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Quarterly Report of Research and Development Activities: April - June 1957
Progress report issued by the APDA over research and development activities of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant. Materials, fuel engineering, and test operations of the plant are presented and discussed.
Quarterly technical report, STEP Project
Report regarding the Safety Test Engineering Program (STEP), the transient and destructive testing of the aerospace SNAP 10A/2 reactor, and the evaluation of the results of these tests.
Quartz and Silica: Part 1. - General Summary
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing quartz and silica minerals. As stated in the foreword, "the purpose of the present paper is to assemble brief summaries of the many widely differing industries engaged in the production and preparation of these minerals in their principal commercial forms" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Quasi-Automatic Parallelization : a Simplified Approach to Multiprocessing
As multiprocessors become commercially available, a great deal of concern is being focused on the problems involved in writing and debugging software for such machines. Earlier work described the use of monitors implemented by macro processors to attain portable code. This work formulates a general-purpose monitor which simplifies the programming of a wide class of numeric algorithms. We believe that the approach of describing a set of schedulable units of computation advocated by Brown offers a real simplification for the applications programmer. In this paper, we propose a straight-forward programming paradigm for describing schedulable units of computation that allows the description of many algorithms with very little effort.
Quasi-cylindrical theory of wing-body interference at supersonic speeds and comparison with experiment
A theoretical method is presented for calculating the flow field about wing-body combinations employing bodies deviating only slightly in shape from a circular cylinder. The method is applied to the calculation of the pressure field acting between a circular cylindrical body and a rectangular wing. The case of zero body angle of attack and variable wing incidence is considered as well as the case of zero wing incidence and variable body angle of attack. An experiment was performed especially for the purpose of checking the calculative examples.
Quasi-cylindrical theory of wing-body interfernece at supersonic speeds and comparison with experiment
No Description Available.
A Quasi-Eulerian Method for Analyzing Slug Impact and Coolant Spillage in a Fast-Reactor Accident
This report describes a quasi-Eulerian method which has been incorporated into the ICECO code to study slug impact and coolant spillage problems in a fast-reactor accident. The quasi-Eulerian cells used in this method are located on the tops of the regular cells. The axial size of the quasi-Eulerian cells varies according to the gap generated at the reactor head-wall junction. Penetration holes on the cover head are modeled on the top center of the quasi-Eulerian cells. Fluid variables in these quasi-Eulerian cells also satisfy all the conservation equations. Since the boundary pressures above the quasi-Eulerian cells are determined by the movement of the moving grid, the velocity of the cover head is also included in the pressure iteration. Several examples are given to compare the results obtained by this quasi-Eulerian method with the existing experimental excursion data, as well as with the analytical and the other code solutions.
The question of spontaneous wing oscillations : determination of critical velocity through flight-oscillation tests
Determination of the spontaneous oscillations of a wing or tail unit entail many difficulties, both the mathematical determination and the determination by static wing oscillation tests being far from successful and flight tests involving very great risks. The present paper gives a method developed at the Junkers Airplane Company by which the critical velocity with respect to spontaneous oscillations of increasing amplitude can be ascertained in flight tests without undue risks, the oscillation of the surface being obtained in the tests by the application of an external force.
QUICKIE: A Computer Program for Spatially Independent Multigroup Slowing-Down and Thermalization Calculations
Introduction: QUICKIE is a computer program designed to solve the multigroup neutron slowing down and thermalization equations without consideration of spatial dimensions.
From Introduction: "Material for this report was gathered during the last quarter of 1928 and the first quarter of 1929, when the author visited the quick-silver-producing districts of California, Nevada, Texas, Oregon, Washington and Arizona to view the progress made in recent years and gather material for a comprehensive study of the present-day quicksilver industry of the United States."
Quicksilver Deposits Near the Little Missouri River, Pike County, Arkansas
From introduction: In this study the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, cooperated. The author prepared detailed geologic maps showing the surface topography, geology, and workings of 11 mines, and the underground workings and geology of 7 of these; the Bureau of Mines engineers directed diamond-drilling and.bulldozer-trenching. The locations of the detailed maps are shown on plate 23, an index map overprinted on a segment of the map made by Reed and Wells.
