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Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 5
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 2, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and operations of the saline water conversion demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Salt Concentration at Phase Boundaries in Desalination Processes
From Introduction: "This report explores the theory of the salt build-up phenomenon in a preliminary way. Several simplifying assumptions will be made, since the purpose is to obtain only approximate estimates of the importance of the phenomenon described."
Scale Control With Graphite Heat-Transfer Tubes of Controlled Permeability to Steam
From Introduction: "The present project authorized under OSW Contract No. 14-01-0001-685 was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of controlling calcium sulfate scale by permission of condensate through graphite heat-transfer tubes. Specifically, the following tasks were accomplished during the course of this contract: Graphite tubes 108" long X 2" O.D. x 1 1/2" I.D. were manufactured at three permeability levels. A test apparatus was constructed and proved out as a useful and reliable probe. Tests were conducted at two brine concentrations. Some correlation of test considerations with scale formation was found. The economic practicality and the feasibility of using permeable tubes for desalinization were established."
Sea Water Corrosion Test Program
From Introduction: "The first demonstration plant sponsored by the Office of Saline Water was located in Freeport, Texas, and came 'on stream" in 1961. The incoming sea water was deaerated since both Speller (6) and Uhlig (7) recognized that dissolved oxygen was usually the controlling factor in the corrosion of iron stream condensate at temperatures even as high 400 degrees F. The water was acidified prior to daeration with H2SO4 to decompose the carbonates which subsequently would cause scale when the water was heated. After the carbonates were removed, the pH was raised to the neutral point, again to provide a less corrosive environment."
Seawater Desalting with Chemical Recovery
From Introduction: "The report describes the studies made on 20mgd desalting plants, a size that was selected based on recovering 3,000 tons per day of salt for feed to a chlorine-caustic plant that would be part of the Energy Center."
Seawater Softening by Ion Exchange as a Saline Water Conversion Pretreatment
From Introduction: "A pilot plant embodying these ideas, in an unusual method of softening, was designed and constructed by the Texas Division of The Dow Chemical Company. Two 4,000 gallon per day vapor compression evaporators were furnished for the testing program bu the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the United States Navy. This report summarizes the results of the testing program."
Seawater Tubular Reverse Osmosis Membranes
From Introduction and Summary: "The objective of this program was to improve the quality, performance, and useful life of seawater tubular reverse osmosis membranes. The secondary objective was the evaluation of defect-free membranes in a small module with both sodium chloride and with actual seawater."
Second Annual Report: Operation of the Muti-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California
From Introduction: "The Office of Saline Water (OSW) maintains the MSF Module at the San Diego Test Facility, Chula Vista, California, for the purpose of further advancing and developing the state of art of the multistage flash distillation process and thereby reduce the cost of seawater conversion. The MSF Module has been built and operated to obtain engineering design and operating data to serve as a basis for: a. Future process development. b. Improved full scale plant design. Improved full scale plant operating conditions."
Second Annual Report: Saline Water Demonstration Plant Number 3, Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This Annual Report on the maintenance and operation of Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 3, located in Webster, South Dakota, presents the Plant Maintenance and Operational History and the Technical, Economic and Administrative evaluations of the Plant's operation during the period 1 July 1963 through 30 June 1964. This Report is prepared in compliance with Management and Operations Contract No. 14-01-001-225 dated 2 October 1961."
Second Report on Horizontal-Tubes Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests and Design
From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first part of which was reported in Reference 1. Additional factors that affect HTME heat transfer coefficients were investigated, and the magnitude of their influence was determined."
Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Secondary Refrigerant Freezing Desalting Process: Operation of a 15,000 GPD Pilot Plant
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over the development of the secondary refrigerant freeze desalination process. The process is presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Sixth Annual Report: Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
From Introduction: "The Sixth Annual Report presents a wide variety of information findings and recommendations concerning the Multiple-Effect VTE evaporation method of desalination. The included data are derived from the results obtained from operation, maintenance, and development studies conducted for the the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water, at Freeport, Texas. Not only are the technical, logistical, and economical evaluations for the Fiscal Year 1967 operations presented herein, but also the process and mechanical development program results as related to the process in particular, and desalination in general."
Solidification and Separation of Ice From Saline Water
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this investigation is to promote fundamental understanding of the mechanism of solidification of aqueous solutions, and the effects of externally applied electrical and magnetic fields on solidification."
A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still
From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Study of 250-MGD Multistage Flash Distillation Plant with Two-Level Brine Flow
From Preface - Part 1: "This report contains ORNL's description of the reference design followed by Bechtel's engineering review and cost estimate."
