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A Meta-Analysis of Burnout and Occupational Stress

Description: The relationship between occupational stress and burnout was investigated through a meta-analysis of 81 studies and 364 correlations. Occupational stress was measured by role conflict, role ambiguity, workload, cumulative role stress, job specific stress/stressors, and work setting characteristics. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 1981 and 1986 versions, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment components of burnout, measures of tedium, and the Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals. Thirty occupations in human and non-human service organizations throughout four publication periods were examined. Results indicated occupational stress strongly predicts burnout in non-human service organizations like industry and manufacturing as well as the human services. Job specific stressors most strongly predict burnout across organization types and occupation. Occupational stress predicts emotional exhaustion and depersonalization more than perceptions of reduced personal accomplishment. The findings support the use of transactional models of stress which consider occupational context as a precipitator of burnout, especially emotional exhaustion.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Collins, Vivian A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Model of Information Therapy: Definition and Empirical Application

Description: This study involves the investigation of the basis and validity of considering health information as therapeutic, the definition of Information Therapy, and whether the therapeutic nature of information can be measured empirically. The purpose of the study is to determine if there are any significant differences in the therapeutic effect of Information Therapy through the different delivery modes of support groups communicating face-to-face and those utilizing computer-mediated communication on the Internet. The comparison of these groups revealed no significant differences on three measures of health: physical, mental, and social support. Because one communication medium is not found to be advantageous over the other, the use of the computer can extend the benefits of Information Therapy to the home-bound, to those in remote areas, to people with time restraints, and those who may be shy. The validity of the therapeutic nature of information was verified by participant report of the effect of a health information search. Results demonstrated that the primary source for information is the physician, followed by the Internet, and 77% of participants reported a positive or therapeutic effect when health information was found. These results are significant because individuals who are in positions to deliver Information Therapy can better meet needs by identification of the sources to which people look for information and can have a major impact on patient care and the general health of the population. Providing people with information can empower them to take an active role in their health, can increase confidence in self-care, and should provide coping and disease management skills thus decreasing the utilization of healthcare resources and preventing costly acute and chronic health complications.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Mitchell, Donna J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling the "Make-or-Buy" Logistics Decision: An Empirical Analysis of the Logistic Decision Drivers for Suppliers and Manufacturers in Vendor Managed Inventory Relationships

Description: Managing the movement of components and products from suppliers to customers and ultimately to end-users is undergoing rapid changes. Supply chain management has increasingly gained attention as companies have sought to reduce costs and improve service performance in a quest for gaining an advantage on the competition.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Ricketts, Philip M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Multimedia Atlas of Dissection for Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates

Description: Traditional methods of teaching the laboratory course for Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates could be improved by applying current computer technology to construct an interactive, multimedial atlas of dissection. Five specimens used in comparative anatomy courses at most institutions were chosen as representative members of the Phylum Chordata: amphioxus, lamprey, dogfish shark, mud puppy, and cat. Specimens were dissected according to the modified method of Wischnitzer, 1993, and each stage was photographed with a Kodak DC120 digital zoom camera. These images were processed on a Power Macintosh 7600 computer with Adobe Photoshop v. 5.0. The atlas was constructed from these images using Macromedia Authorware v. 4.0.3. Each image contains a series of interactive objects that display a highlight and descriptive text as the cursor passes over each object.
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Date: August 1999
Creator: Curran, Anthony A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Night of No Exile