Quicksilver Deposits of the Parkfield District, California
From abstract: The Parkfield district, one of the minor California quicksilver districts, lies on the southern end of the Diablo Range, in the southeastern part of Monterey County and the westernmost tip of Kings County. (...) Two geologically similar areas, separated by 10 miles of unmineralized rocks, have been mapped. These areas contain (1) sedimentary, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks belonging to the Franciscan formation, of probable Jurassic age, (2) sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age, (3) a few outcrops of fossiliferous strata assigned to the Temblor formation, of middle Miocene age, (4) large masses of serpentine emplaced along fault zones in post-Miocene time, (5) lenses of silica-carbonate rock formed by the alteration of the serpentine, and (6) large areas of landslide.
Quien Sabe Antimony Mine San Benito County, California
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over metallurgical studies of the Quien Sabe antimony mine. History, geology, and physical features of the mine are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
The quiescent-chamber type compression-ignition engine
Report presents the results of performance tests of a single-cylinder 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical disk form of combustion chamber without air flow. The number, size, and direction of the orifices of the fuel-injection nozzles used were independently varied. A table and graphs are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles; results of tests at different compression ratios, boost pressures, and coolant temperatures are also included.
The R-38 catastrophe and the mechanics of rigid airship construction
An airship frame may be regarded as a rigid girder subjected to a number of forces which, according to their nature, may be classified as follows: weight or loads (force of gravity); lifting forces (aero-static); accelerations (dynamic). These forces must be in equilibrium in the three most important cases during flight: 1) when the airship is floating (aerostatic problem); 2) when flying without acceleration (aerodynamic problem). 3) When under the influence of any accelerating force (dynamic problem). This report will briefly discuss each of these cases in regard to the R-38 airship accident.
The Rabbits of North America
From introduction: "Revision to include all known hares and rabbits of North America from Isthmus of Panama to north Greenland."
Raccoons of North and Middle America
Summary of the raccoons of North and middle America, including history, habits, economic status, pelage and molt, measurements, and subgenera.
A radar method of calibrating airspeed installations on airplanes in maneuvers at high altitudes and at transonic and supersonic speeds
A method of calibrating the static-pressure source of a pitot static airspeed installation on an airplane in level flight, dives, and other maneuvers at high altitude and at transonic and supersonic speeds is described. The method principally involves the use of radar-phototheodolite tracking equipment. The various sources of error in the method are discussed and sample calibrations are included.
Radar Positioning System Accuracy Test
Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted research to develop an accurate, real-time, position monitoring and warning system for the vehicles used in surface mining. The product of this research will be technology to reduce accidents and injuries associated with the operation of surface mining haulage equipment. The position monitoring system should reduce accidents related to vehicle position and also increase the efficiency of haulage operations. This research was conducted in preparation for development of an accurate, real-time position monitoring and warning system, which notifies equipment operators when they deviate from a known safe course and are approaching a fixed hazard. A radar positioning system designed for marine applications was evaluated and a series of tests was run to determine the accuracy of the radar positioning system when used in a land vehicle. The radar position determination was compared to surveyed values. Both static and dynamic (moving vehicle) tests were conducted. The static test results were marginal and the dynamic test results were not accurate enough for the position monitoring and warning system. Although a promising technology, the system tested needs to be modified to meet the accuracy requirements of mobile mine equipment.
Radial aircraft-engine bearing loads I : crankpin-bearing loads for engines having nine cylinders per crankpin
No Description Available.
Radiant heat transfer from flames in a single tubular turbojet combuctor
No Description Available.
Radiant heat transfer from flames in a single tubular turbojet combustor / Leonard Topper
An experimental investigation of thermal radiation from the flame of a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor to the combustor liner is presented. The effects of combustor inlet-air pressure, air mass flow, and fuel-air ratio on the radiant intensity and the temperature and emissivity of the flame are reported. The total radiation of the "luminous" flames (containing incandescent soot particles) was much greater (4 to 21 times) than the "nonluminous" molecular radiation. The intensity of radiation from the flame increased rapidly with an increase in combustor inlet-air pressure; it was affected to a lesser degree by variations in fuel-air ratio and air mass flow.
