UNT Theses and Dissertations - 24 Matching Results

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The Relationship of Anxiety to Performance in Stressful Situations in Slo-Pitch Softball

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare (1) the relationship between competitive A-trait and competitive A-state in Slo-Pitch softball and (2) the relationship between A-trait and performance in selected stressful situations in softball. The study also considered the ranking of players by a manager and overall performance. The Sport Competition Anxiety Test and a competitive short form of the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure A-trait and A-state. Trait anxiety, state anxiety and performance were compared using the Pearson product moment correlation technique. Trait anxiety scores were found to be accurate predictors of pregame state anxiety, but not of performance. The manager's rating was a better predictor of performance than competitive A-trait in selected stress situations.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Rogers, Michael E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Relationship Between Sex-Roles and Success in Competitive Fencing

Description: This investigation was designed to determine whether a relationship existed between sex-roles (masculinity, femininity and androgyny) as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory and success (win-loss record) in a round-robin fencing tournament of 35 subjects enrolled in beginning fencing during spring semester of 1979 at North Texas State University. The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlations were calculated to ascertain whether or not significant relationships at the .05 level of confidence existed among the sex-roles of the subjects and success in fencing. This study concluded that individuals with a high feminine score will find success in a round-robin fencing tournament and individuals with a high masculine score will find success in a round-robin fencing tournament.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Grauso, Janet C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study to Evaluate the Professional Preparation of Texas High School Football Coaches in Regard to the Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries

Description: A stratified random sample of 400 head football coaches was surveyed in order to evaluate their professional preparation in regard to the prevention and care of athletic injuries, Of the 259 responding coaches, it was found that a significant number were not properly prepared when compared to the standards suggested by the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. It was recommended that individuals who desire to coach in Texas should be required to obtain an endorsement for coaching using the standards suggested by the American Association for Health, Physical Education., and Recreation as the minimum standards.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Schatzle, Kenneth W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Age, Fitness Level, and Exercise Training upon Autonomic Control of Heart Rate

Description: In this study the effects of age (18-55 years), differing levels of fitness (VO 2max ranging from 35.5 to 68.8ml.kg-1.min-1) and endurance training (10 weeks) on heart rate control were investigated. Fitness level was initially determined by a VO2max stress test, succeeded by cold hand and cold face pressor test of autonomic activity. Following these baseline measurements, the subjects (32 nonsmoking male volunteers) were endurance-trained three to four times a week for a 10-week period. The baseline tests were readministered following the 10-week dynamic exercise training period. These data suggest that a natural consequence of aging is a diminishment of autonomic heart rate control; however, endurance training appears to interrupt the aging influence. Individuals of low fitness level appear to have heart rate control dominated by the sympathetic system, while individuals with high fitness levels have a vagally dominated heart rate control system.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Baun, William Boyd
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Anxiety on the Performance of Collegiate Golfers in Competitive and Non-Competitive Situations

Description: The purposes of the study were to provide additional information concerning the relationship of Competition Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Performance in collegiate golfers under non-competitive and competitive field settings. Subjects were thirty college males. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) low-Competition-Trait-Anxious golfers performed better and exhibited lower levels of state anxiety than high-and moderate-Competitive-Trait-Anxious golfers in competitive and non-competitive settings; (2) collegiate golfers exhibit higher levels of state anxiety in competitive versus practice settings; and (3) there was a significant relationship between SCAT and pre-competitive state anxiety.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Genuchi, Marvin C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Factor Analysis of Twelve Selected Resistance Exercises on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to clarify strength factors using 12 selected exercises on the Universal Gym, and to determine what measures present a valid method of assessing strength of college-aged males, Eighty-eight males enrolled in beginning weight-training classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks, Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 12 exercises, Alpha and canonical factor analyses were performed on raw scores of all measures, and on scores when body weight and standing height variances were removed. A three-factor structure of upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk strength was revealed when weight, and weight and height combined were statistically controlled. Results showed that residualized scores of weight can be used to evaluate strength on the Universal.Gym,
Date: August 1980
Creator: Watkins, Mark Edwin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Self Concept to Participation in Extra-Curricular Activity Among Fourth Grade Children

Description: This study attempted to determine the relationship between self concept and participation in extra-curricular activity: specifically, whether self concept differentiates between participants and nonparticipants and whether self concept scores differed between male and female participants. Sixty fourth graders were assessed on self concept by the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale. Participation or non-participation was determined by written parental response. Analysis of variance was used, with level of significance at .05. There was no evidence that participants can be distinguished from non-participants on measures of self concept. Scores on self concept did not differ for males and females.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Campbell, Kelli M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Relaxation and Imagery on Karate Performance

