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A comparison of the results from general tank tests of 1/6- and 1/12-full-size models of the British Singapore IIC flying boat

Description: A 1/6-full-size model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat was tested in the NACA tank. The results are given in the form of charts and are compared with the results of previous tests made in the NACA tank of a 1/12-full-size model, published in NACA T.N. No. 580, and with the results of tests made in the British R.A.E. tank of another 1/6-full-size model of the same hull. When the data from the tests of the 1/6- and 1/12-full-size models were compared on the basis of Froude's law of comparison, differences were found. This fact supported the belief that the small scale of the model and the use of a model that was too small to suit the equipment of the NACA tank had caused the results of the tests of the 1/12-full-size model to be less reliable than the results of the tests of the 1/6-full-size model. The results of the tests of the two models agreed sufficiently well to show that test of a small model, if made meticulously and with suitable equipment, may give useable results, but that a larger model should be used whenever feasible. The results of the NACA tests of the 1/6-full-size model were found to be in good agreement with the R.A.E. tests of a model of the same size.
Date: August 1, 1942
Creator: Truscott, Starr & Dawson, John R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of profile-drag and boundary-layer measurements obtained in flight and in the full-scale wind tunnel

Description: The effect of the existing turbulence in the full scale tunnel was determined from measurements of the profile drag of an N-22 section by the momentum method under corresponding conditions in flight and the tunnel. The transition-point location on the upper surface of the air-foil was also determined from velocity surveys in the boundary layer. The measurements were made at section lift coefficients from 0.480 to 0.635 with a range of Reynolds Numbers from 4,600,000 to 3,900,000. The results show that the end of transition occurs at approximately the same point on the airfoil in flight and in the tunnel. The transition region was somewhat broader in the tunnel and started farther forward than in flight. The laminar profiles in the tunnel had some characteristics of transition profiles in the tunnel and had a much steeper slope near the surface than did the laminar profiles obtained in flight. These differences, however, caused an increase of only 0.0001 in the profile-drag coefficients, as determined by the momentum method.
Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Goett, Harry J & Bicknell, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of several methods of measuring ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

Description: The ignition lag of a fuel oil in the combustion chamber of a high speed compression-ignition engine was measured by three different methods. The start of injection of the fuel as observed with a Stoborama was taken as the start of the period of ignition lag in all cases. The end of the period of ignition lag was determined by observation of the appearance of incandescence in the combustion chamber, by inspection of a pressure-time card for evidence of pressure rise, and by analysis of the indicator card for evidence of the combustion of a small but definite quantity of fuel. A comparison of the values for ignition lags obtained by these three methods indicates that the appearance of incandescence is later than other evidences of the start of combustion, that visual inspection of a pressure-time diagram gives consistent and usable values with a minimum requirement of time and/or apparatus, and that analysis of the indicator card is not worth while for ignition lag alone.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Spanogle, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of several tapered wings designed to avoid tip stalling

Description: Optimum proportions of tapered wings were investigated by a method that involved a comparison of wings designed to be aerodynamically equal. The conditions of aerodynamic equality were equality in stalling speed, in induced drag at a low speed, and in the total drag at cruising speed. After the wings were adjusted to aerodynamic equivalence, the weights of the wings were calculated as a convenient method of indicating the optimum wing. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated from wing theory and test data for the airfoil sections. Various combinations of washout, camber increase in the airfoil sections from the center to the tips, and sharp leading edges at the center were used to bring about the desired equivalence of maximum lift and center-stalling characteristics. In the calculation of the weights of the wings, a simple type of spar structure was assumed that permitted an integration across the span to determine the web and the flange weights. The covering and the remaining weight were taken in proportion to the wing area. The total weights showed the wings with camber and washout to have the lowest weights and indicated the minimum for wings with a taper ratio between 1/2 and 1/3.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Effects Caused by Icing of an Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