Radiant-interchange configuration factors
A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author).
Radiation and recovery corrections and time constants of several chromel-alumel thermocouple probes in high-temperature, high-velocity gas streams
No Description Available.
Radiation Chemistry of Synthetic Waste
The yield of hydrogen from radiolysis of aqueous solutions is substantially reduced by the presence of nitrate and nitrite in the waste solutions. Nitrate is more efficient in scavenging the precursors to hydrogen than is nitrite, therefore, the latter should be maintained at higher levels if minimization of radiolytic gas production is required. Nitrate is the major scavenger for e(sub aq)(sup (minus)) and nitrite is the major scavenger for H atoms. At the concentration levels of the waste solutions some fraction of the radiation energy will be absorbed directly by the solutes, primarily the nitrate/nitrite components. Organic additive will increase the generation of hydrogen and mechanistic information is available to allow predictive modeling of trends in the rate of the generation. Physical parameters such as temperature, viscosity, and pressure will not significantly affect the gas generation relative to its generation under normal conditions. Radiolytic generation of N2O is very inefficient in the absence of organic solutes. No mechanistic information is available on its generation in the presence of organic additives. At the concentration levels of the inorganic salts in the waste solutions, it will be very difficult to find a chemical additive that could efficiently reduce the yield of the generated hydrogen, except, perhaps, increasing the concentration of the nitrite/nitrate components.
Radiation Damage in Boron Carbide
From introduction: "Report describing the study of radiation damage in boron carbide with an integrated thermal neutron flux of 3x10^20 neutrons/cm² in the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR)."
The Radiation Leakage Survey of the Shield of the Nuclear Ship Savannah
Report containing a survey of the radiation from the nuclear ship Savannah in order to determine the dose rate for people aboard.
Radiation Patterns in the Lower Ionosphere and Fresnel Zones for Elevated Antennas Over a Spherical Earth
From Introduction: "The purpose of this work is to give the results of a detailed computation of antenna patterns in the ionosphere at VHF over a spherical earth."
Radiation Safety and Control Training Manual
Introduction: The Laboratory follows the recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection concerning permissible exposure limits for those working with radiation. A system of controls and regulations has been established which should ensure that no person at the Laboratory will receive more than the permissible exposure. This manual is intended to provide the minimum background necessary for intelligent cooperation with the regulations.
Radiative Cooling of a Voided Subassembly
A treatment is formulated for surface-to-surface radiative heat exchange between fuel pins and between pins and duct wall of a nuclear reactor subassembly voided of coolant. Specific attention is given to the case of equal power generation in each pin with uniform duct-wall temperature. Detailed temperature profiles and heat flux values are reported for hexagonal-ring subassemblies ranging in size from one to nine rings. It is found that a duct wall at 1153 degrees K can cool by radiation even a nine-ring voided subassembly operating at a power of up to 0.54 kW/ft per pin or 5.4% of full power without fuel slumping or melting, or that a seven-pin assembly can be cooled by radiation up to a power of 7.3 kw/ft.
Radiator design
No Description Available.
Radiator Design and Installation
The fundamental principles of fluid flow, pressure losses, and heat transfer have been presented and analyzed for the case of a smooth tube with fully developed turbulent flow. These equations apply to tubes with large length-diameter ratios where the f1ow is at a high Reynolds Number. The error introduced by using these equations increases as the magnitude of the tube length and the air-flow Reynolds Number approaches the values encountered in modern radiator designs. Accordingly, heat-transfer tests on radiator sections were made and the results are presented in nondimensional form to facilitate their use and for comparison with other heat-transfer data. In addition, pressure losses were measured along smooth tubes of circular, square, and rectangular cross section and the results were also correlated and are presented in nondimensional form. The problem of a radiator design for a particular installation is solved, the experimental heat-transfer and pressure-loss data being used, on a basis of power chargeable to the radiator for form drag, for propelling the weight, and for forcing the air through the radiator. The case of an installation within a wing or an engine nacelle is considered. An illustration of radiator design is carried through for an arbitrary set of conditions. Sufficient detail is given to enable the reader to reproduce the analysis for any given case.
