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An active particle diffusion theory of flame quenching for laminar flames / Dorothy M. Simon and Frank E. Belles
An equation for quenching distance based on the destruction of chain carriers by the surface is derived. The equation expresses the quenching distance in terms of the diffusion coefficients and partial pressures of the chain carriers and gas phase molecules, the efficiency of the surface as a chain breaker, the total pressure of the mixture, and a constant which depends on the geometry of the quenching surface. Quenching distances measured by flashback for propane-air flames are shown to be consistent with the mechanism. The derived equation is used with the lean inflammability limit and a rate constant calculated from burning velocity data to estimate quenching distances for propane-air (hydrocarbon lean) flames satisfactorily.
Activities and Operations of Argonne's Advanced Computing Research Facility : February 1990 through April 1991
This report reviews the activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) from February 1990 through April 1991. The ACRF is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility's principal objective is to foster research in parallel computing. Toward this objective, the ACRF operates experimental advanced computers, supports investigations in parallel computing, and sponsors technology transfer efforts to industry and academia.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility. January 1985 - July 1986
This report discusses research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory from January 1985 through June 1986. During this period, the Mathematics and Computer Science Division (MCS) at Argonne received incremental funding from the Applied Mathematical Sciences program of the DOE Office of Energy Research to operate computers with innovative designs that promise to be useful for advanced scientific research. Over a five-month period, four new commercial multiprocessors (an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Aliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5) were installed in the ACRF, creating a new wave of research projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures. A list of projects, publications, and users supported by the ACRF is included.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : January 1989-January 1990
This report reviews the activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) for the period January 1, 1989, through January 31, 1990. The ACRF is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The facility's principal objective is to foster research in parallel computing. Toward this objective, the ACRF continues to operate experimental advanced computers and to sponsor new technology transfer efforts and new research projects.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : July - October 1986
Research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory are discussed for the period from July 1986 through October 1986. The facility is currently supported by the Department of Energy, and is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne. Over the past four-month period, a new commercial multiprocessor, the Intel iPSC-VX/d4 hypercube was installed. In addition, four other commercial multiprocessors continue to be available for research - an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Alliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5 - as well as a locally designed multiprocessor, the Lemur. These machines are being actively used by scientists at Argonne and throughout the nation in a wide variety of projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : November 1987-December 1988
Report on the activities of Argonne Advanced Computing Research Facility, including LAPACK, vectorizing compilers, algorithm design and restructuring, automated deduction, three-dimensional scientific visualization, and graphics trace facilities.
Activities and Operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility : October 1986-October 1987
This paper contains a description of the work being carried out at the advanced computing research facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered are upgrading of computers, networking changes, algorithms, parallel programming, programming languages, and user training.
Activities of the NBS Spectrochemical Analysis Section: July 1970 to June 1971
Review of the progress in research, instrumentation, and service activities of the Spectrochemical Analysis Section from July 1970 to June 1971.
Adaptation of a Cascade Impactor to Flight Measurement of Droplet Size in Clouds
A cascade impactor, an instrument for obtaining: the size distribution of droplets borne in a low-velocity air stream, was adapted for flight cloud droplet-size studies. The air containing the droplets was slowed down from flight speed by a diffuser to the inlet-air velocity of the impactor. The droplets that enter the impactor impinge on four slides coated with magnesium oxide. Each slide catches a different size range. The relation between the size of droplet impressions and the droplet size was evaluated so that the droplet-size distributions may be found from these slides. The magnesium oxide coating provides a permanent record. of the droplet impression that is not affected by droplet evaporation after the. droplets have impinged.
Adaptation of aeronautical engines to high altitude flying
Report discussing Issues and techniques relative to the adaptation of aircraft engines to high altitude flight. Covered here are the limits of engine output, modifications and characteristics of high altitude engines, the influence of air density on the proportions of fuel mixtures, methods of varying the proportions of fuel mixtures, the automatic prevention of fuel waste, and the design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. Summary: 1. Limits of engine output. 2. High altitude engines. 3. Influence of air density on proportions of mixture. 4. Methods of varying proportions of mixture. 5. Automatic prevention of fuel waste. 6. Design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying.
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 1, Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air
The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 2, Combustion in Air-Breathing Jet Engines
This volume continues the NACA study of combustion principles for aircraft propulsion. The various aspects of combustion pertinent to jet engines are organized and interpreted with quite extensive information, particularly for basic or fundamental. subject matter. The report concerns only air-breathing engines and hydrocarbon fuels, and not rocket engines and high-energy fuels. Since the references have been selected to illustrate important points, the bibliographies, while thorough, are not complete. This volumes describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. These include combustor-inlet conditions; starting, acceleration, combustion limits, combustion efficiency, coke deposits, and smoke formation in turbojets; ram-jet performance; and afterburner performance and design.
