Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 197 Matching Results

Search Results

Development of Precipitation Processes for Removal of Scale Formers From Sea Water
Report regarding the ongoing study of the removal of salt water scale formers using phosphate precipitation and lime-magnesium carbonate precipitation.
Development of Propane Hydrate Desalting Process
Report that summarizes research on the propane hydrate saline water conversion process. Contains the design of the plant where the testing occurred as well as summaries of the tests.
Development of the Direct Freeze Separation Process
Report regarding the construction and testing of a sea water to fresh water conversion plant which uses a freezing method to remove salt. The report also presents information regarding the plant's economic and technical feasibility.
Development of Tubular Reverse Osmosis Module Assembly Techniques
Report concerning the development of equipment and processes required for the production of porous wall reverse osmosis tubes lined with membrane material deposited by extrusion. These include a chilled water membrane gellation system, "a heat treat fixture permitting simultaneous heat treatment of several reverse osmosis tubes" (p. 1), and the optimization of the structure of fiberglass filament/resin composite material.
Development of Water Purification Systems Based on Reverse Osmosis
Report demonstrating the concept of a small and disposable reverse-osmosis cartridge. Research includes "1) a search for suitable membrane supporting structures and materials during which the hydrodynamic characteristics of a number of potential materials were evaluated, 2) the evaluation of reverse-osmosis membranes cast directly on support materials and on reinforcing materials, and 3) the design, fabrication and testing of a small reverse-osmosis cartridge" (p. 1).
Development Report Number 5: Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding plant productivity of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Two developmental trail runs are discussed, including their objectives, results, and a summary of the findings.
Development Report Number 6: Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding the eighth Development Run of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Primary objectives include studying "various aspects of heat transfer and water treatment and their effect on the Multiple-Effect Long-Tube-Vertical Evaporation Process" (p. 1).
Development Report Number 7: Saline Water Conversion Test Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding the ninth Development Run of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Primary objectives include studying "various aspects of heat transfer and sea water and condensate treatment and their effect on the Multiple-Effect Long-Tube-Vertical Evaporation Process" (p. 1).
Development Report Number 9: V.T.E. Process Development, Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting accounts of testing saline water conversion and the economics thereof. This report covers the fifteenth and sixteenth Development Runs, which evaluated the following: the performance of the plant's double-fluted tube bundle and titanium tube bundle; the condensate handling-restrictions in the 5 effect module; a sump to sump brine transfer system modification; porcelain spray nozzles; enhanced surface tubes; and an oxygen scavenging system.
Dropwise Condensation Characteristics of Permanent Hydrophobic Systems
Report regarding the development of a new approach to dropwise condensation, understanding the role of nucleation in the process, and the possibility of permanent dropwise condensing surfaces. Report includes historical background, experiments with elements and dropwise condensation, economic considerations, and publications that came from his program.
An Economic and Engineering Analysis of the Electrodialysis Process
Report containing an "economic and engineering analysis of the electrodialysis process" among eighteen different cases.
Economic and Technical Evaluation of the Wiped Film Evaporator
Report concerning the efforts to make the sea water distillation process more economical by improving the heat transfer surface. The General Electric wiped film process is one such improvement and is discussed along with its history, description, and related testing.
Economic Effects of Mineral Content in Municipal Water Supplies
No Description Available.
Economics and Use of Large Scale Electrodialysis Plants on Selected Tidal Estuarial Waters
Report concerning the relative costs of providing water via an electrodialysis-based water desalination plant that was only to be operated during periods of drought.
The Economics of a Regional Municipal Desalting System in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas
Report containing the results of a study of the costs of a large-scale desalting system that served an inter-municipal area in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.
Economics of Combining Distilled Seawater and Renovated Wastewater
Report containing a methodology for determining the least expensive plan to use water from desalination plants. Elements of this methodology include treatment requirements for fresh water, sea water, and waste water, storage, conveyance, and waste water disposal.
The Economics of Desalting Brackish Waters for Regional, Municipal and Industrial Water Supply in West Texas
"This report presents the results of a study of the preliminary feasibility and economics of desalting brackish waters for municipal and industrial watter supply in candidate regions of West Texas" (p. ii).
Economics of Seawater Desalting in Combination with Ammonia and Power Production
Report that examines the feasibility of lowering the operational cost of combining the production of desalted water, ammonia, and electricity.
