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Investigations of Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Northrop N-9M Airplane

Description: The tumbling characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Northrop N-9M airplane have been determined in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel for various configurations and loading conditions of the model. The investigation included tests to determine whether recovery from a tumble could be effected by the use of parachutes. An estimation of the forces due to acceleration acting on the pilot during a tumble was made. The tests were performed at an equivalent test altitude of 15,000 feet. The results of the model tests indicate that if the airplane is stalled with its nose up and near the vertical, or if an appreciable amount of pitching rotation is imparted to the airplane as through the action of a strong gust, the airplane will either tumble or oscillate in pitch through a range of angles of the order of +/-120 deg. The normal flying controls will probably be ineffective in preventing or in terminating the tumbling motion. The results of the model tests indicate that deflection of the landing flaps full down immediately upon the initiation of pitching rotation will tend to prevent the development of a state of tumbling equilibrium. The simultaneous opening of two-7-foot diameter parachutes having drag coefficients of 0.7, one parachute attached to the rear portion of each wing tip with a towline between 10 and 30 feet long, will provide recovery from a tumble. The accelerations acting on the pilot during a tumble will be dangerous.
Date: January 27, 1947
Creator: MacDougall, George F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated Flying Qualities of the Martin Model 202 Airplane

Description: The flying qualities of the Martin model 202 airplane have been estimated chiefly from the results of tests of an 0.0875-scale complete model with power made in the Wright Brothers tunnel at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and from partial span wing and isolated vertical tail tests made in the Georgia Tech Nine-Foot Tunnel. These estimated handling qualities have been compared with existing Army-Navy and CAA requirements for stability and control. The results of the analysis indicate that the Martin model 202 airplane will possess satisfactory handling qualities in all respects except possibly in the following: The amount of elevator control available for landing or maneuvering in the landing condition is either marginal or insufficient when using the adjustable stabilizer linked to the flaps . Moreover, indications are that the longitudinal trim changes will be neither large nor appreciably worse with a fixed stabilizer than with the contemplated arrangement utilizing the adjustable stabilizer in an attempt to reduce the magnitude of the trim changes caused by flap deflection.
Date: January 24, 1947
Creator: Weil, Joseph & Spear, Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag Measurements at Transonic Speeds of NACA 65-009 Airfoils Mounted on a Freely Falling Body to Determine the Effects of Sweepback and Aspect Ratio

Description: Drag measurements at transonic speeds on rectangular airfoils and on airfoils swept back 450 are reported. These airfoils, which were mounted on cylindrical test bodies, are part of a series being tested in free drops from high altitude to determine the effect of variation of basic airfoil parameters on airfoil drag characteristics at transonic speeds. These rectangular and swept-back airfoils had the same span, airfoil section (NACA 65-009), and chord perpendicular to the leading edge. The tests were made to compare the drag of rectangular and sweptback airfoils at a higher aspect ratio than had been used in a similar comparison reported previously. The results showed that the drag of the swept-back airfoil was less than 0.15 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.00 and less than 0.30 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.17. A comparison of these swept-back airfoils with similar airfoils of lower aspect ratio previously tested by the same method indicated that in the investigated speed range reduction in aspect ratio results in increased drag. In the highest part of the investigated speed range, however, the drag coefficient of the high-aspect-ratio swept-back airfoils showed a tendency to approach that of the lower-aspect-ratio swept-back airfoils. A similar comparison for the rectangular airfoils showed that delay in the drag rise and a reduction in drag at supercritical speeds can be realIzed through reduction in aspect ratio. These results confirm those reported in NACA ACR No. L5J16.
Date: January 22, 1947
Creator: Mathews, Charles W. & Thompson, Jim Rogers
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the 19XB 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor with Altered Blade Angles