An Adaptive System for Process Control
Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by loosely modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule-based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the "rule-of-thumb" strategy used in human decisionmaking. Together, GA's and FLC's include all of the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a cont element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and an adaptive element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. The control system also employs a computer simulation of the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented; all results are from the physical laboratory system and not from a computer simulation.
Adaptor for measuring principal strains with Tuckerman strain gage
Report discussing an adapter which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.
An Addendum to a Parametric Study of the Gas-Cooled Reactor Concept
From introduction: "This report provides background information regarding the study results presented in the first volume of this report and provides information resulting from the studies made on the gas cooled reactor concept."
Addendum to a Proposal for ATLAS: a Precision-Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, December 1978
This revised proposal for the construction of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is in all essentials the same as the proposal originally presented to NUSAC in March 1978. The only differences worth mentioning are the plan to expand the experimental area somewhat more than was originally proposed and an increased cost, brought about principally by inflation. The outline presented is the same (with minor change in wording) as in the original document, reproduced here for the convenience of the reader.
Addendum to Hazard Summary Report Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II)
Report containing hazard and safety information regarding the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho.
Addendum to the Spert IV Hazards Summary Report: Capsule Driver Core
From abstract: "explain all important features pertaining to a new pulsed irradiation reactor, the Capsule Driver, Core, and to analyze the potential problems and hazards of operating this reactor in the existing Spert IV facility."
Addition of heat to a compressible fluid in motion
From Introduction: "The purpose of this report is to summarize, without extended proofs, the results of a study of a simplified model of nonadiabiatic, compressible fluid flow, both subsonic and supersonic, and to state these results in a form that will make them immediately useful in providing a theoretical background for current technical problems of high-speed combustion.
Additional abstracts pertaining to seaplanes
From Summary: "About 500 additional references pertaining to hydrodynamic design of seaplanes have been compiled, and the information is presented in the form of abstracts classified under six main headings:GENERAL INFORMATION, HYDROSTATICS, HYDRODYNAMICS, AERODYNAMICS, OPERATION, and RESEARCH. The compilation is an extension of NACA RM No. L6I13, entitled "Abstracts Pertaining to Seaplanes," by Jerold M. Bidwell and Douglas A. King. An author index and a subject index are included."
Additional comparisons between computed and measured transonic drag-rise coefficients at zero lift for wing-body-tail configurations
From Introduction: "This report makes further comparisons of the theoretical computing method with available experimental results, showing effects of wing plan-form changes, and the effect of an airfoil-section change on a wing of given plan form."
Additional design charts relating to the stalling of tapered wings
From Introduction: "The present report, therefore, may be considered a supplement to reference 1. The combined scope of the stall charts of reference 1, designated A, and of the present work, designated B, is summarized in the following table: For the wing with root thickness ratio to 18 was also investigated.
Additional experimental heat-transfer and durability data on several forced-convection, air-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades of improved design
No Description Available.
Additional experiments with flat-top wing- body combinations at high supersonic speeds
Flat top wing body configuration effects on aerodynamic characteristics of supersonic aircraft.
Additional fatigue tests on effects of design details in 355-T6 sand-cast aluminum alloy
From Introduction: "Reported herein are results of the additional direct-stress fatigue tests on: (1) a plate-type specimen with cored centrally located hole and (2) 0.300-inch-diameter round polished specimens with various degrees of porosity."
Additional free-flight tests of the rolling effectiveness of several wing-spoiler arrangements at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds
From Introduction: "The purpose of the present paper is to present results obtained recently relating to the characteristics of a full-span sharp-edge spoiler with an 0.02-chord projection above the wing surface at several chordwise positions and also to the relative effectiveness of the sharp-edge spoiler and a wedge-type spoiler located at the 80-percent-chord line."
An additional investigation of the high-speed lateral-control characteristics of spoilers
No Description Available.
The additional-mass effect of plates as determined by experiments
From Introduction: "The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included."
Additional measurements of the low-speed static stability of a configuration employing three triangular wing panels and a body of equal length
From Introduction: "The results of an investigation of the low-speed static stability of a simplified model of such an arrangement having one of the airfoils placed vertically on top of the body and the other two as wing panels having negative dihedral are presented in reference 1. In order to provide information for predicting the effects of changes in the basic configuration on the low-speed stability characteristics presented in reference 1, additional measurements have been made."
Additional power-on wind-tunnel tests of the 1/8-scale model of the Brewster F2A airplane with full-span slotted flaps
No Description Available.
Additional results in a free-flight investigation of control effectiveness of full-span, 0.2-chord plain ailerons at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds to determine some effects of wing sweepback, aspect ratio, taper, and section thickne
No Description Available.
Additional results of an investigation at transonic speeds to determine the effects of a heated propulsive jet on the drag characteristics of a series of related afterbodies
From Introduction: "Presented in this report are the basic data obtained from investigation. The data are presented with limited analysis in order to expedite their availability to those concerned with jet-exit-afterbody design."
