ultra-high strength steel―Eglin steel had resulted in a strength greater than 2GPa with a ductility close to 10% at around 4mm from the top surface of stir zone (SZ). Experimental techniques such as microhardness, mini-tensile testing and SEM were used to correlate the microstructure and properties observed inside SZ and HAZ's of the processed region. A 3D temperature modeling was used to predict the peak temperature and cooling rates during FSP. The exceptional strength ductility combinations inside the SZ is believed to be because of mixed microstructure comprised of various volume fractions of phases such as martensite, bainite and retained austenite.
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Date: May 2017
Creator: Tungala, Vedavyas
Partner: UNT Libraries