Radiator Design and Installation - II, Special Report
A mathematical analysis of radiator design has been made. The volume of the radiator using least total power has been expressed in a single formula which shows that the optimum radiator volume is independent of the shape of the radiator and which makes possible the construction of design tables that give the optimum radiator volume per 100-horsepower heat dissipation as a function of the speed, of the altitude, and of one parameter involving characteristics of the airplane. Although, for a given set of conditions, the radiator volume using the least total power is fixed, the frontal area, or the length of the radiator needs to be separately specified in order to satisfy certain other requirement such as the ability to cool with the pressure drop available while the airplane is climbing. In order to simplify the specification for the shape of the radiator and in order to reduce the labor involved in calculating the detailed performance of radiators, generalized design curves have been developed for determining the pressure drop, the mass flow of air, and the power expended in overcoming the cooling drag of a radiator from the physical dimensions of the radiator. In addition, a table is derived from these curves, which directly gives the square root of the pressure drop required for ground cooling as a function of the radiator dimensions, of the heat dissipation and of the available temperature difference. Typical calculations using the tables of optimum radiator volume and the design curves are given. The jet power that can be derived from the heated air is proportional to the heat dissipation and is approximately proportional to the square of the airplane speed and to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere. A table of jet power, per 100 horsepower of heat dissipation at various ...
A Radio-Frequency Power Delivery System: Procedures for Error Analysis and Self-Calibration
Abstract: An expression is developed for net power delivered to a load in terms of the indicated forward and reflected power and the system S-parameters and reflection coefficients. The dual directional coupler is treated as nonideal with power reflections assumed between all ports. The system itself is used to evaluate the major S-parameter terms in net power computation, and uncertainty in the computed power is derived from origins in the power meter readings and incompletely known S-parameters.
Radio-Frequency Resistance and Inductance of Coils Used in Broadcast Reception
Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over radio-frequency resistance in radio reception. As stated in the introduction, "the purpose of this paper is to present data on the radio-frequency resistance and inductance of coils within the range of frequencies used in radiotelephone broadcasting" (p. 651). This paper includes tables, and illustrations.
Radio Meteorology
Report compiling the work done in radio meteorology over the past ten years at the National Bureau of Standards' Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL). There is an emphasis upon the effects of the lower atmosphere on the propagation of radio waves. The CRPL group has concentrated upon the refraction of radio waves as well as the refractive index structure of the lower atmosphere on both synoptic and climatic scales. Additional chapters on radio-meteorological parameters and the absorption of radio waves by the various constituents of the lower atmosphere.
Radioactive Carbonaceous Shale and Lignite Deposits in the Goose Creek District, Cassia County, Idaho
From abstract: Uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite beds are exposed in the Goose Creek district of southern Cassia County, Idaho. The district includes about 150 square miles in Tps. 14 to 16 So, Rs, 20 to 22 E., Boise meridian.
Radioactive Deposits in New Mexico
From abstract: Forty-five areas of radioactivity in New Mexico had been investigated by government geologists or reported in the geologic literature before 1952. 21 areas contained visible uranium minerals and one contained thorium minerals. The occurrences were in the northwestern, north-central, central, southwestern, and southeastern parts of the State.
Radioactive Deposits on the Haputa Ranch, Custer County, Colorado
From abstract: An area 2,200 feet long and 400 to 1,300 feet wide within the Haputa ranch, Custer County, Colo., has been mapped at a scale 1:1,200. The rocks in this area consist of quartz-hornblende schist, granite gneiss, hornblende-andesine gneiss, gabbro and peridotite, microcline granite, and pegmatite, of pre-Cambrian age, and lamprophyre dikes of Tertiary age.