Additional Results on the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.05-Scale Model of the Convair F2Y-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds
Additional results on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane were obtained in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.92. The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. The sideslip-angle range investigated was from -4 degrees to 12 degrees. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences, leading-edge chord-extensions, and leading-edge notches. Various fuselage fences, spoilers, and a dive brake also were investigated. From overall considerations of lift, drag, and pitching moments, it appears that there were two modifications somewhat superior to any of the others investigated: One was a configuration that employed a full-chord fence and a partial-chord fence located at 0.63 semispan and 0.55 semispan, respectively. The second was a leading-edge chord-extension that extended from 0.68 semispan to 0.85 semispan in combination with a leading-edge notch located at 0.68 semispan. With plus or minus 10 degrees aileron, the estimated wing-tip helix angle was reduced from 0.125 at a Mach number of 0.50 to 0.088 at a Mach number of 0.92, with corresponding rates of roll of 4.0 and 5.2 radians per second. The upper aft fuselage dive brake, when deflected 30 degrees and 60 degrees, reduced the rudder effectiveness about 10 to 20 percent and about 35 to 50 percent, respectively.
Additional static and fatigue tests of high-strength aluminum-alloy bolted joints
From Introduction: "Early in 1951 the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics published, as Technical Note 2276 (ref. 1), a report by the Aluminum Research Laboratories of the Aluminum Company of America on the results of static and fatigue tests of high-strength aluminum alloy monobloc specimens and bolted joints. In view of special interest shown by several aircraft companies, certain expansions of the test program were undertaken by the Aluminum Research Laboratories and are reported herein."
Additional Studies of the Stability and Controllability of an Unswept-Wing Vertically Rising Airplane Model in Hovering Flight Including Studies of Various Tethered Landing Techniques
No Description Available.
Additional test data on static longitudinal stability
From Summary: "The purpose of this investigation was to explore the influence of weights of the controls on the stability with elevator released. The available test data were extended to stability with elevator locked. In this connection the study of the propeller effect seemed of vital importance."
Adhesion of Diamond Films on Tungsten
The U.S. Bureau of Mines has investigated the chemical vapor deposition of diamond films on tungsten substrates. The effects of deposition parameters on the adhesion of the films was determined. The films were produced using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition system. Parameters investigated were substrate temperature and methane concentration in the feed gas. Film quality, morphology, and composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Adhesion testing was performed using an indentation technique, and the results were quantified by relating adhesion to interface fracture toughness. Diamond films with well-faceted crystalline morphology with grain size greater than 1 pm had poor adhesion properties regardless of substrate temperature or methane concentration. Diamond films with smooth morphologies consisting of rounded clusters of small (<0.2 pm) diamond crystallites and amorphous carbon phases displayed much higher adhesion, although the conditions that led to the growth of these films are not understood.
Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes
From Summary: "The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection."
The adhesion of molten boron oxide to various materials
This report includes the description and results of an experiment evaluating the amount of adhesion existing between the liquid boron oxide and various materials used in engines.
Adhesive and protective characteristics of ceramic coating A-417 and its effect on engine life of forged Refractaloy-26 (AMS 5760) and cast stellite 21 (AMS 5385) turbine blades
The adhesive and protective characteristics of National Bureau of Standards Coating A-417 were investigated, as well as the effect of the coating on the life of forged Refractaloy 26 and cast Stellite 21 turbine blades. Coated and uncoated blades were run in a full-scale J33-9 engine and were subjected to simulated service operations consisting of consecutive 20-minute cycles (15 min at rated speed and approximately 5 min at idle). The ceramic coating adhered well to Refractaloy 26 and Stellite 21 turbine blades operated at 1500 degrees F. The coating also prevented corrosion of the Refractaloy 26, a corrosion-sensitive nickel-base alloy, and of the Stellite 21, a relatively corrosion-resistant cobalt-base alloy. Although the coating prevented corrosion of both alloys, it had no apparent effect on blade life.
Adjustment of stick force by a nonlinear aileron-stick linkage
No Description Available.
Advanced Designs of Magnetic Jack-Type Control Rod Drive
Report containing information regarding magnetic jacks, which are devices used "for positioning the control rods in a nuclear reactor, especially in a reactor containing water under pressure" (page 9). Contains a description of the device, its use, test results, and illustrations.
Advanced Evaporator Technology Progress Report FY 1992
This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program "Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams." The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1977
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities directed toward understanding and improvement of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 923 Kelvin.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1978
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1979
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of moltencarbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1980
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving components of molten carbonate fuel cells and have included operation of a 10-cm square cell.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1981
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) improving understanding of component behavior in molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) developing alternative concepts for components. The principal focus has been on the development of sintered y-LiAIO2 electrolyte supports, stable NiO cathodes, and hydrogen diffusion barriers. Cell tests were performed to assess diffusion barriers and to study cathode voltage relaxation following current interruption.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1982
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1983
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts on development of molten carbonate fuel cells directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions with a number of transition metal oxides, synthesis of prospective alternative cathode materials and doping of these materials to promote electronic conductivity is under way.