Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 197 Matching Results

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Investigation of Membrane Stack Resistance Increase With a Natural Brackish Water
From Introduction: "An investigation was undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation to identify the cause of causes of this problem with a particular brackish water. The resistance increase of is of great concern principally because of the increase in power consumption that ultimately contributes to a higher cost for product water. Reports show that membrane stack resistance has increased as much as 200 percent over period of several days."
Investigation of Multistage Flash Phenomena in a Three-Stage Test System
From Introduction: "This report covers the information resulting from these tasks and additionally the solution to a serious difficulty in obtaining stable operation and reasonable distillate purity due to foaming and priming which was much more serious in three stage test device than it had been in the original two-stage unit."
Investigation of Supersaturation in Saline Water Conversion
From Objectives and Outline of the Program: "The primary objective of this work has been the determination of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of calcium sulfate in the waste stream of electrodialysis demieralizers."
Investigation of the Availability of Geothermal Energy for the Demineralization of Saline Water
From Introduction: "The purpose of this investigation was to examine the question of the availability of geothermal energy and in particular the availability of geothermal energy from the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Investigation of the Mass Transfer Properties of Saline Water Systems
From Introduction: "This investigation was undertaken in order to obtain the appropriate property data for both binary and muticomponent salt solutions and to determine the usefulness of the simple Nernst-type equations, compared with more exact flux-driving force equations, for predicting species transport in molecular diffusion processes of importance in desalination research. The following sections present the details of the approaches taken to each of the tasks and the results derived from these investigations. Information less essential to the analysis of the results was included in the appendices."
Investigation of Thermal Diffusion for Saline Water Conversion
From Introduction: "The following sections treat in detail each of the three major phases of this investigation: ordinary diffusion coefficient studies, thermal diffusion coefficient studies, and packed thermogravitational column studies. This report is concluded with a summary of the progress achieved and a discussion of areas for future investigation."
Large Reverse Osmosis System Technology and Module Development
From Introduction: "This is the final report on a program of reverse osmosis research conducted for the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Department of the Interior, under Contract 14-01-0001-929. The purpose of the program was the development of larger spiral-wound reverse osmosis modules for economical application in large reverse osmosis systems."
The Mechanism of Desalination by Reverse Osmosis
From Introduction: " With the ultimate objective of improving the process, a study of the mechanism(s) of material transport across the membrane was undertaken; the OSW sponsored a fundamental program of investigation of the Reverse Osmosis Process. Following a brief review of the results of the first year's investigations, the body of this report will cover the accomplishments of the second year's effort."
Mineral By-Products From The Sea
No Description Available.
Multiple Phase Ejector Pilot Plant
From Introduction: "This is the final report on work performed by Joseph Kaye & Company, Inc. (JKCo) in accordance with the requirements of OSW Contract No. 14-01-0001-2105, as amended. The work concerned the final design, construction, and operation of a pilot plant for demonstrating Multiple Phase Ejector (MPE) topping units to augment the performance of distillation desalination systems."
A New Design Concept for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Cells
From Introduction: "A new concept, that of lateral permeation of product water through a porous substrate, is the basis for both the cost reduction study of plate-and-frame reverse osmosis units and the study of field replacement of membrane and is therefore the subject of the development studies encompassed by this report."
A New Process for the Production of Fresh Water From Sea Water
From Summary: "This report is not only the final report under contract #14-01-001-189 but also the first submitted for publication and general distribution on the subject of fresh water from saline water by the Struthers Wells - Scientific Design process."
Nucleation and Growth of Ice Crystals
From Introduction: "The objective of this investigation was to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of ice formation in saline water. That is, whether the crystal growth is controlled by heat transfer, nucleation of new layers, or diffusion of matter."
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conceptual Design of a 250-MGD Desalination Plant
From Introduction: "This report and the study which went into it form a part of the activities sponsored by the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Department of the Interior, in their accelerated program to develop large plants for the economical desalting of seawater."
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1969
From Summary: "This report summarizes the down-flow heat transfer performance of enhanced surface tubes and operations at the four-effect Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant at the Office of Saline Water East Coast Test Station, Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The period from July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969 is covered in this report."
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1970
From Introduction: "This report covers the work done in fiscal 1970 and the small amount of work done in the early part of fiscal 1971; the inclusive dates covered are July 1, 1969 through July 10, 1970. A four effect VTE train operating in the downflow mode. A single effect VTE unit operating in the downflow mode. A mixed phase high pressure water and steam jet compression unit complete with a boiler to supply high pressure motive steam."
