UNT Theses and Dissertations - Browse


Coping Styles, Quality of Life, and Sexual Trauma in Women Veterans

Description: The purpose of the following study was to evaluate sexual trauma and the effects on women veteran's quality of life ratings and current and past coping strategies. Participants were screened for sexual trauma history and divided into five mutually exclusive categories: 1)childhood sexual trauma, 2)civilian adult sexual trauma, 3)military sexual trauma, 4)multiple sexual trauma, and 5)no sexual trauma. Results of the study were mixed, retaining some hypotheses and rejecting others. Results regarding differences in QOL for the sexual trauma groups were rejected, as none of the QOL analyses were significant. Issues of small effect size for the QOL measure and low power to detect differences are discussed as limitations in the current study. Several significant findings were detected in the coping analyses. As predicted, the no trauma group was found to use significantly more approach coping strategies than the sexual trauma group for the past problem. Additionally, the sexual trauma group used significantly more avoidant coping techniques for past problem than the no trauma group. No between group differences were detected for sexual trauma type, however, several significant differences emerged in the comparisons of the multiple sexual trauma and military sexual trauma group's past coping compared to the no sexual trauma group's coping strategies. For past coping, the no trauma group used more approach strategies than the military or multiple trauma group. Past and current significant CRI subscale differences were also detected. Results regarding the relationship between QOL and CRI were rejected, as the two scales were not found to correlate significantly. Trauma history and avoidant coping were also nonsignificant predictors for General Life Satisfaction on the QOL measure. Additional exploratory analyses are presented as well as implications for research, theory and clinical practice.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Zak, Elizabeth N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Media Exposure on Body Satisfaction, Beliefs About Attractiveness, Mood and Bulimic Symptomatology Among College Women

Description: The research of Stice et al. (1994) and Stice and Shaw (1994) proposed several mechanisms that may mediate the adverse effects of media exposure to the thin ideal including internalization of the thin-ideal, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to extend initial research of Stice and Shaw (1994) by incorporating two forms of media (e.g., TV and Magazines) to assess the effects of exposure to the media portrayal of ideal body shape on women's mood, body satisfaction, and internalization of societal values concerning attractiveness. The relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. The current study improved upon Stice and Shaw's study (1994) by matching participants' scores on BMI, level of negative affect, and level of body satisfaction before random assignment to the experimental conditions. Female undergraduates aged 18 to 25 years participated in premeasure (N = 198) and post measure (N = 164) conditions. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated media exposure to ideal-body images demonstrated no significant changes in women's affect, body satisfaction or endorsement of the thin ideal. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses that demonstrated lower levels of satisfaction with size and shape of body and higher levels of negative affect predicted bulimic symptomatology in women. Future research should determine which females are at greater risk than others for the development of body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and internalization of U.S. values of attractiveness in response to media related messages communicating a thin ideal.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Varnado, Jessica Lea
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance Measurement, Feedback, and Reward Processes in Research and Development Work Teams: Effects on Perceptions of Performance

Description: Organizations have had difficulty managing the performance of their knowledge work teams. Many of these troubles have been linked to antiquated or inadequate performance management systems along with a scarcity of empirical research on this important human resource initiative. These problems are magnified when managing the performance of research and development teams because greater ambiguity and uncertainty exists in these environments, while projects are unique and continually evolving. In addition, performance management in R&D has only recently been accepted as important while individuals in these settings are often resistant to teams. This study represented the first step in the process of understanding relationships between performance management practices and perceptions of performance in R&D work teams. Participants were 132 R&D team leaders representing 20 organizations that agreed to complete a survey via the Internet. The survey instrument was designed to examine the relationships between performance measurement, feedback, and reward processes utilized by teams in relation to measures of customer satisfaction, psychological and team effectiveness, and resource utilization and development. The most important level of performance measurement occurred at the business unit level followed next by the individual level while team level measurement was unrelated to team performance. A simple measurement system with three to seven performance measures focused on objective results, outcomes, and customer satisfaction appeared ideal. Team participation in the performance management process, most notably the process of setting performance measures, goals, and objectives was also important. The use of multiple raters, frequent performance appraisals, and frequent feedback were identified as meaningful. Specific types of rewards were unrelated to performance although some evidence suggested that business unit rewards were superior to team and individual rewards. It was speculated that R&D teams function more like working groups rather than real teams. The focus in R&D seems to be on business unit ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Roberts, M. Koy
Partner: UNT Libraries