Description: The present investigation attempted to determine whether imagery combined with relaxation (VMBR) facmlitated karate performance more effectively than either imagery or relaxation alone. Each subject (N=30) was randomly assigned to either a VMBR, relaxation, imagery or placebo control condition. Trait anxiety tests were administered at the beginning and the end of the six week test period. Performance tests were administered at the final class period along with precompetitive state anxiety. Trait anxiety results indicated a reduction in trait anxiety for all groups. State anxiety results indicated that the VIYBR and relaxation groups exhibited less state anxiety than the imagery and control groups. Performance results produced a main effect only for sparring with the VMBR group exhibiting better performance than all other groups.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Seabourne, Thomas G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Complexity on Play Equipment Usage of Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old Children

Description: Fifteen three-, four-, and five-year olds were assessed for the amount of time they spent on, off, under, and touching play equipment in an environment with play events and one without (i.e. the platform condition), An ABAB experimental design was used. Treatments lasted 3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks, with each age group being videotaped 20 minutes each day, Data collected from the videotapes was applied to a 3 x 4 (age x treatments) ANOVA and revealed at the . 05 level (a) significantly more on and touching in the play event conditions; (b) significantly greater off and under in the platform (non play event) conditions; (c) a significant increase in off behavior from the first to second play event condition; (d) three-year-olds spent more time under and touching, and significantly less time on; and (e) significant interactions for on and under which seemed to be caused by the three-year-olds showing an inordinate amount of under behavior in the second platform condition, These results supported the assumption that play events would cause a significant increase inactive child-equipment interaction.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Fowler, Curt L. (Curt Layne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Counting as a Form of Concurrent Feedback on a Seventy-Five-Yard Dash

Description: The use of concurrent Information Feedback (IF) through counting seconds verbally as the subject ran a 75 yard dash was tested. Forty-six ten and eleven year old boys and girls (boys = 20, girls = 26) were given two trials under four IF conditions: No IF; Terminal/Concurrent IF; Terminal IF; IF Removal. The counting occurred under Condition 2 and was combined with a final time given at the end of the dash. Significant main effects were found for sex and for conditions, with interaction effects between sex and conditions, and between conditions and trials, p4 .05. Results supported the combined IF condition with counting as maintaining subjects' level of performance, probably through motivation. Males performed well under Conditions 1, 2, and 3, while girls performed best under Conditions 1 and 2. Trial scores under Conditions 2 and 3 for all subjects were much more similar than under Conditions 1 and 4, indicating more consistent performance when IF was provided,
Date: December 1981
Creator: Parks, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Left Ventricular Function with Respect to Age

Description: In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO₂max) and left ventricular function was examined in two distinct age groups. A young group (20 - 30 years of age) and an elderly group (over 60 years of age) were compared. Left ventricular function was examined over wide variations in preload accomplished by 5º head-down tilt (TILT) for ninety minutes and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to -40 mm Hg. with two-dimensional echocardiography. A greater response to an increase in preload (TILT) was related to high VO₂max levels in the young subjects but not in the elderly groups of subjects, suggesting that lower VO₂max levels of the elderly population affected the mechanism of response to the increased levels of preload. Additionally, in the elderly, greater reductions in ventricular volume reflected increased peripheral pooling due to decreased venous tone and/or increased venous compliance during LBNP and were related to increased VO₂max. In the young, VO₂max does not appear to affect the response to reduced preload.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Page, Kimberly Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fear of Failure and Fear of Success: The Relationship of Achievement Motives to the Motor Performance of Males and Females

Description: The study was designed to determine the relationship between the psychological constructs of "fear of failure (FOF)" and "fear of success (FOS)" and motor performance in badminton. Forty-three males and fifty-one females in beginning badminton classes were administered the FOF and FOS scales, followed by three independent skills tests and a round-robin singles tournament. Conclusions were that FOF and FOS are two separate performance motives; FOF appears to be the dominant motive for females; both FOF and FOS are related to motor performance in face-to-face competition, while only FOS is related to performance in isolated skills.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Albury, Kevin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Initial Starting Posture and Total Body Movement-Reaction Time for Lateral Movement