Description: Night of no Exile is a collection of poems preceded by a critical article entitled "‘Exile seems both a blessing and a curse': A Blissful Reading of Li-Young Lee's Poetry." That article discusses Lee's quest to achieve communication, truth, and transcendence through poetic language and concludes that he finally reaches his goal through a leap from narrative poetry to lyricism. The "exile" alluded to in the title of the article is not only geographic, but also interioran exile due to the natural limitations of all languages, and which can be bridged only in linguistic ways. Lee's solution to that problem (lyricism) turns his poetry into what Roland Barthes would call "a text of bliss," a text that manages to deeply destabilize language, while simultaneously achieving a new kind of meaning. In the main body of the manuscript, the first section contains short love lyrics. The second section, "Night of no Exile," is an attempt at the demanding genre of the longer lyric poem. The third section uses short lyrics to explore various topics, such as discovering one's identity, friendship and solidarity between women, family history, and childhood memories. Finally, the last section includes poems, four of them longer, attempting to combine narrative and lyric impulses in a way not unlike Li-Young Lee's experimentation with those two genres.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Jones, Marie C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The North Texas Region and the Development of Water Resources in the Trinity River Basin of Texas, 1840-1998

Description: This study focuses on the development of water resources in the Trinity River basin for navigation, flood control, water supply, recreation, and allied purposes. Special emphasis is given to the development of the upper Trinity River basin through the influence of community leaders in Dallas and Fort Worth. A desire harbored for generations by upper basin residents for creating a navigable waterway on the Trinity River coalesced in the twentieth century into a well organized movement for all facets of water resources development. Sources include correspondence, speeches, and promotional materials of civic leaders, politicians, and other citizens, as well as works by the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Sparkman, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Organizational Socialization of a Dynamic Workforce: A Focus on Employee and Contract Worker Knowledge Transfer

Description: Within the last decade, more organizations are utilizing a non-traditional workforce. Specifically, these organizations are utilizing contract workers as resources to provide services and manufacture products. While this change in workforce provides benefits to organizations, the change also presents numerous challenges such as turnover. The turnover involved in such a relationship along with the addition of newcomers translates into an organizational socialization and knowledge transfer (KT) issue, because contract workers as well as employees need to be efficiently brought into a new organization, and knowledge needs to be shared with these new individuals so that they can effectively contribute to the work process. It is contended that organizations follow a typical, informal organizational socialization "policy" which involves KT in getting new contract workers and employees up to speed. This study addressed the typical organizational socialization policy as it is represented by formal knowledge transfer (FKT) via instructor-led/classroom training (ILT) and computer-based training (CBT) and by informal knowledge transfer (IKT) via a social network. The study focused on IKT, because companies understand this type of KT the least. In order to evaluate the organizational socialization of contract workers for this study, the contract worker population was compared to a baseline population of employees which was broken up into two employee groups: "rookies" and experienced hires. The formal and informal transfer of three types of knowledge (job task, role, and organizational norms) was assessed by using surveys and interviews (including social network methods) on a research population consisting of 166 employees (both rookies and experienced hires) and contract workers from a Fortune 100 company. The findings include: (a) Job task knowledge was transferred more often than role and organizational norms knowledge, (b) coworkers were used more than managers a source of knowledge overall, (c) worker classification as well as job task and ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Lahti, Ryan K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parents' Motivation in Registering their Child for Gymnastics

Description: This study examined factors that motivate parents to involve their children in organized gymnastics programs. A questionnaire based on McCullagh et al.'s (1993) study of recreational soccer players was used along with open-ended questions. The questionnaire was administered to parents of children who were involved in a private gymnastics club. Descriptive statistics of 156 surveys showed that fitness, skill development, and fun were most frequently cited reasons for parents in their decision to enroll and keep their child in gymnastics programs. Competition was the least important factor. ANOVA showed that competition and team membership factors were more important to the parents of competitive gymnasts than parents of recreational gymnasts. Coaches and youth sport program organizers could use these findings to develop and market youth activity programs.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Wald, Jennie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Peer Education: Building Community Through Playback Theatre Action Methods

