UNT Theses and Dissertations - 18,551 Matching Results

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Effects of Fluency and Accuracy-Only Training on Acquisition and Retention of Letter Naming by Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: This study examines the effects of accuracy-only training and fluency training on retention of material learned. Two adolescent participants with traumatic brain injuries were taught to name 2 sets of lowercase Greek letters. Each of the 2 sets consisted of 7 letters. Practice and rate of reinforcement were controlled for in this study. Fluency trained letters showed higher retention (percent correct during retention checks) than the accuracy-only trained letters.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Ewing, Christopher Boyd
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Fluency-Based Instruction on the Identification of Component Reading Skills

Description: This study examined the effects of fluency-based instruction on the identification of six component-composite relations for early reading skills. Five participants (ages 5-8) who struggled with reading participated. A multiple probe design was used to assess the effects of frequency building on prerequisite skills on the emergence of composite reading skills. The results show that the prerequisite skills taught did not have an effect on the composite skill probes but did have an effect on the assessment scores. The data expand the research pertaining to Precision Teaching, fluency-based instruction, and component-composite relations. These data suggest that additional skills may be needed to be taught in order to effects on the composite skills. In addition, these authors identify the need for the identification of the component skills necessary to teach rapid autonomic naming.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Bandy, Darren
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Forced Compliance Situations on Neutral, Unfavorable, and Extremely Unfavorable Subjects Toward Oil Companies

Description: This study tested effectiveness of a film in forced compliance situations on neutral and negatively predisposed individuals. Subjects (N = 48) were administered an attitudinal questionnaire, subjected to a no (control), low, moderate, or high dissonance-producing situation, and retested for attitude change. Analysis of variance for repeated measures, Scheffe's F tests, and t tests were used for analysis. Results indicated attitude change was greatest under a low dissonance-producing situation for all subjects. The moderate-dissonance situation moved unfavorable subjects toward favorability while the high dissonance situation moved extremely unfavorable subjects toward favorability. No relationship was found between degrees of dissonance and attitude change for netural subjects.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Kosinski, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Forms, Reports, and Consequences on Homework Completion

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of (1) training the accurate completion of an assignment form, (2) providing feedback on accurate reporting of homework completion, and (3) consequences for completion or non-completion of homework. All students exhibited highly accurate recording of information on assignment forms and reports of what homework had been completed or not completed. Delivering consequences for completion or non-completion of assignments had a modest effect on homework completion. This package increased the proportion of homework assignments completed on time for all students in at least one, or as many as three, academic subjects. This package can be an efficient tool for teachers to monitor homework completion.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Piland, Jill A. (Jill Anjanette)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Four Short Duration Exercise Routines on Physical Fitness of Male Junior College Students

Description: The purposes of this study are 1) to investigate the development of physical fitness through the medium of fifteen-minute exercise routines in junior college physical education classes; 2) to determine the relationship between each of four exercise routines and the improvement of physical development in a specific body area; and 3) to compare the results of intensive, isometric, calisthenic, and continuous exercise routines to determine if any one routine was of greater value to three alternate routines in assisting the individual to attain a higher degree of physical fitness development.
Date: August 1966
Creator: Cole, Francis Vernon
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

Description: To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Burger, Tammie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Frustration Tolerance Training on Young Institutionalized Retarded Children

Description: The major problem investigated was to ascertain the extent to which a training program designed specifically to increase frustration tolerance would reduce selected behavioral problems in institutionalized mentally retarded children. Of lesser importance was the problem of examining the extent to which the prescribed training program had differential effects on brain-injured and non-brain-injured retarded children.
Date: January 1968
Creator: Landrum, Jerry Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Gender and Self-Monitoring on Observer Accuracy in Decoding Affect Displays

Description: This study examined gender and self-monitoring as separate and interacting variables predicting judgmental accuracy on the part of observers of facial expressions of emotional categories. The main and interaction effects failed to reach significant levels during the preliminary analysis. However, post hoc analyses demonstrated a significant encoder sex variable. Female encoders of emotion were judged more accurately by both sexes. Additionally, when the stimulus was limited to female enactments of emotional categories, the hypothesized main and interaction effects reached significant F levels. This study utilized 100 observers and 10 encoders of seven emotional categories. Methodological considerations and alternatives are examined at length.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Spencer, R. Keith (Raymond Keith)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicides on Chick Embryo Development