Description: Previous performance data of the 19XB axial-flow compressor indicated that the outlet guide vanes and possibly the inlet guide vanes were stalling. Calculations were made to determine if these adverse conditions could be eliminated and if the manufacturer's design specifications could be more nearly approached by altering the blade angles of the first few compression stages as well as the outlet guide vanes. With the blade angles altered, experimental data were taken at compressor speeds of 8500 to 17,000 rpm with inlet-air conditions of 7.4 inches of mercury absolute and 59 0 F. The temperature-rise efficiency increased with speed from 0.70 at 8500 rpm to 0.74 at 13,600 rpm and dropped gradually to 0.70 at 17,000 rpm. At the design speed of 17,000 rpm, the pressure ratio at the peak efficiency point was 3.63. The maximum pressure ratio at design speed was 4.15 at an equivalent weight flow of 29.8 pounds per second. The altered compressor operated very .near the design specifications of pressure ratio and equivalent weight flow. At the high speeds, the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency was increased 0.02 to 0,06 by altering the blade angles. The peak pressure ratio was increased 0.29 at design speed (17,000 rpm) and 0.05 and 0.13 at 11,900 and 13,600 rpm, respectively. The equivalent weight flow through the altered compressor was reduced 2 pounds per second at 15,300 and 17,000 rpm, as was expected from the design calculations. As extreme caution was taken not to surge the compressor violently, the point of minimum air flow may not have been reached in the present investigation and in a previous investigation. A true comparison of the pressure ratios obtained at the high speeds therefore cannot be made.
Date: January 21, 1947
Creator: Downing, Richard M.; Finger, Harold B. & Roepcke, Fay A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Exhaust Pressure on the Cooling Characteristics of a Liquid-Cooled Engine

Description: Data for a liquid-cooled engine with a displacement volume of 1710 cubic inches were analyzed to determine the effect of exhaust pressure on the engine cooling characteristics. The data covered a range of exhaust pressures from 7 to 62 inches of mercury absolute, inlet-manifold pressures from 30 to 50 inches of mercury absolute, engine speeds from 1600 to 3000 rpm, and fuel-air ratios from 0.063 to 0.100. The effect of exhaust pressure on engine cooling was satisfactorily incorporated in the NACA cooling-correlation method as a variation in effective gas temperature with exhaust pressure. Large variations of cylinder-head temperature with exhaust pressure were obtained for operation at constant charge flow. At a constant charge flow of 2 pounds per second (approximately 1000 bhp) and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, an increase in exhaust pressure from 10 to 60 inches of mercury absolute resulted in an increase of 40 F in average cylinder-head temperature. For operation at constant engine speed and inlet-manifold pressure and variable exhaust pressure (variable charge flow), however, the effect of exhaust pressure on cylinder-head temperature is small. For example, at an inlet-manifold pressure of 40 inches of mercury absolute, an engine speed of 2400 rpm.- and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, the average cylinder-head temperature was about the same at exhaust pressures of 10 and 60 inches of,mercury absolute; a rise and a subsequent decrease of about 70 occurred between these extremes.
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Doyle, Ronald B. & Desmon, Leland G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Induction-System Icing on Aircraft-Engine Operating Characteristics

Description: An investigation was conducted on a multicylinder aircraft engine on a dynamometer stand to determine the effect of induction-system icing on engine operating characteristics and to compare the results with those of a previous laboratory investigation in which only the carburetor and the engine-stage supercharger assembly from the engine were used. The experiments were conducted at simulated glide power, low cruise power, and normal rated power through a range of humidity ratios and air temperatures at approximately sea-level pressure. Induction-system icing was found to occur within approximately the same limits as those established by the previous laboratory investigation after making suitable allowances for the difference in fuel volatility and throttle angles. Rough operation of the engine was experienced when ice caused a marked reduction in the air flow. Photographs of typical ice formations from this investigation indicate close similarity to icing previously observed in the laboratory.
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Stevens, Howard C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation of the Effects of Ice on an I-16 Jet-Propulsion Engine

Description: A flight investigation of an I-16 jet propulsion engine installed in the waist compartment of a B-24M airplane was made to determine the effect of induction-system icing on the performance of the engine. Flights were made at inlet-air temperatures of 15 deg, 20 deg., and 25 F, an indicated airspeed of 180 miles per hour, jet-engine speeds of 13,000 and 15,000 rpm, liquid-water contents of approximately 0.3 to 0.5 gram per cubic meter, and an average water droplet size of approximately 50 microns. Under the most severe icing conditions obtained, ice formed on the screen over the front inlet to the compressor and obstructed about 70 percent of the front-inlet area. The thrust was thereby reduced 13.5 percent, the specific fuel consumption increased 17 percent, and the tail-pipe temperature increased 82 F. No icing of the rear compressor-inlet screen was encountered.
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Pragliola, Philip C. & Werner, Milton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Tests in the Supersonic Sphere