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to use some of the action methods of playback theatre to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge through the experience of building community. The impact of action methods on group dynamics and the relationship among methods, individual perceptions, and the acquisition of knowledge were analyzed. The researcher suggested that playback theatre action methods provided a climate in which groups can improve the quality of their interactions. The Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) formed the basis for the study's analysis of interactions. Since the researcher concluded there were significantly more interactions coded in the "power quadrant" after training, the researcher assumed that playback theatre action methods are a catalyst for keeping the focus on persons in the group, encouraging risk-taking behaviors, and producing constructive feedback between members. Based on session summaries, individual interviews, and an analysis of the Group Environment Scale (GES), the training group became more cohesive, became more expressive, promoted independence, encouraged self-discovery, and adapted in innovative ways. The experience of an interconnected community created a space where positive growth could occur. The researcher concluded that the process of community building is intricately connected with a person's ability to make meaning out of experiences. Participants in the study noted several processes by which they acquired new knowledge: (a) knowledge through internal processes, (b) knowledge through modeling, (c) knowledge through experiences, (d) knowledge through acknowledgment and application. Acknowledging and applying knowledge were behaviors identified as risk-taking, communication and active listening, acceptance of diverse cultures and opinions, and building community relations. The study suggested further research in the effects of these methods compared to other learning methods, the effects of these methods on other types of groups, the effects of the leader's relationship to the group, and the long-term effects on group dynamics.
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Date: August 1999
Creator: Kintigh, Monica R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of Work Group and Managerial Behaviors as Antecedents of a Salesperson's Commitment, Performance, and Turnover

Description: Theoretically grounded and empirically testable conceptualizations that offer alternative explanations regarding sales force performance and turnover can: (a) enhance understanding regarding these pivotal outcomes, and (b) augment an organization's capability to increase sales and decrease turnover. The study advances one such explanation by conceptualizing and testing a perceptual model that links a salesperson's psychological climate dimensions to organizational commitment, performance, and turnover. The framework the study proposes respecifies the leadership and work group dimensions of psychological climate into four distinct perceptions (i.e., a salesperson's perceptions regarding the behaviors of work group, sales manager, senior management, and non sales employees in the organization). These climate dimensions are posited to influence positively a salesperson's organizational commitment which consequently influences positively the salesperson's effort and intention to stay with the organization. The proposed outcomes of organizational commitment result in increased performance and decreased turnover. Success beliefs and perceived behavioral control are posited to moderate the relationship between the salesperson's organizational commitment and effort. The study tests the hypothesized relationships on a sample of salespersons belonging to a telecommunications organization utilizing path and hierarchical regression analyses.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Gulati, Rajesh, 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Picosecond Dynamics of Free-Carrier Populations, Space-Charge Fields, and Photorefractive Nonlinearities in Zincblende Semiconductors

Description: Generally, nonlinear optics studies investigate optically-induced changes in refraction or absorption, and their application to spectroscopy or device fabrication. The photorefractive effect is a nonlinear optical effect that occurs in solids, where transport of an optically-induced free-carrier population results in an internal space-charge field, which produces an index change via the linear electrooptic effect. The photorefractive effect has been widely studied for a variety of materials and device applications, mainly because it allows large index changes to be generated with laser beams having only a few milliwatts of average power.Compound semiconductors are important photorefractive materials because they offer a near-infrared optical response, and because their carrier transport properties allow the index change to be generated quickly and efficiently. While many researchers have attempted to measure the fundamental temporal dynamics of the photorefractive effect in semiconductors using continuous-wave, nanosecond- and picosecond-pulsed laser beams, these investigations have been unsuccessful. However, studies with this goal are of clear relevance because they provide information about the fundamental physical processes that produce this effect, as well as the material's speed and efficiency limitations for device applications.In this dissertation, for the first time, we time-resolve the temporal dynamics of the photorefractive nonlinearities in two zincblende semiconductors, semi-insulating GaAs and undoped CdTe. While CdTe offers a lattice-match to the infrared material HgxCd1-xTe, semi-insulating GaAs has been widely used in optoelectronic and high-speed electronic applications. We use a novel transient-grating experimental method that allows picosecond temporal resolution and high sensitivity. Our results provide a clear and detailed picture of the picosecond photorefractive response of both materials, showing nonlinearities due to hot-carrier transport and the Dember space-charge field, and a long-lived nonlinearity that is due to the EL2 midgap species in GaAs. We numerically model our experimental results using a general set of equations that describe nonlinear diffraction and ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Stark, Thomas S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Power of One: Bonnie Singleton and American Prisoners of War in Vietnam