Description: Glyphosate based herbicides are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine developmental toxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the common herbicide Roundup, on developing chicken embryos. Few studies have examined toxic effects of glyphosate alone versus the full compound formulations of Roundup, which include adjuvants and surfactants. Adjutants and surfactants are added to aid in solubility and absorption of glyphosate. In this study chicken embryos were exposed at the air cell on embryonic day 6 to 19.8 or 9.9 mg / Kg egg mass of glyphosate in Roundup or glyphosate only. Chickens treated with 19.8 and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reduction in survivability compared to glyphosate alone treatments and controls. On embryonic day 18, embryos were sacrificed for evaluation of developmental toxicity using wet embryo mass, dry embryo mass, and yolk mass as indicators. Morphology measurements were taken on liver mass, heart mass, tibiotarsus length and beak length. Embryos treated with 19.8 mg / Kg glyphosate and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reductions in wet and dry embryo mass and yolk mass. Tibiotarsus length in 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments were significantly reduced compared to 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate treatments. Beak length was significantly reduced in 9.9 mg /Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments compared to all other groups.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Winnick, Blake Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Monitoring Frequency on Effort and Risk Taking Decisions

Description: Management control systems perform a vital role in facilitating the accomplishment of organizational objectives. To effectively align the objectives of employees with those of the organization, firms balance multiple control mechanisms to encourage organizationally desired behaviors and discourage undesired behaviors. The purpose of my dissertation was two-fold. First, I assessed how changes in monitoring frequency influenced employee behaviors and the overall function of the management control system. Second, I investigated the effects of stretch goals on behavior to determine whether stretch goals can lead to harmful behaviors and whether continuous monitoring can mitigate these behaviors. Results suggest that individuals exert more effort when assigned a stretch or difficult goal compared to an easy goal. My study also finds that stretch goals can be harmful because of their effect on risk taking, goal commitment, and job insecurity. Finally, results indicate that accountability mediates the monitoring frequency-risk taking relationship such that continuous monitoring increases accountability and accountability decreases risk taking. However, the ability of monitoring frequency to decrease risk taking may depend on numerous factors. Results from this study allow practitioners to understand the potential benefits and drawbacks of implementing continuous monitoring systems and the combined effects of using these systems in conjunction with compensation systems. Consequently, this study highlights necessary considerations for practitioners during the implementation continuous monitoring systems. The study also informs practitioners of the potentially harmful effects of stretch goals, the conditions under which they occur, and the possible ways to mitigate these effects.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Shoemaker, Nikki L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Goal Setting, E-mail Feedback and Graphic Feedback on the Productivity of Public School Attendance Clerks

Description: A package intervention, consisting of daily-adjusted goal setting, e-mail feedback, and graphic feedback, was used in a public school attendance office to increase the efficiency with which 3 attendance clerks documented student attendance. During the intervention phase, the attendance secretary set a daily goal for each attendance clerk. This goal was a percentage of student absences to be coded and entered in the school computer program. After establishing a daily goal, the attendance secretary provided daily feedback, in the form of a written e-mail response and graphed feedback to each clerk. If the subjects had attained their daily goal, the attendance secretary also delivered a praise statement along with the e-mail feedback. Results indicated that the intervention package was ineffective in producing change in the attendance clerks' absence coding behavior.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Rexroat, Robin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Goal Setting on Performance Enhancement in a Competitive Athletic Setting

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine if goal setting has an effect on physical performance in a realistic, natural, and competitive athletic environment. Results revealed no significant differences between the goal-setting group and the "do your best" group when performing lacrosse skills. However, results from the questionnaire indicated significant main effect difficulty of the tasks. These results imply that athletes in the goal-setting group felt that their goals were not realistic and that it was increasingly difficult to reach their goals as the season progressed. Because the athlete does not have control over some factors which influence game situations, he or she may be hindered in reaching his or her goals, whether specified or individually chosen. Therefore, a research methodology that manipulates and attempts to control types of goal setting may not be appropriate or realistic when applied to the natural field environment of a highly organized competitive sport.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Stitcher, Thomas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Gold Sodium Thiomalate on Murine Spleen Cells