Description: Eighteen subjects each performed fifty-five trials which consisted of assuming an initial stance and then in response to a visual stimulus running to either the left or right. For each trial both the foot width spacing and orientation of the feet were varied. Direct and indirect measurements were taken of selected temporal and kinematic parameters. The conclusions were that no interactions or differences exist among foot width spacing, foot orientation, and direction of movement; the jab step start is the preferred initial movement; the preferred foot width spacing is 46.6 centimeters; the preferred angular orientation of both feet is approximately 1.36 radians.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Darnall, Sylvia Pacheco
Partner: UNT Libraries

Normative Assessment Technique for Bench Press and Leg Extension Strength in College Females on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to develop normative data of isotonic muscular strength in college females using the Spartacus model Universal Gym bench press and leg extension and to control for the influence of body weight. Two hundred and two college age females enrolled in weight training and conditioning classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks. Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 2 exercises and their percent body fat was calculated. Pearson-product moment correlations between lean body weight , body weight and the bench press test and the leg extension test were correlated. After statistically controlling for the effects of body weight, percentile ranks were calculated for both tests.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gibson, Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fatigue Related Changes in the Body Motion and Force Application During the Performance of Consecutive Chin-ups

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on force application and resulting movement patterns during the performance of consecutive chin-ups. Special attention was directed toward relating any fatigue effects to upper limb strength dominance. Twenty male adult subjects each performed one trial. Each trial consisted of consecutive chin-ups. Fatigue caused changes in the movement patterns, duration of movement and force applied through the supporting hands. Throughout the performance greater vertical forces were applied through the dominant upper limb segment with the application of these forces resulting in horizontal displacement of the total body center of gravity toward the dominant hand.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hong, Der-Ming
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Lean Body Mass in Estimating Basal Metabolic Rate

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to determine if measured LBM could be used as a more powerful predictor of BMR than could surface area (SA) as calculated by the formula of DuBois and DuBois (1916). It was also of interest to develop a prediction equation for BMR using multiple regression analysis. Data from 82 women and 76 men were included in the study. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that LBM was a better predictor for BMR than SA on either of the principal SA prediction equations, those of Aub and DuBois (1917) and Harris and Benedict (1919). Age, sex, and fat weight were not found to contribute significantly to prediction when included by multiple regression analyses. Linear equations for BMR as a function of LBM were developed for each sex. Tables based on these equations were also generated as a quick reference for clinicians.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lachenbruch, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relative Contribution of Flexibility of the Back and Hamstring Muscles in the Performance of the Sit and Reach Component of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in Girls Thirteen to Fifteen Years of Age

Description: The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative contribution of low back flexibility and hamstring flexibility in the sit and reach test item of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in order to examine the validity of the sit and reach test. Subjects were 100 female students, 13 to 15 years of age in physical education classes. Hamstring flexibility was measured using the Leighton flexometer. Spinal mobility was measured using a tape measure. The sit and reach test was performed according to instructions given in the AAHPERD Test Manual. Data were analyzed using correlation, linear regression, and multiple regression. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) hamstring flexibility is moderately related to the sit and reach test, (2) low back flexibility has a very small relationship to the sit and reach test, and (3) the sit and reach test is an inadequate measure of low back and hamstring flexibility.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Baker, Alice Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Interrelationships of Strength, Speed, Power and Anthropometric Measures in College Aged Women

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the interrelationships of strength, speed, power and anthropometric measures in women. Sixty females ranging in ages from 18 to 25 volunteered as subjects. Subjects were measured for strength on the bench press, leg extension and leg curl, power vertical jump, speed--a 40 yard dash, body weight (BW) and fat weight (FW) using a scale and skinfold tests. The correlations for strength and power (.35 to .53), strength and speed (-.37 to -.56) and speed and power (-.45) were significant (p < .01). Partial correlations with (BW) and (FW) held constant were also significant, but were not significantly greater than their zero-order correlations.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinojosa, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Pace Characteristics of Distance Runs and Criterion Measures of Endurance

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between treadmill time, maximal oxygen consumption and pace characteristics of the 1.5 and 3 mile runs and to compare the distances and pace characteristics as predictors of aerobic capacity. Subjects were 70 college aged males, ages 18 to 25, enrolled in jogging and conditioning classes at North Texas State University. Three tests were administered: the 1.5 mile run, the 3 mile run and the Bruce treadmill test. The data were analyzed using correlations and factor analysis. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) the 1.5 and 3 mile runs are valid measures of aerobic capacity, (2) the 3 mile run does not significantly increase the correlation between VO2max and endurance runs and (3) pacing characteristics are evident in the 1.5 and 3 mile runs.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Sanchez, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries