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Static, drop, and flight tests on Musselman type airwheels

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to obtain quantitative information on the shock-reducing and energy-dissipating qualities of a set of 30 by 13-6 Musselman type airwheels. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests. The static tests were made with inflation pressures of approximately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings up to 9,600 pounds. The drop tests were with the inflation pressures approximately 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings of 1,840, 2,440, 3,050, and 3,585 pounds. The flight tests were made with VE-7 airplane weighing 2,153 pounds, with the tires inflated to 5, 10, and 15 pounds per square inch. The landing gears used in conjunction with airwheels were practically rigid structures. The results of the tests showed that the walls of the tires carried a considerable portion of the load, each tire supporting a load of 600 pounds with a depression of approximately 6 inches. The shock-reducing qualities, under severe tests, and the energy dissipating characteristics of the tires, under all tests, were poor. The latter was evidenced by the rebound present in all landings made. In the severe drop tests, the free rebound reached as much as 60 per cent of the free drop. The results indicate that a shock-reducing and energy-dissipating mechanism should be used in conjunction with airwheels.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Peck, William C & Beard, Albert P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static Electricity in Nature and Industry

Description: From Introduction: "In this bulletin "static electricity" is used in its commonly accepted meaning to include the various manifestations that result from the coming together or neutralization of positive and negative charges with have been separated by friction between unlike substances or otherwise. Although the scope of the this report is rather broad, it deals primarily with static electricity as a hazard. Casual and experimental observations recorded herein are thus given for a background and for the purpose of suggesting hazards not yet recognized."
Date: 1939
Creator: Guest, Paul G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static longitudinal stability of "Ente" airplanes

Description: The stability conditions of Ente (duck) airplanes are investigated in this report. In developing the formulas, which afford an approximate solution, the unimportant effect of the height of the C.G. and the moment of the residual resistance are neglected. The effect of downwash from the forward horizontal empennage on the wing are also disregarded.
Date: March 1931
Creator: Kiel, Heinrich Georg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static thrust analysis of the lifting airscrew

Description: This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.
Date: December 1, 1937
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Hefner, Ralph A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static thrust of airplane propellers

Description: Static thrust data from more than 100 airplane propeller tests are collected from various sources and combined in working charts, from which the static thrust coefficient may be readily determined. The available data cover practically all types of propellers and are in good agreement.
Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistics of the Bureau Veritas

Description: Statistics are indispensable factors for the amelioration of safety. Through the reconciliation of accidents which may appear isolated to interested parties, they permit tracking of typical causes of accidents; conversely, they can prevent, after a serious accident due to some fortuitous cause, the taking of incautious measures under the pressure of public opinion, which always inclines to gauge the gravity of the causes by that of the results. Lastly, they permit appraisal of the efficacy of rules in force. We should add that statistics provide an agency of prevention for future accidents. A careful inspection of all signs of malfunction of material quite often prevents the occurrence of an accident. In this respect, many pilot's report, perfectly normal in every way as far as operation is concerned, can reveal much more interesting technical data than an accident, although it does not diminish the importance of statistics. Therefore, from the inception of its aeronautical service, at the end of 1922, the Bureau Veritas has kept annual statistics of all accidents which occurred in French civil aviation. In order to correctly perform their proper function, the statistics must be exact and sufficiently explicit and complete. To be exact, they must bear on all pertinent events, and on these alone. It is a matter then, first of all, defining the accident in such a way that no sinister detail bearing on the definition may escape control. The consideration of accidents to personnel only has appeared too limited. One of the essential qualities of statistics is to permit the taking of averages and in consequence to apply them ot a sufficiently large number; such is happily not the case in accidents to personnel.
Date: March 1932
Creator: Volmerange, André
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of wing flutter

Description: This report presents a survey of previous theoretical and experimental investigations on wing flutter covering thirteen cases of flutter observed on airplanes. The direct cause of flutter is, in the majority of cases, attributable to (mass-) unbalanced ailerons. Under the conservative assumption that the flutter with the phase angle most favorable for excitation occurs only in two degrees of freedom, the lowest critical speed can be estimated from the data obtained on the oscillation bench. Corrective measures for increasing the critical speed and for definite avoidance of wing flutter, are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Kussner, H G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The steady spin

Description: With the object of further clarifying the problem of spinning, the equilibrium of the forces and moments acting on an airplane is discussed in light of the most recent test data. Convinced that in a spin the flight attitude by only small angles of yaw is more or less completely steady, the study is primarily devoted to an investigation of steady spin with no side slip. At small angles, wholly arbitrary and perfectly steady spins may be forced, depending on the type of control displacements. But at large angles only very steep and only "approaching steady" spins are possible, no matter what the control displacements.
Date: July 1, 1931
Creator: Fuchs, Richard & Schmidt, Wilhelm
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stipa monoplane with Venturi fuselage

Description: This report presents a detailed examination of the factors that went into the design of the Stipa monoplane. The model tested in the wind tunnel was made dissymmetrical externally, in order to produce a lift even at an angle of attack of 0 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis of the tube.
Date: September 1, 1934
Creator: Stipa, Luigi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strain measurements on small duralumin box beams in bending

Description: Extensive strain-gage measurements were made chiefly on the tension side of five small rectangular box beams constructed of sheet duralumin. The main conclusion was that within the test range the tension cover may be considered as being fully effective but that at any given point on the beam there may be unaccountable variations of 5 percent from the calculated stresses on the thicker sheets tested (0.044 and 0.023 inch) and of 10 percent or more on the thinnest sheet tested (0.014 inch).
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength in shear of the thin curved sheets of Alclad