Effects of Impressed Electrostatic Fields on the Salt Water/Air Interface
Report examining the effects of of impressed electrostatic fields on the surface of NaCl solutions for the purposes of water desalination.
Effects of Manufacturing Variables and the Development of Replaceable Membrane Elements for Brackish Water Tubular Reverse Osmosis Systems
Report describing the development of a reliable means to cast brackish water desalination membranes, the quality control of membrane-support elements, and the development of replaceable membrane elements.
Engineering and Economic Feasibility Study for a Combination Nuclear Power and Desalting Plant: Phases 1 and 2
Scope: As defined by the subcontract, Bechtel's responsibility is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility and preliminary design of a combination power and desalting plant using a nuclear energy heat source, which plant shall be deemed suitable for operation by the District by the year 1970.
Engineering Evaluation of Factors Affecting Quality of Water Sources Available for Saline Water Conversion Plants
Report investing the "effects of contaminated raw water supplies on conversion processes," and studying "potential technical and economic advantages of combination saline water and sewage effluent conversion plants" (p. 1).
An Engineering Evaluation of the Long-Tube Vertical Falling-Film Distillation Process
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over engineering studies on the long-tube vertical falling-film distillation process. As stated in the introduction, "it is the objective of this report to study the falling-film distillation and to prepare an engineering evaluation of the process and the design of major items of equipment, with particular emphasis upon improving production and operational reliability and upon reducing product cost" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Engineering Study of the Potentialities and Possibilities of Desalting for Northern New Jersey and New York City
Report that includes results and methodology from an engineering study regarding drought in Northern New Jersey and New York City. Topics include the area's water systems, the possible integration of desalting plants, and the potential costs of such plants.
Equipment Components for Large Evaporator Plants: A Summary Report
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on equipment needed at seawater distillation plants. Each equipment component is discussed in detail. This report includes tables, illustrations, and a photograph.
Evaluation of 75,000 GPD Sea Water Desulfating Pilot Plant
Report describing the design, construction, test programs, and economic issues relating to an Experimental Continuous Ion Exchange Desulfating Softening Plant and how the conclusions drawn from its operation could be used for the desulfation of sea water with desalination plants.
Evaluation of a Thin-Film Sea Water Distillation Unit for Marine and Shore Base Application
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on a thin film sea water distillation unit. As stated in the summary, "a General Electric Thin Film Sea Water Distillation Unit designed for marine application has been evaluated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the thin film process for this application. The technology made available by this work provides criteria for the design of compact equipment" (p. 1). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Evaluation of Brine Desulfating Process As Applied To Desalination Phase 1
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the desulfating process at desalination plants. As stated in the introduction, "the explicit purpose of this study is to determine whether or not application of the feed-water desulfating process to the feed to a desalting plant will reduce the overall cost of desalted water" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Evaluation of Concrete and Related Materials for Desalination Plants
Report examining the uses of concrete in evaporator-type desalting plants. Different types of concrete are evaluated, as well as structures, accessory coatings and sealants, reinforcement materials, and microstructures.
Evaluation of Concrete and Related Materials for Desalination Plants: Second Annual Progress Report
Report investigating concrete for use in a sea water desalination plant. Concretes containing both natural and limestone aggregates were tested under the temperature, pressure, salinity, and structural stress conditions that could be expected in such a plant.
Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Heat Transfer for Large-Scale Desalination
Report evaluating the possibility of eliminating corrodible metallic heat transfer surfaces from sea water desalination streams, using direct-contact liquid-liquid heat transfer instead.
Evaluation of the Vertical Tube Evaporator and the Multistage Flash Desalination Processes
Report that compares and evaluates "the relative thermodynamic and engineering characteristics and economics of the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) and the Multistage Flash (MSF) process" (p. 1) for use in 250 Millions of Gallons per Day (MGD) and 2.5 MGD desalination plants.
Experimental Investigation of Direct Freeze Separation Process Using Refrigerant R-C318 (Octafluorocyclobutane)
Report concerning the possible use of octafluorocyclobutane, R-C318, being used in the direct freezing process as a means of extracting fresh water from sea water. Topics include using R-C318 to make ice, flash precooling, design of a small direct freezing pilot plant using R-C318, and related economic studies.
