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Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights

Description: Report on electrochemical energy development, including development of advanced, high-temperature lithium/metal sulfide batteries for vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Engineering Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights 1978

Description: Report of activities at Argonne Chemical Engineering Division, including lithium/metal sulfide batteries, electro-chemical project management, advanced fuel cell development, utilization of coal, magnetohydrodynamics, solar energy, fast reactor chemistry, and fuel cycles.
Date: 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Engineering Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Engineering Division Sodium Technology Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: The Sodium Technology program currently comprises three parts. The first part is aimed at developing a model for accurately describing the behavior of tritium in LMFBRs from its formation in the core to its ultimate retention in the cold traps or release to the environment. Two important parts of this model are the behavior of the sodium cold traps and permeation of tritium through the steam-generator heat-transfer surfaces. A tritium monitor has been developed and installed on EBR-II to measure tritium specific activities and to test the model of an operating LMFBR. The second part of the program is focused in two areas: 91) on-reactor-site conversion of commercial-grade sodium and (2) requalifying sodium from decommissioned reactors for reuse in future LMFBRs.
Date: January 1977
Creator: McPheeters, C. C.; Jardine, L. J.; McKee, J. M.; Raue, D. J.; Renner, T. A.; Skladzien, S. B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Engineering Division Thermochemical Studies Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: Standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are reported for MgUO4, CaUO4, BaUO4, VF3, and PrF3 based on solution and fluorine bomb calorimetric measurements. High-temperature enthalpy increments have been determined for MgUO4 by drop calorimetry. Preliminary work on gamma -UO3 and beta-LiAl is described.
Date: 1976?
Creator: O'Hare, P. A. G.; Johnson, G. K.; Ader, M.; Hubbard, W. N.; Fredrickson, D.; Cafasso, F. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical, Physical, and Radiological Quality of Selected Public Water Supplies in Florida, November 1977-February 1978

Description: Abstract: Virtually all treated public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Inter-Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. These findings are based on a water-quality reconnaissance of 129 treated public supplies throughout the State during the period November 1977 through February 1978. While primary drinking water regulation exceedences were infrequent , lead, selenium, and gross alpha radioactivity in a very few water supplies were above established maximum contaminant levels. Additionally , the secondary drinking water regulation parameters--dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, color, and pH--were occasionally detected in excess of the proposed Federal regulations. The secondary regulations, however, pertain mainly to the aesthetic quality of drinking water and not directly to public health aspects.
Date: April 1979
Creator: Irwin, George A. & Hull, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cladding Failure by Local Plastic Instability

Description: Cladding failure is one of the major considerations in analysis of fuel-pin behavior during hypothetical accident transients since time, location, and nature of failure govern the early post-failure material motion and reactivity feedback. Out-of-pile thermal transient tests of both irradiated and unirradiated fast-reactor cladding show that local plastic instability, or bulging, often precedes rupture and that the extent of local instability limits the initial rip length. To investigate the details of bulge formation and growth, a perturbation analysis of the equations governing large deformation of a cylindrical shell has been developed, resulting in a set of linear differential equations for the bulge geometry. These equations have been solved along with appropriate constitutive equations and various constraints on the ends of the cladding. Sources for bulge formation that have been considered include initial geometric imperfections and thermal perturbations due to either eccentric fuel pellets or non-symmetric cooling. Of these, only the first is relevant to out-of-pile burst tests. Here it has been found that the most likely imperfection that will grow unstably to failure leads to a bulge around half the circumference with an axial length 1.1 times the deformed diameter. This is in general agreement with burst-test results. For the case of in-reactor fuel pins, it has been found that thermal perturbations can significantly affect local instability, particularly if the deformation process is thermally activated with a high activation energy.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Kramer, J. M. & Deitrich, L. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Class Notes for a PL/I Course

Description: Presented here are notes for a course in PL/I. They might serve as a guide to those who are developing a course, or as class notes for that course. They might be useful as a textbook independent of any course; as such a textbook, however, they are not self-contained because of the built-in assumption that they will supplement lectures and be accompanied by manuals. Very nearly the full language is taught here, with the emphasis on concepts rather than practical details. Discussion of I/O is avoided until roughly the midpoint of the course. The hoped-for consequence for students is an enhanced perception and understanding of the many concepts and their logical relationships. The dawning of the age of transportability for PL/I programs gives the user a reason, for the first time, to avoid convenient but illegal language.
Date: November 1975
Creator: Dritz, Kenneth W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Project: Five Year Framework (FY 1976 Through FY 1980)

Description: This document presents the total scope of the framework for the U.S. Coal Project during fiscal years 1976 through 1980. The project was initiated to provide information for appropriate involvement of the Fish and Wildlife Service in U.S. coal development actions.
Date: July 14, 1976
Creator: Coal Project (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Supply and Air Quality Limitations on Fossil-Fueled Energy Centers

