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An Adaptive Linearization Method for a Constraint Satisfaction Problem in Semiconductor Device Design Optimization

Description: The device optimization is a very important element in semiconductor technology advancement. Its objective is to find a design point for a semiconductor device so that the optimized design goal meets all specified constraints. As in other engineering fields, a nonlinear optimizer is often used for design optimization. One major drawback of using a nonlinear optimizer is that it can only partially explore the design space and return a local optimal solution. This dissertation provides an adaptive optimization design methodology to allow the designer to explore the design space and obtain a globally optimal solution. One key element of our method is to quickly compute the set of all feasible solutions, also called the acceptability region. We described a polytope-based representation for the acceptability region and an adaptive linearization technique for device performance model approximation. These efficiency enhancements have enabled significant speed-up in estimating acceptability regions and allow acceptability regions to be estimated for a larger class of device design tasks. Our linearization technique also provides an efficient mechanism to guarantee the global accuracy of the computed acceptability region. To visualize the acceptability region, we study the orthogonal projection of high-dimensional convex polytopes and propose an output sensitive algorithm for projecting polytopes into two dimensions.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Chang, Chih-Hui, 1967-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Algorithms for Efficient Utilization of Wireless Bandwidth and to Provide Quality-of-Service in Wireless Networks

Description: This thesis presents algorithms to utilize the wireless bandwidth efficiently and at the same time meet the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the users. In the proposed algorithms we present an adaptive frame structure based upon the airlink frame loss probability and control the admission of call requests into the system based upon the load on the system and the QoS requirements of the incoming call requests. The performance of the proposed algorithms is studied by developing analytical formulations and simulation experiments. Finally we present an admission control algorithm which uses an adaptive delay computation algorithm to compute the queuing delay for each class of traffic and adapts the service rate and the reliability in the estimates based upon the deviation in the expected and obtained performance. We study the performance of the call admission control algorithm by simulation experiments. Simulation results for the adaptive frame structure algorithm show an improvement in the number of users in the system but there is a drop in the system throughput. In spite of the lower throughput the adaptive frame structure algorithm has fewer QoS delay violations. The adaptive call admission control algorithm adapts the call dropping probability of different classes of traffic and optimizes the system performance w.r.t the number of calls dropped and the reliability in meeting the QoS promised when the call is admitted into the system.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Kakani, Naveen Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Automatic Speech Recognition Using Finite Inductive Sequences

Description: This dissertation addresses the general problem of recognition of acoustic signals which may be derived from speech, sonar, or acoustic phenomena. The specific problem of recognizing speech is the main focus of this research. The intention is to design a recognition system for a definite number of discrete words. For this purpose specifically, eight isolated words from the T1MIT database are selected. Four medium length words "greasy," "dark," "wash," and "water" are used. In addition, four short words are considered "she," "had," "in," and "all." The recognition system addresses the following issues: filtering or preprocessing, training, and decision-making. The preprocessing phase uses linear predictive coding of order 12. Following the filtering process, a vector quantization method is used to further reduce the input data and generate a finite inductive sequence of symbols representative of each input signal. The sequences generated by the vector quantization process of the same word are factored, and a single ruling or reference template is generated and stored in a codebook. This system introduces a new modeling technique which relies heavily on the basic concept that all finite sequences are finitely inductive. This technique is used in the training stage. In order to accommodate the variabilities in speech, the training is performed casualty, and a large number of training speakers is used from eight different dialect regions. Hence, a speaker independent recognition system is realized. The matching process compares the incoming speech with each of the templates stored, and a closeness ration is computed. A ratio table is generated anH the matching word that corresponds to the smallest ratio (i.e. indicating that the ruling has removed most of the symbols) is selected. Promising results were obtained for isolated words, and the recognition rates ranged between 50% and 100%.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Cherri, Mona Youssef, 1956-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Complexity of Hopfield Networks

Description: There are three main results in this dissertation. They are PLS-completeness of discrete Hopfield network convergence with eight different restrictions, (degree 3, bipartite and degree 3, 8-neighbor mesh, dual of the knight's graph, hypercube, butterfly, cube-connected cycles and shuffle-exchange), exponential convergence behavior of discrete Hopfield network, and simulation of Turing machines by discrete Hopfield Network.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Tseng, Hung-Li
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computer Realization of Human Music Cognition