A Study of Desalting Plants (15 to 150 mgd) and Nuclear Power Plants (200 to 1500 MWt) for Combined Water and Power Production
From Summary and Conclusions: "This report presents the results of an economic analysis of dual-purpose plants for the combined production of electronic power and potable water from sea water."
A Study of Large Size Saline Water Conversion Plants
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this study is to digest the experience accumulated in the operation of the demonstration plants, and from this information, to arrive at the cost of fresh water when produced on a large scale. It is important to recognize that the costs, as calculated in this report, are based upon the state of development of the processes as exemplified and proven in the demonstration plants. The field is new, and the rate of development is such that further cost reductions may be expected."
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Distillation Desalination Systems
From Introduction: "The purpose of this study was to investigate analytically the performance of various combination heat and work-input MPE desalination systems ranging from pure heat-input to pure work-input types. MPE desalination systems are described in the following section, while, the analytical methods and discussions of the results obtained are presented in the appendices."
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Freezing Process Desalination
From Introduction: "In this report we will present the results of extending our study of MPE desalination systems to include freezing processes."
A Study of the Disposal of the Effluent From a Large Desalination Plant
From Introduction and Summary and Conclusions: "The disposal of the effluents from large desalination plants has been studied for two years by the Dow Chemical Company and Texas A. & M. University under contract to the Office of Saline Water. Recommendations are presented on the type, frequency, and intensity of pre-plant oceanographic and biological surveys and of post-plant monitoring and verification surveys."
Study of Two-Phase Metastable Flow
From Abstract: "An experimental study was made to determine the flow rate of saturated water through short tubes of various lengths and diameters. Tubes of both rounded and sharp edge entrances were tested in the horizontal and vertical positions. Test results were analyzed and correlated."
A Study of Water Plant Isolation From Contamination
From Introduction: "In this study, data has been obtained on radioactive nuclide concentrations in nuclear power plants of both the BWR direct cycle and the PWR indirect cycle. These data, together with leakage rates actually experienced in the PWR steam generators and with assumed leakage rates in brine heaters, are used to calculate concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the water plant product and effluent."
Sul-BiSul Ion Exchange Process: Field Evaluation on Brackish Waters
No Description Available.
Summary Evaluation of Conceptual Design for 50 MGD Desalination Plant
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water discussing the conceptual design of a 50 MGD water desalination plant. Numerous design concepts are presented, along with detailed descriptions and comparisons of the different designs. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Summary of Roswell Test Bed Plant Reports (1963-1968)
From Summary: "This report summarizes the analyses of the operating data for the period 1963-1969 for the Test Bed Plant and the Auxiliary Test Unit (ATU) located at Roswell, New Mexico."
Temperature Distribution in the Crystallization of Undercooled Liquids in Cylindrical Tubes
From Introduction: "The major difficulty in interpreting the results obtained by this simple experimental technique is the specification of the temperature at the crystal-liquid interface. Since, the liquid-to-solid transformation is exothermic the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature of the bulk of the cooling bath, which is the quantity most conveniently measured and most frequently reported."
Test Manual (Tentative) For Permselective Membranes
From Introduction: "This test manual is intended to be used as an aid to persons purchasing or evaluating permselective membranes. This manual covers specified methods for testing, sampling, storing, and shipping permselective membrane materials of both cationic and anionic types."
Theoretical Studies of the Behavior of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Electrolytes With Respect to Osmionic Cell Operation
From Forward: "This is the seventy-sixth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost demineralization of sea or other saline water."
Thermodynamic Properties of Saline Water
From Abstract: "Activity coefficients of calcium sulfate were calculated from solubilities of gypsum in 0 to 1.0m sodium chloride at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 95 degrees C. X-ray diffraction studies for calcium sulfate modifications before and after contact with aqueous and saline solutions are given."
Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Hydrate Systems
From Introduction and Summary: "This report presents the results of one year of experimental work performed under an Office of Saline Water Grant to study various aspects of the hydrate process for demineralizing sea water. Work is continuing on all phases of the subjects reported here."
Thin Film Vapor Compression Saline Water Conversion System
From Introduction: "This report is the final report on the research and development program carried out by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on the Westinghouse Thin Film Vapor Compression Saline Water Conversion System."
Third Annual Report: Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 4, Roswell, New Mexico
From Abstract: "Primary interest was placed on the scale formation problem. Significant improvements were made in the process and described in this report. Maintenance requirements were unusually high during the year, primarily as a result of cumulative corrosion damage over the last three years. The most significant damage was in the circulating pumps, the heat exchangers and feed piping. These and other failures are described."