Description: Bonnie Singleton, wife of United States Air Force helicopter rescue pilot Jerry Singleton, saw her world turned upside down when her husband was shot down while making a rescue in North Vietnam in 1965. At first, the United States government advised her to say very little publicly concerning her husband, and she complied. After the capture of the American spy ship, the U.S.S. Pueblo by North Korea, and the apparent success in freeing the naval prisoners when Mrs. Rose Bucher, the ship captain's wife, spoke out, Mrs. Singleton changed her opinion and embarked upon a campaign to raise public awareness about American prisoners of war held by the Communist forces in Southeast Asia. Mrs. Singleton, along with other Dallas-area family members, formed local grass-roots organizations to notify people around the world about the plight of American POWs. They enlisted the aid of influential congressmen, such as Olin "Tiger" Teague of College Station, Texas; President Richard M. Nixon and his administration; millionaire Dallas businessman Ross Perot; WFAA television in Dallas; and other news media outlets worldwide. In time, Bonnie Singleton, other family members, and the focus groups they helped start encouraged North Vietnam to release the names of prisoners, allow mail and packages to be sent to the POWs, and afford better treatment for prisoners of war.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Garrett, Dave L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Power Politics of Hells Canyon

Description: This study examines the controversy regarding Hells Canyon on the Snake River, North America's deepest gorge. Throughout the 1950s, federal and private electric power proponents wrangled over who would harness the canyon's potential for generating hydroelectricity. After a decade of debate, the privately-owned Idaho Power Company won the right to build three small dams in the canyon versus one large public power structure. The thesis concludes that private development of Hells Canyon led to incomplete resource development. Further, support of private development led to extensive Republican electoral losses in the Pacific Northwest during the 1950s.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Alford, John Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Athletic Injury and Postinjury Emotional Response in Collegiate Athletes: A Prospective Study of an NCAA Division I Football Team

Description: Previous research has examined factors that predispose collegiate football players to injury (e.g., Petrie, 1993a, 1993b) as well as factors that influence athletes' psychological adjustment to being injured (e.g., Brewer, 1993; Leddy, Lambert, & Ogles, 1994). Despite the reports of the NCAA Injury Surveillance System that the greatest number of football injuries occur during the spring preseason (NCAA, 1997), studies have only examined injury during the regular season. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of injury in collegiate football players during the spring preseason and across the regular competitive season. Specifically, life stress, social support, competitive trait anxiety, athletic identity, coping style, and preinjury mood state was measured to determine their relationship with the occurrence of injury and with postinjury emotional responses in athletes who sustain an injury at some point during either the spring preseason or regular competitive football season. The overall incidence of athletic injuries was low and the athletes suffered more severe injuries than has been typically found in collegiate football samples. Negative life stress was found to be directly related to the occurrence of injury and to postinjury negative emotional response and was moderated by other psychosocial variables in its influence on the occurrence of injury. Positive life stress was unrelated to injury risk or postinjury emotional response. Social support, sport anxiety, coping, and athletic identity were all found to moderate the negative life stress-injury relationship, as did playing status, suggesting that the complex combinations of these variables increase athletes' susceptibility to the impact of negative life stress. The athletes in this study experienced significant negative emotions following injury. After sustaining injuries they experienced levels of anger, depression, and fatigue that were similar to male psychiatric patients. Injury severity and preinjury mood were found to be the best predictors ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Falkstein, David Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries

Problem-Based Learning for Training Teachers of Students with Behavioral Disorders in Hong Kong