Description: This study models the human process of music cognition on the digital computer. The definition of music cognition is derived from the work in music cognition done by the researchers Carol Krumhansl and Edward Kessler, and by Mari Jones, as well as from the music theories of Heinrich Schenker. The computer implementation functions in three stages. First, it translates a musical "performance" in the form of MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) messages into LISP structures. Second, the various parameters of the performance are examined separately a la Jones's joint accent structure, quantified according to psychological findings, and adjusted to a common scale. The findings of Krumhansl and Kessler are used to evaluate the consonance of each note with respect to the key of the piece and with respect to the immediately sounding harmony. This process yields a multidimensional set of points, each of which is a cognitive evaluation of a single musical event within the context of the piece of music within which it occurred. This set of points forms a metric space in multi-dimensional Euclidean space. The third phase of the analysis maps the set of points into a topology-preserving data structure for a Schenkerian-like middleground structural analysis. This process yields a hierarchical stratification of all the musical events (notes) in a piece of music. It has been applied to several pieces of music with surprising results. In each case, the analysis obtained very closely resembles a structural analysis which would be supplied by a human theorist. The results obtained invite us to take another look at the representation of knowledge and perception from another perspective, that of a set of points in a topological space, and to ask if such a representation might not be useful in other domains. It also leads us to ask if such a ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Albright, Larry E. (Larry Eugene)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Convexity-Preserving Scattered Data Interpolation

Description: Surface fitting methods play an important role in many scientific fields as well as in computer aided geometric design. The problem treated here is that of constructing a smooth surface that interpolates data values associated with scattered nodes in the plane. The data is said to be convex if there exists a convex interpolant. The problem of convexity-preserving interpolation is to determine if the data is convex, and construct a convex interpolant if it exists.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Leung, Nim Keung
Partner: UNT Libraries

Efficient Linked List Ranking Algorithms and Parentheses Matching as a New Strategy for Parallel Algorithm Design

Description: The goal of a parallel algorithm is to solve a single problem using multiple processors working together and to do so in an efficient manner. In this regard, there is a need to categorize strategies in order to solve broad classes of problems with similar structures and requirements. In this dissertation, two parallel algorithm design strategies are considered: linked list ranking and parentheses matching.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Halverson, Ranette Hudson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exon/Intron Discrimination Using the Finite Induction Pattern Matching Technique

Description: DNA sequence analysis involves precise discrimination of two of the sequence's most important components: exons and introns. Exons encode the proteins that are responsible for almost all the functions in a living organism. Introns interrupt the sequence coding for a protein and must be removed from primary RNA transcripts before translation to protein can occur. A pattern recognition technique called Finite Induction (FI) is utilized to study the language of exons and introns. FI is especially suited for analyzing and classifying large amounts of data representing sequences of interest. It requires no biological information and employs no statistical functions. Finite Induction is applied to the exon and intron components of DNA by building a collection of rules based upon what it finds in the sequences it examines. It then attempts to match the known rule patterns with new rules formed as a result of analyzing a new sequence. A high number of matches predict a probable close relationship between the two sequences; a low number of matches signifies a large amount of difference between the two. This research demonstrates FI to be a viable tool for measurement when known patterns are available for the formation of rule sets.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Taylor, Pamela A., 1941-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Higher Compression from the Burrows-Wheeler Transform with New Algorithms for the List Update Problem