Description: This report presents preliminary data obtained in the Langley supersonic sphere. The supersonic sphere is essentially a whirling mechanism enclosed in a steel shell which can be filled with either air or Freon gas. The test models for two-dimensional study are of propeller form having the same plan form and diameter but varying only in the airfoil shape and thickness ratio. Torque coefficients for the 16-006, 65-110, and the 15 percent thick ellipse models are presented, as well as pressure distributions on a circular-arc supersonic airfoil section having a maximum thickness of 10 percent chord at the 1/3-chord position. Torque coefficients were measured in both Freon and air on the 15 percent thick ellipse, and the data obtained in air and Freon are found to be in close agreement. The torque coefficients for the three previously mentioned models showed large differences in magnitude at tip Mach numbers above 1, the model with the thickest airfoil section having the largest torque coefficient. Pressure distribution on the previously mentioned circular-arc airfoil section are presented at Mach numbers of 0.69, 1.26, and 1.42. At Mach numbers of 1.26 and 1.42 the test section is in the mixed flow region where both subsonic and supersonic speeds occur on the airfoil. No adequate theory has been developed for this condition of mixed flow, but the experimental data have been compared with values of pressure based on Ackeret's theory. The experimental data obtained at a Mach number of 1.26 on the rear portion of the airfoil section agree fairly well with the values calculated by Ackeret's theory. At a Mach number of 1.42 a larger percentage of the airfoil is in supersonic flow, and the experimental data for the entire airfoil agree fairly well with the values obtained using Ackeret's theory.
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Baker, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Dimensional Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Modified NACA 65(sub 112)-111 Airfoil with 35-Percent-Chord Slotted Flap at Reynolds Numbers up to 25 Million

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to develop the optimum configuration of a .035-chord slotted flap on an NACA 65(sub(112)-111 airfoil section modified by removing the trailing-edge cusp. Included in the investigation were measurements to determine the scale effects on the section lift and drag characteristics of the airfoil with the flap retracted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.0 X 10(exp 6) to 2.5 X 10(exp 6). The scale effects on the lift characteristics were also determined for the same reynolds numbers for the flap deflected in the rotation found to be optimum at a Reynolds number of 9.0 X 10(exp 6).
Date: January 20, 1947
Creator: Racisz, Stanley F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A device for measuring sonic velocity and compressor Mach number

Description: A device has been developed which measures the velocity of sound in fluids at stagnation and is especially adaptable to turbine and compressor testing for which the constituency of the working fluid may be in doubt. By utilizing the shaft frequency of a rotary compressor, the instrument can also be used to provide a direct measurement of the compressor Mach number (ratio of blade-tip velocity to inlet velocity of sound at stagnation). A Helmholtz resonator is employed in the measurement of the sound velocity. Viscous effects in the orifice of the Helmholtz resonator are shown to be important and can be taken into account with the help of a parameter obtained from Stokes solution of the flow near an oscillating wall. This parameter includes the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and the frequency of sound in the resonator. When these effects are recognized, the resonator can be calibrated to measure velocity of sound or compressor Mach number to an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent.
Date: January 16, 1947
Creator: Huber, Paul W & Kantrowitz, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of modifications to induction system on altitude performance of V-1710-93 engine III : use of parabolic rotating guide vanes and NACA designed auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct

Description: Bench runs of a modified V-1710-93 engine equipped with a two-stage supercharger, interstage carburetor, aftercooler assembly, and backfire screens have been made at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet to determine the effect of several induction-system modifications on the engine and supercharger performance. The standard guide vanes on the auxiliary- and engine-stage superchargers were replaced by rotating guide vanes with a parabolic blade profile. The auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct were replaced with new units of NACA design. These modifications were made one at a time and data were obtained after each change to determine the effect of each modification. All runs were made at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet and all changes in engine power were made by varying the speed of the auxiliary-stage supercharger.
Date: January 16, 1947
Creator: Standahar, Ray M. & Mccarty, James S.c
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/4-Scale Model of the Naval Aircraft Factory Float-Wing Convoy Interceptor, TED No. NACA 2314

Description: A 1/4 - scale model of the Naval Aircraft Factory float-wing convoy interceptor was tested in the Langley 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics. The model was tested in the presence of a ground board to determine the effect of simulating the ground on the longitudinal characteristics.
Date: January 16, 1947
Creator: Wells, Evalyn G. & McKinney, Elizabeth G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Tests of a Burner for Ram-Jet Applications

Description: Preliminary tests have been made of a small burner to meet the requirements for application to supersonic ram jets. The principal requirements were taken as: (1) efficient combustion in a high-velocity air stream, (2) utilization for combustion of only a small fraction of the air passing through the unit, (3) low resistance to air flow, (4) simple construction, and (5) light weight. Tests of a small burner were carried to stream velocities of nearly 150 feet per second and fuel rates such that one-eighth to one-fourth of the total air was involved in combustion. Commercial propane was selected as the fuel since its low boiling point facilitated vaporization. Combustion which was 80 percent complete along with low aerodynamic losses was obtained by injecting the fuel evenly, prior to ignition, and allowing it to mix with the air without appreciably disturbing the stream. The pressure drop due to frictional losses around the burner and to the adjacent inside walls of the ram jet is small compared with the pressure drop due to combustion.
Date: January 15, 1947
Creator: Huber, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Tests to Determine the Effect of a Conical Windshield on the Drag of a Bluff Body at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Tests to evaluate the effect of a conical windshield on the drag of a bluff body at supersonic speeds were performed for the following configurations: a sharp nose fuselage with stabilizing fins,a blunt nose fuselage with a hemispherical shape, and a blunt nose fuselage with a conical point. Results of the drag coeeficient are described at Mach 1.0 and the greatest Mach number of 1.37.
Date: January 14, 1947
Creator: Alexander, Sidney R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Investigation of TG-180 Combustor: I - Instrumentation, Altitude Operational Limits and Combustion Efficiency

Description: A brief investigation has been made of the performance of a single combustor of the TG-180 turboJet engine to determine (a) the altitude operational limits of the engine for two fuels (AN-F-32 and AN-F-28), (b) combustion efficiencies at various simulated conditions of altitude and engine speeds, (c) combustion-outlet temperature distribution for several altitudes at constant engine speed, and (d) the combustor total pressure drop The limits with AN-83-F-32 fuel were found to be approximately 60,000 feet for an engine speed of 6000 rpm and approximately 38,000 feet for an engine speed of 1000 rpm. The results indicated that the altitude operational limits with AN-F-32 fuel are higher over the largest part of the engine-speed range than with AN-F-28 fuel, A combination efficiency of 22 percent was obtained at rated engine speed (7600 rpm) and an altitude of 20,000 feet with AN-F-32 fuel. A change in altitude from 20,000 tm 60,000 feet showed a 20-percent decrease in combustion efficiency while the engine was operating at 760G rpm whereas, at an engine speed of 4000 rpm a change of altitude from 10,000 to 40,000 feet showed a 52-percent decrease in combustion efficiency .
Date: January 13, 1947
Creator: Zettle, Eugene V. & Cook, William P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration. Static Longitudinal Stability of Models with Wing Flap Deflections of 0 Deg and 15 Deg, TED No. NACA 2387

Description: From flight tests of 0.5-scale models of the Fairchild Lark pilotless aircraft conducted at the flight test station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallops Island, Va., some evaluations of the static longitudinal stability were obtained by analysis of the short-period oscillations induced by the abrupt movement of the rudder elevators. The analysis shows that for the Lark configuration with wing flap deflections of 0 degrees and 15 degrees the static longitudinal stability decreases slightly up to the critical Mach number and than as the Mach number increases further the stability increases greatly.
Date: January 10, 1947
Creator: Stone, David G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Tunnel Development of Means to Alleviate Buffeting of the North American XP-82 Airplane at High Speeds

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of a 0.22-scale model of the North American XP-82 airplane with several modifications designed to reduce the buffeting of the airplane. The effects of various modifications on the air flow over the model are shown by means of photographs of tufts. The drag, lift, and pitching-moment coefficients of the model with several of the modifications are shown. The result indicate that, by reflexing the trailing edge of the center section of the wing and modifying the radiator air-scoop gutter and the inboard lower-surface wing fillets, the start of buffeting can be delayed from a Mach number of 0.70 to 0.775, and that the diving tendency of the airplane would be eliminated up to a Mach number of 0.80.
Date: January 9, 1947
Creator: Anderson, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleration Characteristics of R-3350 Engine Equipped with NACA Injection Impeller