Description: The effects of ice formations on the section lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of an unswept NACA 65A004 airfoil section of 6-foot chord were studied.. The magnitude of the aerodynamic penalties was primarily a function of the shape and size of the ice formation near the leading edge of the airfoil. The exact size and shape of the ice formations were determined photographically and found to be complex functions of the operating and icing conditions. In general, icing of the airfoil at angles of attack less than 40 caused large increases in section drag coefficients (as much as 350 percent in 8 minutes of heavy glaze icing), reductions in section lift coefficients (up to 13 percent), and changes in the pitching-moment coefficient from diving toward climbing moments. At angles of attack greater than 40 the aerodynamic characteristics depended mainly on the ice type. The section drag coefficients generally were reduced by the addition of rime ice (by as much as 45 percent in 8 minutes of icing). In glaze icing, however, the drag increased at these angles of attack. The section lift coefficients were variably affected by rime-ice formations; however, in glaze icing, lift increases at high angles of attack amounted to as much as 9 percent for an icing time of 8 minutes. Pitching-moment-coefficient changes in icing conditions were somewhat erratic and depended on the icing condition. Rotation of the iced airfoil to angles of attack other than that at which icing occurred caused sufficiently large changes in the pitching-moment coefficient that, in flight, rapid corrections in trim might be required in order to avoid a hazardous situation.
Date: February 1958
Creator: Gray, Vernon H. & vonGlahn, Uwe H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic investigation of a parabolic body of revolution at mach number of 1.92 and some effects of an annular supersonic jet exhausting from the base

Description: An aerodynamic investigation of a slender pointed parabolic body of revolution was conducted at Mach number of 1.92 with and without the effects of an annular supersonic jet exhausting from the base. Measurements with the jet inoperative were made of lift, drag, pitching moment, base pressures, and radial and axial pressures. With the jet in operation, pressure measurements were made over the rear of the body with the primary variables being angle of attack, ratio of jet velocity to stream velocity, and ratio of pressure at jet exit to stream pressure.
Date: September 1956
Creator: Love, Eugene S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

Description: The development of metal construction for aircraft has created a need for accurate and detailed information regarding the strength of riveted joints in aluminum-alloy structures. To obtain this information the National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is investigating the strength of riveted joints in aluminum alloys. The strength of riveted joints may be influenced by the form of the head, the ratio of the rivet diameter to the sheet thickness, the driving stress, and other factors. This note gives the results of tests to develop the riveting technique for test specimens and to determine the effects of these factors.
Date: November 1, 1936
Creator: Brueggeman, Wm C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of curvature on the transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer

Description: In the flow over the upper surface of a wing, a discrepancy between the predicted and actual point of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer was found. This effect may be due to the comparatively small radius of curvature of the upper surface of the wing. Tests were undertaken to investigate this effect. As far as the authors know, the present investigation is the first to show that curvature has a pronounced effect on the transition of the boundary layer from the laminar to the turbulent state. It appears that three important results have been obtained thus far. First, the experimental points for the convex and concave side of the sheet are consistent with each other and, with the experimental accuracy involved, lie on the same curve. Second, this curve can be approximated by a straight line. Third, the order of magnitude of the variation is such that the curvature ordinarily used on the upper surface of an airplane wing might double the critical Reynolds number.
Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Clauser, Milton & Clauser, Francis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extension of pack method for compressive tests

Description: The pack method for determining compressive stress-strain graphs described in NACA Report No. 649 has been modified to extend it's application to thinner gages and stronger materials. The principal modifications consisted in the provision of additional support against instability cementing the specimens of the pack together with fused shellac and the provision of special clamps to hold the specimens together while the test is in progress. The shellac was found to increase the buckling load of the pack without any appreciable effect on the compressive stress-strain graph of the material. The extended pack method described in this note has made possible the application of stresses in excess of 220 kips per square inch to sheet material having a thickness of only 0.02 inch.
Date: December 1, 1940
Creator: Aitchison, C S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The tracer gas method of determining the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle diesel engines

