The purpose of this thesis is to examine the letters of Diderot to Sophie Volland for the year 1759 as they are a source of important autobiographical, social, and psychological elements that shed light on Diderot's private and public life. In fact a turning point in the sentimental relationship between Diderot and Sophie Volland, the death of his father, the difficulties experienced in publishing the Encyclop6'die and consequently the coolness in his friendship with D'Alembert make 1759 a crucial year in Diderot's life. The conclusion reached is that the stylistically beautiful and modern letters to Sophie Volland of this year are self-revelatory for they show that the events of 1759 made a great psychological impact upon Diderot and started a process of maturity in his character. These letters can undoubtedly be considered a major part of Diderot's work and they can certainly contribute to a deeper understanding of this genius.
The thesis states that women characters in the works of Ramuz have much more depth, life and variety than first meets the eye. In order to demonstrate this, it was decided to show women characters, main, secondary and in groups, and to look at their presentation in the novels recognized generally as the most important.
This thesis analyzes and demonstrates the similarities and differences between some of the national symbols of France and the United States. This includes the shared and borrowed aspects of each one and the ways in which each culture is reflected through, and built around them. The flags, national anthems, and several national icons such as France's Marianne and Uncle Sam are discussed. This analysis deals with the historical contexts and cultural meanings of the symbols, showing the changes each has undertaken in form and in national and international importance. Through the study of national symbols, this thesis reveals the similarities along with the differences between the two nations, which are often perceived as being highly dissimilar and even opposing in belief systems, cultures, and histories.
Numerous laws are being directed toward subduing the visible presence of Islam throughout France, and in return French Muslims are becoming bolder in the projection of their faith. This thesis examines the presence of Islam in France throughout history and in contemporary French civilization. Specifically, this thesis addresses the issues regarding the visible presence of Islam in France through such institutions as mosques and how they are the key symbols representing the prominence of Islam in France. It looks at what lies in the collective French mind that creates such an influence on today's policies and outlook, as well as identifies the key characters that dominate the current affairs surrounding Islam in France. The thesis reviews the country's past relations with the visible presence of Islam through the controversies surrounding the construction of famous mosques. In addition, this thesis underlines key areas where both the State and the Muslim population must make concessions in order to avoid further conflict.
Stéphane Mallarmé, 1842-1897, was driven by a yearning for the ideal, and felt an immense despair when his human attempts to reach up to it, through his poetry, fell far too short. The void (le Néant) into which he fell is the subject of the present study. Sources used were the writer's poetry, as well as all critical works which seemed pertinent to the study of this poet whose symbolism is so wonderfully and yet frighteningly deep and meaningful.