Description: This study attempts to explore the perceived value of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in training teachers of students with behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Hong Kong. It represents an effort to improve the predominately lecture focussed approach adopted in many preparation programs. Data on the training needs of Hong Kong teachers were also acquired and 31 knowledge/skills areas related to teaching students with E/BD were identified. Subjects viewed the PBL approach as dynamic, interesting and incentive driven. It develops skills involved in group learning, self-directed learning, use of information resources and problem-solving. Most important, teachers felt they were supported to explore the practical problems they personally encountered in the classroom and actions they could take to resolve them. Difficulties in using PBL included a lack of resources and the tendencies of most Chinese students to accept rather than challenge others' ideas.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Heung, Vivian Woon King
Partner: UNT Libraries

Profile of the Youth Self-Report Among South Texas Adolescents and the Potential Relationship to Pesticide Exposure

Description: The potential for human exposure to pesticides exists particularly for agricultural workers (i.e. migrant workers) and individuals within close proximity to pesticide-sprayed crops (i.e. those living on or near agricultural farms). Children, through biology and behavior, may be more susceptible and vulnerable to exposure to pesticides than adults. The purpose of this study was to examine young populations particularly at-risk for occupational or accidental exposure to pesticides and determine associated behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms. A total of 444 students from two South Texas school districts completed questionnaires assessing level of risk of exposure to pesticides and were categorized into at-risk and low risk categories. Physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms were obtained using the Youth Self-Report. Children who were at-risk demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in the areas of anxious/depressed, attention problems, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, withdrawal, internalizing behaviors, and total problem behaviors than children who were at lower risk of pesticide exposure. Odds ratios were obtained and suggested that children in the at-risk category were more five times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Attention Problems subscale, and three times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Internalizing behavior composite. These findings suggest that children who may be at higher risk for pesticide exposure may also be at higher risk for physical, behavioral, and emotional problems compared to children who are at lower risk. This information is intended to benefit schools and health care professionals who work with rural or migrant populations involved in the agricultural trade. Future research will be needed to assess through biomarkers the degree of measurable pesticide exposure in comparison to parent reports, teacher reports, school achievement, neuropsychological testing, and medical records.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Hagar, Kristy S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relation of Attachment, Adjustment and Narcissism to Masculine Gender Role Conflict

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between masculine gender role conflict, attachment variables, narcissism, and adjustment. It was expected that men who reported higher masculine gender role conflict would also report unhealthy attachment, have a greater degree of narcissism and poorer adjustment. This study employed a sample of undergraduate males who completed self-report questionnaires measuring masculine gender role conflict, narcissism, adjustment, and attachment. Hypotheses were tested using canonical correlation techniques. Results indicated that healthy attachment was related to low masculine gender role conflict; however, unhealthy attachment was not related to high masculine gender role conflict. In terms of narcissism, higher amounts of narcissism were related to high amounts of gender role conflict, but in a subset of results individuals who reported low masculine gender role conflict also reported higher narcissism in areas that are assumed to relate to positive self regard. Results related to adjustment indicated that high masculine gender role conflict was related to less psychological well-being replicating past studies. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed in light of these findings.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Selby, Brian W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between the Grief Process and the Family System: The Role of Affect, Communication, and Cohesion

Description: Sixty-six people who had recently experienced the death of a parent or a spouse completed a questionnaire packet to assess their current grief symptomatology and some characteristics of the relationships within their family. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire 4-5 weeks after the death and then again six months later. The present study compared two competing models to explain whether the grief process affects the characteristics of relationships within the family system or that family characteristics affect the experienced grief symptoms.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Schoka, Elaine
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Cognitive Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in a Military Orgnaization