Third Report on Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests
From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first portions of which were reported in References 1 and 2. A major purpose in the testing of the three-effect pilot plant was to demonstrate mutiple-effect operability of the the horizontal tube method, when utilizing basically the same construction methods and materials as those proposed for commercial HTME plants."
Transport-Depletion Desalination Pilot Plant
From Summary: "The transport-depletion data obtained by the Southern Research Institute and by the Bureau of Reclamation at Denver, Colorado and at Webster, South Dakota, was reviewed. This data review made it possible to develop a design methodology for the pilot plant, and to identify the additional data required to adequately predict the performance of a transport-depletion stack."
Transport Processes in Electrochemically Controlled Ion-Exchange Desalination
From Summary: "The results of such experiments are summarized as follows: 1. Anion-responsive electrodes formed with Kraton, graphite, Norit, and Amberlite CG-4B demineralized well at currents up to 10 milli-amperes; regeneration was efficient up to 8 milliamperes. 2. Satisfactory anion-responsive electrodes containing Amberlite IRA-68 could only be formed when resin was first ground while in the sulfate form; it was required that it be added to the paste mixture (Kraton, Norit, and graphite) in the same form."
Use of Waste Heat For Production of Fresh Water
From Summary: "This study has shown that waste heat sources are available at locations where salt or brackish water could be converted into fresh water by the utilization of waste heat."
Utilization of Isotopes for Saline Water Conversion
From Abstract: "This report covers a study involving the use of radioisotope power as a heat source for saline water conversion."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Desalting Process
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process (VFVC) was evaluated during the period from February, 1965, through March, 1967, by Colt Industries Inc. under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-532." From Process Description: "The primary principles involved for converting of sea and brackish water to fresh water in the VFVC Process are rather well known in physical chemistry and are summarized below. The principles discussed above, applied to a practical VFVC desalting system, are illustrated in the schematic flow diagram, Figure 3. This simplified diagram shows both the essential components of the process and the flow paths of the various fluids in the system. A typical mass and heat balance is shown in Figure 4."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process: Evaluation on Brackish Water
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression (VFVC) Process was evaluated on high salinity brackish water during the period from February 1968 through December 1969 by Colt Industries Inc., under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-967 at Roswell, New Mexico. The 15,000 gpd VFVC test plant is mounted on a mobile trailer which was built by Colt Industries Inc. in their factory at Beloit, Wisconsin. Prior to operation at Roswell, the plant was operated at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina to check out the system and to operate the trailer on sea water." Process Description: "A simplified diagram, Figure 2, shows both the essential components of the process and flow paths of the various streams in the system. Typical heat and mass balances are shown on Figures 3 and 4."
Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation
From Introduction: "This report contains the results of a research study on the "Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation" undertaken in January 1967 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Saline Water, United Sates Department of the Interior. The objectives of the study were: a. To determine, through application of desalting techniques, the costs and benefits associated with the progressive decreases in the salinity of irrigation water supplies. b. To identify the possible means of introducing desalted water into irrigation supply systems. To relate current desalting technology to potential applications in agriculture."
Vapor Compression Distillation using Secondary Heat Transfer Media
Report discussing a particular method of converting saline water through vapor compression distillation at plants of different sizes. From Introduction: "This report is divided into three Sections (Books) each with its own index. Books I and II contain process and economic data for a 50,000 gpd pilot plant and a 10,000,000 gpd production plant. Book III contains process and economic data for high and low temperature units of 1,000,000 gpd size."
Vapor Compression with Secondary Heat-Transfer Media
From Introduction: "The use of a secondary heat-transfer media in a vapor-compression distillation unit was suggested for investigation as a process for saline water conversion because previous studies on the vapor-compression cycle at low temperatures showed that the fixed charges on the compressor are a substantial part of the final water-product cast. Other fluids were evaluated as above, the results of which are shown in table 1. Data on the other fluids shown in table 1 will be found in the appendix."
Vertical-Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Report, Volume 1, July 1, 1967
Report documenting the ongoing research and developments undertaken at a pilot plant with five vertical-tube evaporators.
VTE Pilot Plant Annual Report for the Period Ending July 1, 1968
From Summary and Conclusions: "After a period of tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1966 and 1967, the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) Pilot Plant was moved to the OSW's East Coast Test Station at Wrightsville Beach, N.C. In the summer of 1967 it was installed and was started in upflow operation with seawater feed, using stem and other services provided by the station. The operation of the Pilot Plant at Wrightsville Beach was performed by Stearns-Roger Corporation under subcontract to ORNL. Operation was in the upflow mode during the entire reporting period."