Description: This note is on an investigation made to obtain information on the strength of thin curved sheets of Alclad in shear. Designers may utilize this material as a strength member as well as for a covering for the wings and fuselages. A reduction may then be made in the size of the internal strength members. These experiments were undertaken with the object of securing the maximum value from the metal in this respect. The point at which buckling occurs is of primary importance. The buckling shear of a curved thin plate was determined mathematically and also experimentally. The following formula was obtained mathematically: s=K E t/r in which s is the unit shear, K is a constant, E is the modulus of elasticity, t is the thickness of the material, and r is the radius of curvature. The value of K as determined by the experiments was found to be .075. This formula applies only when s is within the elastic limit of the material. The breaking point of the material was obtained in most of the tests as a matter of information and the results are included in this report. The effect of the supporting ribs was determined by varying the number used.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Smith, George Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength of rectangular flat plates under edge compression

Description: Flat rectangular plates of duralumin, stainless iron, monel metal, and nickel were tested under loads applied at two opposite edges and acting in the plane of the plate. The edges parallel to the direction of loading were supported in V grooves. The plates were all 24 inches long and varied in width from 4 to 24 inches by steps of 4 inches, and in thickness from 0.015 to 0.095 inch by steps of approximately 0.015 inch. There were also a few 1, 2, 3, and 6 inch wide specimens. The loads were applied in the testing machine at the center of a bar which rested along the top of the plate. Load was applied until the plate failed to take any more load. The tests show that the loads carried by the plates generally reached a maximum for the 8 or 12 inch width and that there was relatively small drop in load for the greater widths. Deflection and set measurement perpendicular to the plane of the plate were taken and the form of the buckle determined. The number of buckles were found to correspond in general to that predicted by the theory of buckling of a plate uniformly loaded at two opposite edges and simply supported at the edges.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Schuman, Louis & Back, Goldie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The strength of shell bodies : theory and practice

Description: The monocoque form of airplane construction has introduced a number of new problems to the stress calculator and the designer. The problems for the stress calculator fall into two groups: the determination of the stress condition (shell statics) and the determination of the failing strength (shell strength). The present report summarizes the most important theoretical and experimental results on this subject.
Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Ebner, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength of welded aircraft joints

Description: This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks. The "magnetic powder" inspection was used to detect cracks in the joints and flaws in the tubing.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Brueggeman, W C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength of welded joints in tubular members for aircraft

Description: The object of this investigation is to make available to the aircraft industry authoritative information on the strength, weight, and cost of a number of types of welded joints. This information will, also, assist the aeronautics branch in its work of licensing planes by providing data from which the strength of a given joint may be estimated. As very little material on the strength of aircraft welds has been published, it is believed that such tests made by a disinterested governmental laboratory should be of considerable value to the aircraft industry. Forty joints were welded under procedure specifications and tested to determine their strengths. The weight and time required to fabricate were also measured for each joint.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Whittemore, H L & Brueggeman, W C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders in combined transverse shear and bending

Description: This report is the fourth of a series presenting the results of strength tests on thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section; it includes the results on 100 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. The tests show that as the ratio of moment to shear varies from small to large values the failure changes from a shear to a bending type. In the report a chart is presented that shows the corresponding changes in strength.
Date: April 1, 1935
Creator: Lundquiest, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders in compression

Description: This report is the second of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section. It contains the results obtained from compression tests on 45 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In addition to the tests on duralumin cylinders, there are included the results of numerous tests on rubber, celluloid, steel, and brass cylinders obtained from various sources.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders in pure bending

Description: This report is the third of a series presenting the results of strengths tests on thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section; it includes the results obtained from pure bending tests on 58 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. The tests show that the stress on the extreme fiber at failure as calculated by the ordinary theory of bending is from 30 to 80 percent greater than the compressive stress at failure for thin-walled cylinders in compression. The tests also show that length/radius ratio has no consistent effect upon the bending strength and that the size of the wrinkles that form on the compression half of a cylinder in bending is approximately equal to the size of the wrinkles that form in the complete circumference of a cylinder of the same dimensions in compression.
Date: December 1, 1933
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders of elliptic section

Description: This report is the fifth of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section; it includes the results obtained from torsion tests on 30 cylinders, pure bending tests on 30 cylinders, and combined transverse shear and bending tests on 60 cylinders. All the cylinders tested were elliptic section with the ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In the pure bending and combined transverse shear and bending tests the loads were applied in the plane of the major axis. The results of the tests on elliptic cylinders are correlated with the results of corresponding tests on circular cylinders and are presented in charts suitable for use in design.
Date: May 1, 1935
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Burke, Walter F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests on paper cylinder in compression, bending and shear

Description: Static tests on paper cylinders were conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Langley Field, Virginia, to obtain qualitative information in connection with a study of the strength of stressed-skin fuselages. The effects of radius-thickness ratio and bulkhead spacing were investigated with the cylinders in compression, bending, combined bending and shear, and torsion.
Date: April 1, 1931
Creator: Rhodes, Richard V. & Lundquist, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strength tests on thin-walled duralumin cylinders in torsion

Description: This report is the first of a series presenting the results of strength tests on thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptical section; it comprises the results obtained to date from torsion (pure shear) tests on 65 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. The effect of variations in the length/radius and radius/thickness ratios on the type of failure is indicated, and a semi-empirical equation for the shearing stress at maximum load is given.
Date: August 1, 1932
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department