Description: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is an established psychological construct that represents work behavior that is not required but contributes to improved organizational performance. This study examined the relationship of cognitive job satisfaction and OCB in a military organization. Several demographic variables previous identified to be related to OCB were also measured. Cognitive Job Satisfaction was significantly related to both self and supervisor ratings of OCB. The magnitude of correlations of pay and job cognitions with altruism and conscientiousness dovetailed with previous research results in field studies with much larger sample sizes. Government service civilians had significantly higher mean self-rated OCB than military personnel. Age and tenure were significant moderator variables in this relationship, but did not have significant main effects. Tenure was significantly correlated with self-rated OCB and both its factors, altruism and conscientiousness. Insufficient statistical power due to few respondents and range restriction due to pre-selection limited the ability to find significant group differences.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Middleton, Scott A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Community College Student Demographic and Pre-Enrollment Background Variables with Persistence and Retention

Description: Student retention is one of the most important issues facing higher education. The demand for accountability of higher education has pushed the issue of student retention to the forefront of its agenda. Increasingly, state legislatures are tying funding to institutional effectiveness, using graduation rates as measures of academic quality. Though there is an abundance of literature of studies conducted at the four year institution, few studies have examined the community college student. This study attempted to identify 4 specific pre-enrollment variables, (1) parent's education, (2) high school senior grade point average, (3) educational goals and (4) racial origin, as predictors of persistence and retention. The sample included 312 entering freshmen at North Lake College in Irving, Texas who were administered the College Student Inventory (CSI) in the fall semesters of 1995 and 1996. The 1995 cohort consisted of 201 entries, 103 (51.2%) female and 98 (48.8) male. The 1996 cohort consisted of 111 entries, 65 (58.5%) female and 46 (41.5%) male. A data base was constructed by extracting selected data elements from the completed inventory. Each student was tracked for one year following the semester they completed the survey. The Pearson Chi-Square Test of Independence with .05 level of significance as the criterion level of rejection was performed to identify significant variables tied to student persistence. The research found that 3 factors, high school senior GPA, parent's education level and family origin were significant predictors of attrition at the .05 level. These factors represent information that is typically available from the student's prior to entry into the college. All too often an at-risk student is identified once he/she is placed on academic probation prompting the student to leave the college. Institutions need to implement an early warning system to identify students who are at-risk before the problem becomes intractable. The ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Coppola, William Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries

Retrospective Evaluation of Malingering: A Validational Study of the R-SIRS and CT-SIRS

Description: Empirically based methods of detecting retrospective malingering (i.e., the false assertion or exaggeration of physical or psychological symptoms reportedly experienced during a prior time period) are needed given that retrospective evaluations are commonplace in forensic assessments. This study's main objective was to develop and validate a focused, standardized measure of retrospective malingering. This objective was addressed by revising the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), an established measure of current feigning. The SIRS' strategies were retained and its items modified to produce two new SIRS versions: The Retrospective Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (R-SIRS) and The Concurrent-Time Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (CT-SIRS). Forensic inpatients were used to test the R-SIRS (n = 25) and CT-SIRS (n = 26) which both showed good internal consistency and interrater reliability. The overall effectiveness of the R-SIRS and the CT-SIRS in the classification of malingerers and genuine patients was established in this initial validation study. Moreover, their classification rates were similar to those obtained by the SIRS. Pending additional validation, these measures are expected to increase the quality of forensic evaluations by providing the first standardized methods of assessing retrospective malingering.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Goodness, Kelly R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reverberating Reflections of Whitman: A Dark Romantic Revealed

Description: Walt Whitman has long been celebrated as a Romantic writer who celebrates the self, reveres Nature, claims unity in all things, and sings praises to humanity. However, some of what Whitman has to say has been overlooked. Whitman often questioned the goodness of humanity. He recognized evil in various shapes. He pondered death and the imperturbability of Nature to human death. He exhibited nightmarish imagery in some of his works and gory violence in others. While Whitman has long been called a celebratory poet, he is nevertheless also in part a writer of the Dark Romantic.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Lundy, Lisa Kirkpatrick
Partner: UNT Libraries