Operation of a 50,000 GPD Portable Reverse Osmosis Pilot Plant
From Introduction and Summary: "This report is essentially a continuation of Aerojet Report No. F1027-01-A, submitted to the Office of Saline Water in may 1967. These two reports present the results of the efforts under Contract No. DI 14-01-0001-930 and all amendments. * "
Operation of a Reverse Osmosis Desalination Unit at Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This report covers the operation at Webster, South Dakota of an Aerojet Model 1-56OB-2 reverse osmosis (RO) unit purchased by the office of Saline Water (OSW) from Aerojet-General Corporation under Contract 14-0100001-1112."
Operation of Pilot Plant LTV Evaporator at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina
From Introduction: "The primary objective in the development of the W. L. Badger Long Tube Vertical Multiple Effect Evaporator for saline water conversion is to minimize the ultimate cost of producing potable water. To accomplish the primary objective, it is necessary to (1) prevent formation of scale on heating surfaces, and (2) minimize corrosion to permit use of inexpensive materials of construction. The work done leading to this report was guided in the direction of accomplishing the two secondary objectives."
Operation of Reverse Osmosis Pilot Plants
From Introduction: "This report includes the sixth segment of a continuing effort begun early in 1963. Purpose of the work is the scale-up of reverse osmosis from a laboratory curiosity to an economical system for the production of potable water from salty feeds."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Fourth Report (Semi-Annual), San Diego, California
From Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations: "The operation and development programs carried out in the CEP, E-1A and LMC plant during the period July 1, 1970 to December 31, 1970 are described in this report. Data was developed on several development tasks as follows. A summary is presented of material evaluation studies made over the past three and a half years. Data on the experiences with coatings, mortar linings, elastomers, and nonferrous and ferrous metals are included. Details are presented of coatings and linings installed in the CEP II Effect including methods of surface preparation and costs."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Third Report (Annual), San Diego, California
From Introduction: "This report covers the activities by Catalytic, Inc., during the contract period from June 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970, a thirteen month period."
Operation of the Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the operation and economic considerations of the multi-stage flash distillation plant in San Diego, California.
Optimum Brine Heater Outlet Temperature in Sea Water Conversion Evaporators
From Introduction & Scope: "This study was undertaken for the Office of Saline Water to determine the optimum brine heater outlet temperature in single-purpose sea water conversion evaporators for several fuel costs, based on balancing the increased performance ratio possible with high-temperature operations against the increased cost of pressure vessels, corrosion protection, and scale control."
Optimum Operation of Desalting Plants as a Supplemental Source of Safe Yield
From Summary: "The Operating Rule Program receives focus in this report. It is written in Fortran IV computer language and consists of about 1,700 statements. Principles results of the application of the program are summarized in Table 1 for the three systems analyzed."
Parametric Cost Studies Pertaining to Dual-Purpose Power and Water Desalination Plants
From Introduction: "This report contains the results of an optimization study conducted in the general field of design and economics of dual-purpose water desalination plants."
Parametric Economic and Engineering Evaluation Study of the Electrodialysis Process for Water Desalination
From Abstract: "A parametric engineering and economic evaluation study of the electrodialysis (ED) process for water desalination has been conducted. A primary objective of this study was to evaluate present technology of ED process equipment in order to gain improvements in cost sensitive items. Results indicated that ED is competitive with the cheapest methods for desalting low salinity brackish waters."
Performance Characteristics of Advanced Evaporator Tubes for Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators
From Introduction: "The investigation detailed in this report were undertaken to compare effectiveness of tubes enhanced in various ways and, then, to provide performance data on selected tubes of most promising type."
Pilot Plant Tests and Design Study of a 2.5 MGD Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Plant
From Summary: "Heat transfer coefficients for 2-, 2.5-, and 3-inch diameter horizontal aluminum-brass tubes are presented and correlated as functions of tube diameter, tube spacing, feed rate, feed salinity, heat flux, boiling point, and vapor velocity. A model of the heat transfer mechanism is proposed to explain and correlate the results."
The Potential Contribution of Desalting to Future Water Supply in Texas
From Forward: "This report presents the results of a study of the potential contribution of desalting to future water supply in the State of Texas."
Preliminary Community and Regional Water Supply Data in Support of Desalting Plant Projects
Purpose and Scope: "The purpose of this study is to provide basic water supply data needed for future evaluation and selection of promising saline water conversion opportunities. This report presents information regarding the present and future supply situation of individual communities. Also presented is information on regional water plans with respect to provisions for municipal water supply."