Description: Burrows-Wheeler compression is a three stage process in which the data is transformed with the Burrows-Wheeler Transform, then transformed with Move-To-Front, and finally encoded with an entropy coder. Move-To-Front, Transpose, and Frequency Count are some of the many algorithms used on the List Update problem. In 1985, Competitive Analysis first showed the superiority of Move-To-Front over Transpose and Frequency Count for the List Update problem with arbitrary data. Earlier studies due to Bitner assumed independent identically distributed data, and showed that while Move-To-Front adapts to a distribution faster, incurring less overwork, the asymptotic costs of Frequency Count and Transpose are less. The improvements to Burrows-Wheeler compression this work covers are increases in the amount, not speed, of compression. Best x of 2x-1 is a new family of algorithms created to improve on Move-To-Front's processing of the output of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform which is like piecewise independent identically distributed data. Other algorithms for both the middle stage of Burrows-Wheeler compression and the List Update problem for which overwork, asymptotic cost, and competitive ratios are also analyzed are several variations of Move One From Front and part of the randomized algorithm Timestamp. The Best x of 2x - 1 family includes Move-To-Front, the part of Timestamp of interest, and Frequency Count. Lastly, a greedy choosing scheme, Snake, switches back and forth as the amount of compression that two List Update algorithms achieves fluctuates, to increase overall compression. The Burrows-Wheeler Transform is based on sorting of contexts. The other improvements are better sorting orders, such as “aeioubcdf...” instead of standard alphabetical “abcdefghi...” on English text data, and an algorithm for computing orders for any data, and Gray code sorting instead of standard sorting. Both techniques lessen the overwork incurred by whatever List Update algorithms are used by reducing the difference between adjacent sorted ...
Date: August 2001
Creator: Chapin, Brenton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Independent Quadtrees

Description: This dissertation deals with the problem of manipulating and storing an image using quadtrees. A quadtree is a tree in which each node has four ordered children or is a leaf. It can be used to represent an image via hierarchical decomposition. The image is broken into four regions. A region can be a solid color (homogeneous) or a mixture of colors (heterogeneous). If a region is heterogeneous it is broken into four subregions, and the process continues recursively until all subregions are homogeneous. The traditional quadtree suffers from dependence on the underlying grid. The grid coordinate system is implicit, and therefore fixed. The fixed coordinate system implies a rigid tree. A rigid tree cannot be translated, scaled, or rotated. Instead, a new tree must be built which is the result of one of these transformations. This dissertation introduces the independent quadtree. The independent quadtree is free of any underlying coordinate system. The tree is no longer rigid and can be easily translated, scaled, or rotated. Algorithms to perform these operations axe presented. The translation and rotation algorithms take constant time. The scaling algorithm has linear time in the number nodes in the tree. The disadvantage of independent quadtrees is the longer generation and display time. This dissertation also introduces an alternate method of hierarchical decomposition. This new method finds the largest homogeneous block with respect to the corners of the image. This block defines the division point for the decomposition. If the size of the block is below some cutoff point, it is deemed to be to small to make the overhead worthwhile and the traditional method is used instead. This new method is compared to the traditional method on randomly generated rectangles, triangles, and circles. The new method is shown to use significantly less space for all three ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Atwood, Larry D. (Larry Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Inheritance Problems in Object-Oriented Database

Description: This research is concerned with inheritance as used in object-oriented database. More specifically, partial bi-directional inheritance among classes is examined. In partial inheritance, a class can inherit a proper subset of instance variables from another class. Two subclasses of the same superclass do not need to inherit the same proper subset of instance variables from their superclass. Bi-directional partial inheritance allows a class to inherit instance variables from its subclass. The prototype of an object-oriented database that supports both full and partial bi-directional inheritance among classes was developed on top of an existing relational database management system. The prototype was tested with two database applications. One database application needs full and partial inheritance. The second database application required bi-directional inheritance. The result of this testing suggests both advantages and disadvantages of partial bi-directional inheritance. Future areas of research are also suggested.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Auepanwiriyakul, Raweewan
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Machine Learning Method Suitable for Dynamic Domains