Description: The effects of gold sodium thiomalate (GST) on murine spleen cells were investigated using in vitro mitogen blastogenesis techniques. Addition of GST to intact spleen cells resulted in a decreased blastogenic response to the T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). Thymidine uptake of spleen cells depleted of macrophages and cultured with Con A and GST demonstrated biphasic effects. At 2.5 pg Con A/ml, blastogenesis of macrophage depleted spleen cells was inhibited to a lesser degree than intact spleen cells; whereas, at 0.5 pg Con A/ml, the macrophage depleted spleen cells were inhibited to a greater degree than the intact spleen cells. Addition of GST at intervals ranging from 0 to 48 hours indicated that inhibition occurred within 36 hours following mitogen stimulation. These results suggest that GST inhibits early events of lymphocyte activation by direct interaction with lymphocytes.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Brownback, Paul (Paul Eldon)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Graduated Exposure, Modeling, and Contingent Social Attention on Tolerance to Skin Care Products with Children Who Have Autism.

Description: The effects of graduated exposure, modeling and contingent social attention on tolerance to skincare products were evaluated with two boys with autism who displayed tactile defensiveness. Upon each presentation step of skincare products the number of positive and negative responses and successful step completion were measured. Procedures included modeling, presenting graduated opportunities, and providing social attention for step completion. Step advancement occurred if a child engaged in a step independently, without excessive refusals. A changing criterion design and a multiple baseline were employed to evaluate effects of this treatment package. Children demonstrated more positive and fewer negative responses as they completed the graduated steps. Effects maintained in follow-up observations.
Date: December 2001
Creator: South, Ellyn M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Group Counseling and Group Discussion on Selected Personality Variables of First-Year Theology Students

Description: This study examined the use of group counseling and group discussion as a method of demonstrating changes on selected personality variables of first-year theology students. It was hypothesized that the subjects would become less dogmatic (more open-minded), motivated from a more internal locus of control, feel less anxious, and demonstrate greater creativity and self-concept following their participation in either group counseling or group discussion. Group counseling was hypothesized to be the best method for effecting changes. The subjects were first-year theology students at a southwestern theological seminary. These participants planned to work in some phase of ministry; several planning to be ordained as priests or to enter the deaconate. This study was based upon the premise that ministers often assume a counseling role and they therefore, need training in counseling skills and an opportunity to enhance their personal development. Group counseling and group discussion were explored as possible means to achieve these ends. Each of the five personality variables was measured on a pretest-posttest design. The subjects were tested prior to meeting in one of the two formats and tested again after fifteen hours of participation in one of the groups. A control group was also tested at these same times to allow for a comparison to be made as to which method was most effective. Chapter I presents a review of related literature on the five variables and the need for training of ministers in counseling skills and for providing an opportunity for self-growth. Chapter II states the procedures and includes definitions, the method of the study and a discussion of the instrumentation. Chapter III presents the results of the study and a discussion of the implications. Although the findings indicated some changes in the variables as predicted by the hypotheses, none of the changes was statistically significant. Therefore, ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Qualia, Linda R. (Linda Raffel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Group Counseling upon Visual Perception and its Relationship to Other Forms of Perception

Description: The study of perception of visual images and the influence of counseling upon them has received little if any attention. This study was designed to investigate this uncharted area and to demonstrate the effects of counseling upon visual perception. The primary function of this investigation was to seek answers to the following questions. Is it possible for group counseling to have an effect on one's perception of visual stimuli? Will a counseling experience which produces a change in a person' behavior also cause that person to perceive visual images in a different way than he perceived them before counseling? In other words, does a concomitant relationship exist between visual perception and other forms of perception?
Date: May 1969
Creator: Berryman, Berle Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Group Membership upon Birth Order Differences in Anxiety and Affiliation

Description: The present study has a twofold purpose. First, it will attempt to ascertain whether ordinal position remains an effective discriminator of affiliative need and level of anxiety within the selective confines of a strong social organization, a college sorority; or whether the selective criterion of membership in the strong social organization tends to suppress the differences in affiliative need and level of anxiety between the ordinal positions. Secondly, it will attempt to further explore the relationship between affiliation and dependency.
Date: June 1963
Creator: Kennelly, Kevin Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries