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A Preliminary Study of Ram-Actuated Cooling Systems for Supersonic Aircraft

Description: An analysis has been made of the characteristics of several cooling cycles suitable for cockpit cooling of supersonic aircraft. All the cycles considered utilize the difference between dynamic and ambient static pressure to actuate the cooling system and require no additional power source. The results of the study indicate that as flight speeds become greater, increasingly complex systems are required to reduce the altitudes above approximately 35,000 feet, a system composed of an externally loaded expansion turbine in conjunction with a supersonic diffuser would maintain tolerable ventilating air temperature, at least up to a flight Mach number of 2. The most complex system considered,composed of compressor, intercooler, and expansion turbine with the intercooler cooling air decreased in temperature by expansion through an auxiliary turbine is capable of maintaining a ventilation air temperature less than ambient temperature up to a flight Mach number of 3.7.
Date: April 29, 1947
Creator: Stalder, Jackson R. & Wadleigh, Kenneth R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Convergent-Divergent Diffusers at Mach Number 1.85

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland 18- by 18-inch supersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 1.85 and angles of attack from 0 deg to 5 deg to determine optimum design configurations for a convergent-divergent type of supersonic diffuser with a subsonic diffuser of 5 deg included divergence angle. Total pressure recoveries in excess of theoretical recovery across a normal shock at a free-stream Mach number of 1.85 wore obtained with several configurations. The highest recovery for configurations without a cylindrical throat section was obtained with an inlet having an included convergence angle of 20 deg. Insertion of a 2-inch throat section between a 10 deg included angle inlet and the subsonic diffuser stabilized the shock inside the diffuser and resulted in recoveries as high as 0.838 free-stream total pressure at an angle of attack of 0 deg, corresponding to recovery of 92.4 percent of the kinetic energy of the free air stream. Use of the throat section also lessened the reduction in recovery of all configurations due to angle of attack.
Date: April 28, 1947
Creator: Wyatt, Demarquis D & Hunczak, Henry R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of compressibility on the characteristics of five airfoils

Description: Report presenting the results of pressure-distribution tests to determine the effects of compressibility on the characteristics of the NACA 66,2-215, 66,2-015, 65(216)-418, 16-212, and 23015 airfoil sections. Schileren photographs of the air flow and data on the wake characteristics was also obtained.
Date: April 25, 1947
Creator: Daley, Bernard N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Submerged Duct Installation on the Ryan FR-1 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

Description: An investigation of an NACA submerged intake installation on the Ryan FR-1 was conducted to determine the full-scale aerodynamic characteristics of this installation. In addition, tests were conducted on the submerged inlet with revised entrance lips and deflectors to determine the configuration which would result in the best dynamic pressure recovery measured at the inlet for this installation without a major rework of the entrance. Stalling of the air flow over the inner lip surface created excessive dynamic pressure losses with the original entrance. The revised entrance produced a 12-percent increase in dynamic pressure recovery at the design high-speed inlet-velocity ratio and resulted in an improvement of thte critical-speed characteristics of the entrance lip. A complete redesign of the entrance including a decrease in ramp angle and adjustment of lip camber is necessary to secure optimum results from this submerged duct installation.
Date: April 23, 1947
Creator: Martin, Norman J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of the Trim Limits of Stability Obtained for a PB2Y-3 Flying Boat and a 1/8-Size Powered Dynamic Model

Description: Tests of a PB2Y-3 flying boat were made at the U.S> Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Md., to determine its hydrodynamic trim limits of stability. Corresponding tests were also made of a 1/8-size powered dynamic model of the same flying boat in Langley tank no. 1. During the tank tests, the full-size testing procedure was reproduced as closely as possible in order to obtain data for a direct correlation of the results. As a nominal gross load of 66,000 pounds, the lower trim limits of the full-size and model were in good agreement above a speed of 80 feet per second. As the speed decreased below 80 feet per second, the difference between the model trim limits and full-scale trim limits gradually became larger. The upper trim limit of the model with flaps deflected 0 deg was higher than that of the full-size, but the difference was small over the speed range compared. At flap deflections greater than 0 deg, it was not possible to trim either the model of the airplane to the upper limit with the center of gravity at 28 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The decrease in the lower trim limits with increase in flap deflection showed good agreement for the airplane and model. The lower trim limits obtained at different gross loads for the full-size airplane were reduced to approximately a single curve by plotting trim against the square root of C(sub delta (sub o)) divided by C(sub V).
Date: April 22, 1947
Creator: Garrison, Charlie C. & Hacskaylo, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling of Gas Turbines, IV - Calculated Temperature Distribution in the Trailing Part of a Turbine Blade Using Direct Liquid Cooling

Description: A theoretical analysis of the temperature distribution through the trailing portion of a blade near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the hot spot temperatures at the trailing edge and influence of design variables. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.
Date: April 18, 1947
Creator: Brown, W. Byron & Monroe, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Langley full-scale-tunnel investigation of the factors affecting the static lateral-stability characteristics of a typical fighter-type airplane

Description: The factors that affect the rate of change of rolling moment with yaw of a typical fighter-type airplane were investigated in the Langley full-scale tunnel on a typical fighter-type airplane.Eight representative flight conditions were investigated in detail. The separate effects of propeller operation, of the wing-fuselage combination, and of the vertical tail to the effective dihedral of the airplane in each condition were determined. The results of the tests showed that for the airplane with the propeller removed, the wing-fuselage combination had positive dihedral effect which increased considerably with increasing angle of attack for all conditions. Flap deflection decreased the dihedral effect of the wing-fuselage combination slightly as compared with that with the flaps retracted. Flap deflection resulted in negative dihedral effect due to the vertical tail. Propeller operation decreased the lateral stability parameter of the airplane for all the conditions investigated with larger decreases being measured for the flaps deflected conditions.
Date: April 15, 1947
Creator: Lange, Roy H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-speed investigation of an annular transonic air inlet

Description: Report presenting an investigation of three transonic fuselage-inlet installations designed to maintain substream velocities on the body ahead of air inlets. Surface pressures and inlet total pressures were measured at the tops of the test configurations for wide ranges of inlet-velocity ratio and angles of attack. Results indicated that substream velocities were maintained on all three noses over the angle of attack ranges and inlet-velocity ratio useful for high-speed flight.
Date: April 14, 1947
Creator: Nichols, Mark R. & Rinkoski, Donald W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of a Horizontal-Tail Model through the Transonic Speed Range by the NACA Wing-Flow Method

Description: A 1/12-scale model of a horizontal tail of a fighter airplane was tested through the transonic speeds in the high-speed flow over an airplane wing, the surface of which served as a reflection plane for the model. Measurements of lift, elevator-hinge moment, angle of attack, and elevator angle were made in the Mach number range from 0.75 to 1.04 for elevator deflections ranging from 10 degrees to minus 10 degrees, and for angles of attack of minus 1.2 degrees, 0.4 degrees, and 3.4 degrees. The equipment used to measure the hinge moments of the model proved to be unsatisfactory, and for this reason the hinge-moment data are considered to be only qualitative.
Date: April 11, 1947
Creator: Adams, Richard E. & Silsby, Norman S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department