Experimental Program to Improve the VTE Distillation Process
Report concerning research for the purpose of designing a fluted tube in downflow Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) operation. Liquid flowrate, salinity, and temperature are studied.
Exploratory Study of Brine Disposal Using Fluid-Bed Evaporation
Report concerning fluid-bed evaporation as a possible method of separating waste brine into salts and pure water. Two process operations are examined: "(1) feed introduction to the evaporator through submered tubes, and (2) fludizization of soluble salt particles by superheated steam" (p. viii).
Fabrication of Felt-Membrane Composites
Report containing development information and economic evaluation of felt membrane composition meant for use as a reverse osmosis desalination membrane.
The Feasibility of Obtaining a Solid Dry Brine Effluent From Desalting Plants at Inland Locations
Report documenting a the economic feasibility of using crystallization/evaporation and fluidized-bed granulation in the treatment of brine effluents.
Feasibility of Obtaining a Solid Dry Brine Effluent From Inland Desalination Plants
Report documenting the use of multiple-effect evaporation and direct-contact drying as the least expensive and most feasible of ten processes used in converting brine effluents into dry solids.
The Feasibility of Siting an 8 MGD Vapor Compression Distillation Desalting Plant at Brownsville, Texas
Report regarding the feasibility of placing a desalting plant at Brownsville, Texas, at one of three possible locations.
Field Operation of a Mobile Reverse Osmosis Pilot Plant
Report that "covers the field operation of a 36-in. diameter pressure-vessel-type reverse osmosis system over a seven month period and the post-operational inspection of the unit and associated hardware" - (p. 1).
First Annual Report - Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), San Diego, California
Annual report discussing the activities and operation of the Senator Clair Engle Plant (CEP), a multi-effect multi-stage flash (MEMS) distillation plant for converting sea water, located in San Diego, California.
Freon-12 Hydrate Desalting Process
Report that "evaluates an operation program of a hydrate process for the desalination of sea water in a 10,000 GPD plant located at the Office of Saline Water Research and Development Test Station (Wrightsvile Beach Test Facility at Wrightsville Beach, New Carolina) for the period march 1967 through July 1968" (p. i).
Further Properties of Hydrates and Hydrating Agents
Heat Transfer And Corrosion Characteristics of Capillary Fluted Aluminum Tubes
From Background and Summary: "This report presents a theoretical and experimental study of techniques to improve thin-film evaporation with the use of fluted aluminum tubes."
Heat Transfer in the Liquid-Liquid Spray Tower
From Summary: "This report is concerned with specifying the heat transfer performance of a liquid-liquid spray tower and with determining if the performance can be augmented with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) means by reducing the drop size."
Heat Transfer in the LTV Evaporator: An Analysis of Pilot Plant Data and Predictive Techniques for Plant Operation and Design
Summary & Conclusions: "The study presented in this report was directed toward resolving the uncertainties in the design and prediction methods for heat transfer performance as well as toward analyzing certain aspects of the scaling problem."
High-Temperature Transference Numbers in Pure and Mixed Aqueous Electrolytes
From Abstract: "An electronic technique was used in determinations of transference numbers in aqueous electrolyte solutions by the moving-boundary method. Data for 0.1 N NaCl at temperature from 15 degrees to 125 degrees C are presented in this report. Probable causes of difficulty with the method were identified. and recommendations are made in this report for further research to overcome the difficulties."
The Influence of Acoustical Vibrations on Convective Heat Transfer to Liquids
From Introduction: "The research work described in this report consisted of two phases: analytical and experimental. Because of the complexity of the problem of the interaction between acoustical vibrations and heat transfer, the effort to analyze this problem theoretically began with a search for simplified "mathematical models" of the actual physical processes involved."
Intake Systems for Desalting Plants
From Forward: "This is one of a continuing series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion and the economics of its application. Such data are expected to contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to low-cost demineralization of sea and other saline water."
Investigation and Preparation of Polymer Films to Improve the Separation of Water and Salts in Saline Water Conversion
From Introduction: "As will be explained in more detail elsewhere in this report, casting methods and drying conditions have been found to have a drastic effect on film permeability to both water and salt. Errors that became evident in temperature control indicated that some of the previous high rates were obtained at temperatures considerably higher than the 100 degrees C that was intended and reported."