Preliminary Design of a Diesel-Powered Vapor-Compression Plant for Evaporation of Seawater
From Introduction and Objectives: "This report presents a preliminary analysis of a 2.04-Mgd distillation plant which provides a distinct potential for reducing water production costs to about $0.65 per 1000 gallons."
Process and Configuration Development for Tubular Reverse Osmosis Units
From Introduction and Summary: "The overall objective of this program was to develop an economical tubular reverse osmosis system for desalination of brackish water. Major emphasis was placed on the following aspects of the system. The work accomplished is summarized in the following paragraphs."
Recovery of Salts from Saline Waters Via Solvent Extraction
From Abstract: "This report contains the results of a 15-month study of the chemistry of mixed iconic extractant systems and their possible application to the recovery of by-products from desalination brines."
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From introduction: "In the process of being developed under Contract No. 14-01-001-202 fertilizer grade phosphoric acid (or sodium phosphates obtained from reacting phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide or soda ash) is mixed with sea water. The subsequent addition of ammonia causes the precipitation of solids which are then allowed to settle from water. The resulting descaled sea water is now ready for utilization in a water recovering plant."
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From Recommendations: "Laboratory research on the process for descaling sea water should be continued to improve the process and thereby lower the cost. Research efforts should be concentrated on methods for producing low cost sodium phosphates (needed for the precipitation of the scale-forming elements) from fertilizer grade phosphates and on increasing the crystalline nature of the phosphate precipitates (to reduce dewatering costs). The descaled sea water should be experimentally evaluated first in the laboratory and later under actual operating conditions so that its value to the water recovery program may be established."
Research Continuation of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distallation Testing on Unit 4
From Summary: "The work covered by this report includes a variety of subjects designed, generally, to test the utility of a centrifugal phase barrier as the boiler-condenser unit of a vapor recompression still for producing water from sea water."
Research on and Development of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distillation Techniques and Equipments
From Summary: "Based upon the results of the investigations on both the No. 3 and No. 4 stills, engineering designs for a 25,000 g.p.d. unit were developed. Sketches of this design and a description of the process are presented in this report."
Research on Pumping Unit Studies: Final Evaluation Report
From Introduction and Purpose of Studies: "The Bureau of Reclamation was engaged to administer contracts with pump manufactures to supply data on large pumping units capable of withstanding aerated sea water and the hot brine solutions to be encountered in such plants. The data, as evaluated in this report, are to be made available to 15 or more architect-engineers who have been engaged to prepare conceptual designs of the treatment plants."
Research on Saline Water Conversion by Freezing
From Introduction: "Progress of research related to problems encountered in processes for desalination by freezing is summarized in this report, which is the first annual progress report called for under the terms of Grant 14-01-0001-295 made to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by the Office of Saline Water in 1962."
Research on Thermoelectric Heat Pumps
From Results: "Prior to stating results achieved, let us first discuss the measurements we were able to make, and how these measurements might--or might not--be indicative of the objective we strove to reach. Tables I and II, and related Figs. 11 and 12, show the best results obtained. Final Columns of Tables I and II are believed to show, at least to a degree, how good or how poor our best sputtered films turned out to be, compared with top-quality Peliter semiconductor materials."
Research on Vapor Reheat And Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchange
From Forward and From Introductory- Summary : "This is the seventy-eighth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost dimineralization of sea or other saline water. The distillation system has operated with only minor difficulties. Mass transfer coefficients are in the range predicted from previous experiments. It is emphasized that the data reported above are not the best values obtained, but rather those upon which there is statistical justification based upon analysis of all the data."
Reverse Osmosis for Water Desalination
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the reverse-osmosis program. The methods of desalination through osmosis are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Saline Ground-Water Resources of the Rio Grande Drainage Basin: A Pilot Study
No Description Available.
Saline Ground-Water Resources of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico
From Abstract: "This report describes the location, extent, and quality of saline ground water in Tularosa Basin, a north-trending elongated, intermontane, desert basin in south-central New Mexico."
Saline Water Conversion by Freezing: An Integral Processing unit Using a Secondary Refrigerant
From Introduction: "The study of the conversion of saline water by direct freezing using a secondary refrigerant has been sponsored by the the Office of Saline Water at Cornell University since the beginning of 1958. This report first considers the energy relationships which can be the basis for much controversy regarding the freezing process."
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 2
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 3
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 4
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.