Description: Qualitative investigations have shown that use of the NACA injection impeller with the R-3350 engine increases the inertia of the fuel-injection system and, when the standard fuel-metering system is used, this increase in inertia results in poor engine acceleration characteristics. This investigation was therefore undertaken to determine whether satisfactory acceleration characteristics of the engine equipped with the injection impeller could be obtained by simple modifications to the fuel-monitoring system. The engine was operated with two types of carburetor; namely, a hydraulic-metering carburetor incorporating a vacuum-operated accelerating pump and a direct-metering carburetor having a throttle-actuated accelerating pump. The vacuum-operated accelerating pump of the hydraulic-metering carburetor was modified to produce satisfactory accelerations by supplementing the standard air chamber with an additional 75-cubic spring. The throttle-actuated accelerating pump of the direct-metering carburetor was modified to produce satisfactory accelerations by replacing the standard 0.028-inch-diameter bleed in the load-compensator balance line with a smaller bleed of 0.0225-inch diameter. The results of this investigation indicated that both carburetors can be easily modified to produce satisfactory acceleration characteristics of the engine and no definite choice between the types of carburetor and accelerating pump can be made. Use of the direct-metering carburetor, however, probably resulted in better fuel distribution to the cylinders during the acceleration period and reduced the backfire hazard because all the fuel is introduced through the injection impeller.
Date: January 8, 1947
Creator: Hickel, Robert O. & Snider, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XB-1 Jet-Propulsion Engines. II - Analysis of Turbine Performance of the 19B-8 Engine

Description: Performance characteristics of the turbine in the 19B-8 jet propulsion engine were determined from an investigation of the complete engine in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The investigation covered a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 30,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.05 to 0.46 for various tail-cone positions over the entire operable range of engine speeds. The characteristics of the turbine are presented as functions of the total-pressure ratio across the turbine and the turbine speed and the gas flow corrected to NACA standard atmospheric conditions at sea level. The effect of changes in altitude, flight Mach number, and tail-cone position on turbine performance is discussed. The turbine efficiency with the tail cone in varied from a maximum of 80.5 percent to minimum of 75 percent over a range of engine speeds from 7500 to 17,500 rpm at a flight Mach number of 0.055. Turbine efficiency was unaffected by changes in altitude up to 15,000 feet but was a function of tail-cone position and flight Mach number. Decreasing the tail-pipe-nozzle outlet area 21 percent reduced the turbine efficiency between 2 and 4.5 percent. The turbine efficiency increased between 1.5 and 3 percent as the flight Mach number changed from 0.055 to 0.297.
Date: January 8, 1947
Creator: Krebs, Richard P. & Suozzi, Frank L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude Cooling Investigation of the R-2800-21 Engine in the P-47G Airplane. IV - Engine Cooling-Air Pressure Distribution

Description: A study of the data obtained in a flight investigation of an R-2800-21 engine in a P-47G airplane was made to determine the effect of the flight variables on the engine cooling-air pressure distribution. The investigation consisted of level flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The data showed that the average engine front pressures ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 of the impact pressure (velocity head). The average engine rear pressures ranged from 0.50 to 0.55 of the impact pressure for closed cowl flaps and from 0.10 to 0.20 for full-open cowl flaps. In general, the highest front pressures were obtained at the bottom of the engine. The rear pressures for the rear-row cylinders were .lower and the pressure drops correspondingly higher than for the front-row cylinders. The rear-pressure distribution was materially affected by cowl-flap position in that the differences between the rear pressures of the front-row and rear-row cylinders markedly increased as the cowl flaps were opened. For full-open cowl flaps, the pressure drops across the rear-row cylinders were in the order of 0.2 of the impact pressure greater than across the front-row cylinders. Propeller speed and altitude had little effect on the -coolingair pressure distribution, Increase in angle of inclination of the thrust axis decreased the front ?pressures for the cylinders at the top of the engine and increased them for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine. As more auxiliary air was taken from the engine cowling, the front pressures and, to a lesser extent, the rear pressures for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine decreased. No correlation existed between the cooling-air pressure-drop distribution and the cylinder-temperature distribution.
Date: January 7, 1947
Creator: Kaufman, Samuel J.; Staudt, Robert C. & Valerino, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department