Radioactive Fluorite in the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah
From abstract: The Thomas Range fluorite district, on Spor's Mountain in the western part of the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah, is approximately 6 miles long and 2 miles wide, and contains almost no unclaimed land. The fluorite production of the district, since its discovery in 1943, has been 35,700 short tons. It was obtained from 12 different ore bodies on eight different properties. G. P. Spor, Ray Spor, and Chad Spor; Albert Willden and Earl Willden; T. A. Claridge; and W. E. Black and F. B. Chesley were the only groups producing fluorite in the district in August 1950.
Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility
The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's.
Radioactive Manganese Occurrences in the Lower Rio Itapicurú Valley, Bahia, Brazil
From abstract: Radioactive manganese deposits have been found in two swamps and at one locality on the northeast bank of the Rio Itapicuru near Mosquete, municipio of Itapicuru, State of Bahia, Brazil. The occurrences are related to warm springs and consist of surficial manganiferous sinter and of sandstone impregnated with manganese.
Radioactive Rare-Earth Deposit at Scrub Oaks Mine, Morris County, New Jersey
From abstract: A deposit of rare-earth minerals in the Scrub Oaks iron mine, Morris County, N. J., was mapped and sampled in 1955. The rare-earth minerals are mainly in coarse-grained magnetite ore and in pegmatite adjacent to it. Discrete bodies of rare-earth-bearing magnetite ore apparently follow the plunge of the main magnetite ore body at the north end of the mine. Radioactivity of the ore containing rare earths is about 0.2 to 0.6 milliroentgens per hour.
Radioactive Waste Management at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Report documenting "[t]he collection, treatment, disposal, and monitoring of radioactive wastes (solid, liquid, and gaseous) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory" (p. 2).
Radioactivity and Mineralogy of Placer Concentrates from the Wiseman and Chandalar Districts, Upper Yukon Region, Northeastern Alaska
From introduction: The purpose of this report is to present the results of the radiometric and mineralogic study of 19 samples from the Wiseman and Chandalar districts which are available in the Geological Survey's Alaskan collections. This work was done on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Radioactivity and Uranium Content of the Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale and Associated Rocks in Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado
From introduction: The primary objective of these studies is to determine the content and distribution of uranium areally and stratigraphically in the Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale of Late Cretaceous age.
Radioactivity at the Jim Kane Mine, Mohave County, Arizona
Abstract: About 2,000 tons of low-grade lead ore has been produced from the Jim Kane mine, near Kingman, Mohave County, Ariz. A 3-foot vein of gouge and siderite stringers in pre-Cambrian gneiss contains some lead and, locally, is abnormally radioactive. A sample of the vein contained 0.067 percent uranium. Abnormal radioactivity is restricted to a small part of the vein, and no reserves are calculated.
Radioactivity in Some Oil Fields of Southeastern Kansas
From abstract: Radium-bearing precipitates derived from 'oil-well fluids have been found in more than 60 oil and gas fields in Cowley, Butler, Marion, Sedgwick, and Greenwood Counties of southeastern Kansas. The abnormal radioactivity of these precipitates has been studied through the use of gamma-ray and sample logs; by radiometric, chemical petrographic, and spectrographic analyses of the precipitates and drill samples; and through the use of chemical analyses of brines collected from oil wells in the areas of high radioactivity.
Radioactivity in the Jo Reynolds Mine, Clear Creek County, Colorado
From abstract: Eight tons of high grade pitchblende ore was sold from the Jo Reynolds mine near Lawson, Clear Creek County, Colo., in 1919. The pitchblende occurs with silver, lead, and zinc in carbonate-quartz veins cutting pre-Cambrian schist, granite gneiss, and granite.
Radioactivity Investigations at Ear Mountain, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 1945
From abstract: Radioactive material in apparently significant amounts was recognized in heavy-mineral concentrates from the gravels of four streams that head in Ear Mountain, Alaska, when collections of the United States Geological Survey were examined for radioactivity in the winter of 1944-45. This area, on the north side of the Seward Peninsula, attracted attention in 1901-02 when cassiterite was discovered in the streams. Subsequent attempts were made to develop copper- and tin-bearing lode deposits.