Description: The coterminous United States is screened on a county-by-county basis to identify areas most likely to provide sites for fossil energy centers (FECs) utilizing local coals and having capacities between 5,000 and 20,000 MWe. Areas eliminated as potential sites include national public lands excluded by legislation, urbanized areas, Air Quality Maintenance Areas for particulates and SO2, and counties where air quality data indicate violations of particulate or SO2 ambient standards. The remaining counties are further screened for suitable coal reserves. The quality of coal required for an FEC to meet emissions and ambient standards is determined for sulfur content and heating value. Based on Bureau of Mines coal reserve data, counties in areas with not enough quality reserves to support an FEC are eliminated. Areas most likely to provide sites for FECs of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 MWe, in two different spatial configurations, each with and without flue gas desulfurization are determined and mapped. The possible impacts of regulations for the prevention of significant deterioration are illustrated.
Date: 1976
Creator: Smith, Albert E.; Wolsko, Thomas D. & Cirillo, Richard R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Surface Mining Reclamation Costs: Appalachian and Midwestern Coal Supply Districts

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing costs of strip mining reclamation. As stated in the introduction, "the Bureau of Mines has undertaken this study to determine, as accurately as possible, the actual costs of reclaiming strip mined land in conjunction with active mining operations" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1975
Creator: Evans, Robert J. & Bitler, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coastal Flood of February 7, 1978 in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire

Description: From abstract: On February 6-8, 1978, New England was battered by one of the most severe winter storms of record. The storm produced record snowfall in many areas of Rhode Island and Massachusetts...This report contains data which document the flooding along parts of the New England coast. Elevations of 203 floodmarks in Massachusetts, 104 in Maine, and 46 in New Hampshire are given. Also included are some historical coastal flood data and a list of other storm-related studies.
Date: 1979
Creator: Gadoury. Russell A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combined Motion of Fuel and Coolant Due to Fuel-Coolant Interactions under High Ramp Rate Reactivity Insertion

Description: An analysis has been made of the combined motion of fuel and coolant due to fuel-coolant interactions following a massive fuel failure in a high-ramp overpower transient. The motion of fuel and coolant was described using a two-fluid model formulation in which the mixture of sodium liquid and vapor and of fission gas, on the one hand, and the fuel particles, on the other, were treated as two superimposed continua. The method of solution employed a numerical procedure called the ACE method, a modified version of the IMF technique.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Chang, K. I. & Cho, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Systems Program: Its Goals and Accomplishments, 1978

Description: The Community Systems Program is concerned with conserving energy and scarce fuels through new methods of satisfying the energy needs of American communities. These programs are designed to develop innovative ways of combining current, emerging, and advanced technologies into Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) that could furnish any, or all, of the energy-using services of a community. The key goals of the Community System Program then, are to identify, evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and deploy energy systems and community designs that will optimally meet the needs of various communities. Integrated systems offer considerable potential for fuel substitution, thereby allowing the use of non-scarce fuel resources that would not be economically usable in smaller unintegrated systems. Input energy sources for such systems may include low-grade waste heat, solid and liquid wastes, solar and geothermal heat, seawater heat dissipation, and use of less-scarce fuels, such as coal and biomass. A Grid-Connected ICES uses a central co-generation plant and distribution system to provide heating, cooling, and electrical energy services. During 1977, contracts for the following Grid-Connected ICES (G-C ICES) demonstration teams were negotiated: City of Independence, Missouri; Clark University; City of Trenton, New Jersey; Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL); and University of Minnesota. A coal-using ICES, proposed for Georgetown University, also has made noticeable strides toward demonstration of the concept.
Date: April 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Risk-Cost-Benefit Study of Alternative Sources of Electrical Energy: A Compilation of Normalized Cost and Impact Data for Current Types of Power Plants and their Supporting Fuel Cycles

Description: From preface: This study is an attempt to quantify societal costs associated with the production of electrical energy by currently available alternative systems under routine operating conditions.
Date: December 1974
Creator: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Office of Energy Systems Analysis.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Test Results for Two ODE Solvers: EPISODE and GEAR

Description: This is a sequel to the paper ''A comparison of two ODE codes: GEAR and EPISODE,'' and is concerned with the testing of two superficially similar ODE packages, GEAR and EPISODE. Fourteen basic test problems, some with several cases, are the basis for the testing. These problems represent several types-nonlinear systems with real and complex eigenvalues, linear systems with varied diagonal dominance, linear scalar problems, stiff and non-stiff problems, chemical kinetics with and without diurnal effect, and systems arising from the use of the numerical method of lines. Some problems are included in order to examine the options and error returns. The test results are presented in two forms: raw output and a comparative display of operation counts and of timings for the best method in the GEAR package and the best method in the EPISODE package. This approach allows a comparison of the consequences of the fixed-step interpolate strategy (GEAR) for changing step size against the truly variable step size strategy (EPISODE). It is concluded that EPISODE is generally faster than GEAR for problems involving wave fronts or transients on the interior of the interval of integration. For linear or simply decaying problems, these roles are usually reversed.
Date: March 1977
Creator: Byrne, G. D.; Hindmarsh, A. C.; Jackson, Kenneth R. & Brown, H. Gordon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of REXCO Code Predictions with SRI SM-2 Experimental Results

Description: This report deals with the REXCO-code predictions of the SRI SM-2 test. Two calculations were performed with the REXCO-HEP code: one used the pressure history of the core detonation products as input and the other the pressure-volume relations of the detonation products as input. The other inputs of the computer analysis are the vessel and the core-barrel dimensions and boundary conditions, the constitutive equations of the vessel and the core barrel materials, and the equation of state for the coolant. The REXCO-predicted well deformations, pressure loadings, and dynamic strain histories at various gauge positions are compared with the experimental data. Results of the comparisons are discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Chang, Y. W. & Gvildys, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department