Description: A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Schweitzer, P H & Deluca, Frank, Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of properties throughout cross section of two extruded shapes

Description: Tensile and compressive properties were determined of specimens cut from the fins and the main bodies of two different extruded shapes of 24S-T aluminum alloy. The specimens from the fins as compared with those from the main body of the section showed: tensile strengths from 5000 to 10,000 pounds per square inch lower; tensile yield strengths and compressive yield strengths 4000 to 9000 pounds per square inch lower. The compressive yield strength values for any given location in the cross sections were about 1000 to 6000 pounds per square inch lower than the tensile strength values for the same location.
Date: September 1, 1941
Creator: Howell, F M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of sheet-stiffener panels subjected to compression loads with particular reference to torsionally weak stiffeners

Description: A total of 183 panel specimens of 24ST aluminum alloy with nominal thickness of 0.020, and 0.040 inch with extruded bulb-angle sections of 12 shapes spaced 4 and 5 inches as stiffeners were tested to obtain the buckling stress and the amplitude of the maximum wave when buckled. Bulb angles from 3 to 27 1/2 inches long were tested as pin-end columns. The experimental data are presented as stress-strain and column curves and in tabular form. Some comparisons with theoretical results are presented. Analytical methods are developed that make it possible for the designer to predict with reasonable accuracy the buckling stress and the maximum-wave amplitude of the sheet in stiffened-panel combinations. The scope of the tests was insufficient to formulate general design criteria but the results are presented as a guide for design and an indication of the type of theoretical and experimental work that is needed.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Dunn, Louis G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The lateral instability of deep rectangular beams

Description: Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.
Date: May 1, 1937
Creator: Dumont, C & Hill, H N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement of fatigue life of an aluminum alloy by overstressing

Description: Fatigue tests were made on some 1.375-inch-diameter and 0.300-inch diameter specimens of a 17S-T aluminum alloy rod. One test of a large specimen was run continuously to failure at a maximum stress of 22,000 pounds per square inch. In two other tests of large specimens, thin surface layers were removed periodically until failure occurred. The same nominal maximum stress of 22,000 pounds per square inch was used throughout the two tests and the load on the fatigue machine was lowered accordingly after the removal of each surface layer. As each test progressed the stress in the metal of the final surface area therefore was increased after the removal of each surface layer. Because of the stresses used, this metal was overstressed, that is, stressed above its endurance limit. All the remaining specimens were subjected to similar over- stressing conditions but no metal was removed and a low initial stress was increased periodically to a final maximum value of 22,000 pounds per square inch as each test progressed. It was found that the fatigue resistance of 17S-T aluminum alloy can be increased by moderate overstressing. Apparently the increase in fatigue lift obtained in the tests of specimens from which layers were removed was the result of overstressing rather than from the removal of damaged surface layers.
Date: August 1, 1942
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress concentration around an open circular hole in a plate subjected to bending normal to the plane of the plate

Description: An aluminum-alloy plate containing an open circular hole of diameter large compared with the thickness of the plate was subjected to bending forces normal to the plane of the plate. Deflection and strain measurements were taken for two different loads. Stress concentrations occurred at the edge of the hole and the maximum stresses were tangential to the hole at the ends of the transverse diameter. The maximum stress at the edge of the hole was 1.59 times the computed stress on the net section and 1.85 times the computed stress in a solid plate of the same dimensions subjected to the same bending forces. The maximum deflections were about 20 percent greater than the corresponding deflection for a solid plate of the same size subjected to the same bending forces. The smallest edge distance was equal to 2-1/2 times the diameter of the hole and the stress concentration on this side of the hole was the same as on the side where the edge distance was about 4-1/2 diameters. A theoretical analysis of the problem shows that, for an aluminum plate of infinite width, the stress concentration at the edge of the hole would be 1.87 times the stress in a solid plate, which is substantially the same relation obtained for the plate tested.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Dumont, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department