Description: The efficacy of a machine learning technique is domain dependent. Some machine learning techniques work very well for certain domains but are ill-suited for other domains. One area that is of real-world concern is the flexibility with which machine learning techniques can adapt to dynamic domains. Currently, there are no known reports of any system that can learn dynamic domains, short of starting over (i.e., re-running the program). Starting over is neither time nor cost efficient for real-world production environments. This dissertation studied a method, referred to as Experience Based Learning (EBL), that attempts to deal with conditions related to learning dynamic domains. EBL is an extension of Instance Based Learning methods. The hypothesis of the study related to this research was that the EBL method would automatically adjust to domain changes and still provide classification accuracy similar to methods that require starting over. To test this hypothesis, twelve widely studied machine learning datasets were used. A dynamic domain was simulated by presenting these datasets in an uninterrupted cycle of train, test, and retrain. The order of the twelve datasets and the order of records within each dataset were randomized to control for order biases in each of ten runs. As a result, these methods provided datasets that represent extreme levels of domain change. Using the above datasets, EBL's mean classification accuracies for each dataset were compared to the published static domain results of other machine learning systems. The results indicated that the EBL's system performance was not statistically different (p>0.30) from the other machine learning methods. These results indicate that the EBL system is able to adjust to an extreme level of domain change and yet produce satisfactory results. This finding supports the use of the EBL method in real-world environments that incur rapid changes to both variables and ...
Date: July 1996
Creator: Rowe, Michael C. (Michael Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multiresolutional/Fractal Compression of Still and Moving Pictures

Description: The scope of the present dissertation is a deep lossy compression of still and moving grayscale pictures while maintaining their fidelity, with a specific goal of creating a working prototype of a software system for use in low bandwidth transmission of still satellite imagery and weather briefings with the best preservation of features considered important by the end user.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Kiselyov, Oleg E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Practical Cursive Script Recognition

Description: This research focused on the off-line cursive script recognition application. The problem is very large and difficult and there is much room for improvement in every aspect of the problem. Many different aspects of this problem were explored in pursuit of solutions to create a more practical and usable off-line cursive script recognizer than is currently available.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Carroll, Johnny Glen, 1953-
Partner: UNT Libraries

SEM Predicting Success of Student Global Software Development Teams

Description: The extensive use of global teams to develop software has prompted researchers to investigate various factors that can enhance a team’s performance. While a significant body of research exists on global software teams, previous research has not fully explored the interrelationships and collective impact of various factors on team performance. This study explored a model that added the characteristics of a team’s culture, ability, communication frequencies, response rates, and linguistic categories to a central framework of team performance. Data was collected from two student software development projects that occurred between teams located in the United States, Panama, and Turkey. The data was obtained through online surveys and recorded postings of team activities that occurred throughout the global software development projects. Partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) was chosen as the analytic technique to test the model and identify the most influential factors. Individual factors associated with response rates and linguistic characteristics proved to significantly affect a team’s activity related to grade on the project, group cohesion, and the number of messages received and sent. Moreover, an examination of possible latent homogeneous segments in the model supported the existence of differences among groups based on leadership style. Teams with assigned leaders tended to have stronger relationships between linguistic characteristics and team performance factors, while teams with emergent leaders had stronger. Relationships between response rates and team performance factors. The contributions in this dissertation are three fold. 1) Novel analysis techniques using PLS-PM and clustering, 2) Use of new, quantifiable variables in analyzing team activity, 3) Identification of plausible causal indicators for team performance and analysis of the same.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Brooks, Ian Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries

Semaphore Solutions for General Mutual Exclusion Problems

Description: Automatic generation of starvation-free semaphore solutions to general mutual exclusion problems is discussed. A reduction approach is introduced for recognizing edge-solvable problems, together with an O(N^2) algorithm for graph reduction, where N is the number of nodes. An algorithm for the automatic generation of starvation-free edge-solvable solutions is presented. The solutions are proved to be very efficient. For general problems, there are two ways to generate efficient solutions. One associates a semaphore with every node, the other with every edge. They are both better than the standard monitor—like solutions. Besides strong semaphores, solutions using weak semaphores, weaker semaphores and generalized semaphores are also considered. Basic properties of semaphore solutions are also discussed. Tools describing the dynamic behavior of parallel systems, as well as performance criteria for evaluating semaphore solutions are elaborated.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Yue, Kwok B. (Kwok Bun)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Perceptually Tuned, Wavelet Based, Rate Scalable, Image and Video Compression

Description: In this dissertation, first, we have proposed and implemented a new perceptually tuned wavelet based, rate scalable, and color image encoding/decoding system based on the human perceptual model. It is based on state-of-the-art research on embedded wavelet image compression technique, Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) for Human Visual System (HVS) and extends this scheme to handle optimal bit allocation among multiple bands, such as Y, Cb, and Cr. Our experimental image codec shows very exciting results in compression performance and visual quality comparing to the new wavelet based international still image compression standard - JPEG 2000. On the other hand, our codec also shows significant better speed performance and comparable visual quality in comparison to the best codec available in rate scalable color image compression - CSPIHT that is based on Set Partition In Hierarchical Tree (SPIHT) and Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT). Secondly, a novel wavelet based interframe compression scheme has been developed and put into practice. It is based on the Flexible Block Wavelet Transform (FBWT) that we have developed. FBWT based interframe compression is very efficient in both compression and speed performance. The compression performance of our video codec is compared with H263+. At the same bit rate, our encoder, being comparable to the H263+ scheme, with a slightly lower (Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) value, produces a more visually pleasing result. This implementation also preserves scalability of wavelet embedded coding technique. Thirdly, the scheme to handle optimal bit allocation among color bands for still imagery has been modified and extended to accommodate the spatial-temporal sensitivity of the HVS model. The bit allocation among color bands based on Kelly's spatio-temporal CSF model is designed to achieve the perceptual optimum for human eyes. A perceptually tuned, wavelet based, rate scalable video encoding/decoding system has been designed and implemented based on this ...
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Date: May 2002
Creator: Wei, Ming
Partner: UNT Libraries

Temporally Correct Algorithms for Transaction Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases

Description: Many activities are comprised of temporally dependent events that must be executed in a specific chronological order. Supportive software applications must preserve these temporal dependencies. Whenever the processing of this type of an application includes transactions submitted to a database that is shared with other such applications, the transaction concurrency control mechanisms within the database must also preserve the temporal dependencies. A basis for preserving temporal dependencies is established by using (within the applications and databases) real-time timestamps to identify and order events and transactions. The use of optimistic approaches to transaction concurrency control can be undesirable in such situations, as they allow incorrect results for database read operations. Although the incorrectness is detected prior to transaction committal and the corresponding transaction(s) restarted, the impact on the application or entity that submitted the transaction can be too costly. Three transaction concurrency control algorithms are proposed in this dissertation. These algorithms are based on timestamp ordering, and are designed to preserve temporal dependencies existing among data-dependent transactions. The algorithms produce execution schedules that are equivalent to temporally ordered serial schedules, where the temporal order is established by the transactions' start times. The algorithms provide this equivalence while supporting currency to the extent out-of-order commits and reads. With respect to the stated concern with optimistic approaches, two of the proposed algorithms are risk-free and return to read operations only committed data-item values. Risk with the third algorithm is greatly reduced by its conservative bias. All three algorithms avoid deadlock while providing risk-free or reduced-risk operation. The performance of the algorithms is determined analytically and with experimentation. Experiments are performed using functional database management system models that implement the proposed algorithms and the well-known Conservative Multiversion Timestamp Ordering algorithm.
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Tuck, Terry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Unifying Version Model for Objects and Schema in Object-Oriented Database System

Description: There have been a number of different versioning models proposed. The research in this area can be divided into two categories: object versioning and schema versioning. In this dissertation, both problem domains are considered as a single unit. This dissertation describes a unifying version model (UVM) for maintaining changes to both objects and schema. UVM handles schema versioning operations by using object versioning techniques. The result is that the UVM allows the OODBMS to be much smaller than previous systems. Also, programmers need know only one set of versioning operations; thus, reducing the learning time by half. This dissertation shows that UVM is a simple but semantically sound and powerful version model for both objects and schema.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Shin, Dongil
Partner: UNT Libraries

Using Normal Deduction Graphs in Common Sense Reasoning

Description: This investigation proposes a powerful formalization of common sense knowledge based on function-free normal deduction graphs (NDGs) which form a powerful tool for deriving Horn and non-Horn clauses without functions. Such formalization allows common sense reasoning since it has the ability to handle not only negative but also incomplete information.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Munoz, Ricardo A. (Ricardo Alberto)
Partner: UNT Libraries