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Langley Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of a 1/3-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 Airplane

Description: The results of an investigation of a 1/3-scale model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 airplane in the Langley full-scale tunnel are presented in this report. The maximum lift and stalling characteristics of several model configurations, the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model, and the effectiveness of the control surfaces were determined with the propellers removed. The propulsive characteristics, the effect of propeller operation on the lift, and the static thrust of the model propellers were determined at several propeller-blade angles. The results with the propellers removed showed that the maximum lift coefficient of the complete model configuration was only 0.97 was compared with the value of 1.31 for the model configuration in which the engine-air ducts and canopy are removed. The model with the propellers removed (normal center-of-gravity position) has a positive static margin, stick fixed, varying from 5 to 13 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The unit horizontal tail is sufficiently powerful to trim the airplane with the propellers removed throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The peak propulsive efficiencies for beta = 20 degrees and beta = 30 degrees were increased 7 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.67 and 20 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.74, respectively, with the propellers rotating upward in the center than with the propellers rotating downward in the center. Indications are that the minimum forward-flight speed of the airplane for full-power operation at sea level will be about 90 miles per hour. Decreasing the weight and increasing the power reduced this value of minimum speed and there were no indications from the results of a lower limit to the minimum speed.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Lange, Roy H.; Cocke, Bennie W., Jr. & Proterra, Anthony J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waters Loads on the XJL-1 Hull as Obtained in Langley Impact Basin, TED No. NACA 2413.3

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley impact basin of the water loads on a half scale model of the XJL-1 hull whose forebody has a vee bottom with exaggerated chine flare. The impact loads, moments, and pressures were determined for a range of landing conditions. A normal full-scale landing speed of 86 miles per hour was represented with effective flight paths ranging from 0.6deg to 11.6deg. Landings were made with both fixed trim and free-to-trim mounting of the float over a trim range of -15deg to 12deg into smooth water and into waves having equivalent full-scale length. of 120 feet and heights ranging from 1 to 4 feet. All data and results presented in this report are given in terms of equivalent full-scale values. Summary tables and illustrative plots are used in presenting the material. The following maximum values of load and pressure are those which are apropos for effective flight paths less than 6.5deg which was the maximum value obtained in tests with the XJL-1 hull model representing full-scale landings with vertical velocity of 4.5 feet per second into 4-foot waves. The maximum local pressure on the flat portion of the bottom is 130 pounds per square inch which was measured on a 2-inch-diameter circular area near the step. The maximum local pressure obtained in the curved area near the chines is 200 pounds per square inch. This pressure was also measured near the step.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Steiner, Margaret F. & Miller, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude cooling investigation of the R-2800-21 engine in the P-47G airplane II : investigation of the engine & airplane variables affecting the cylinder temperature distribution

Description: The data obtained from cooling tests of an R-2800-21 engine installed in a p-47G airplane were studied to determine which engine and airplane operation variables were mainly responsible for the extremely uneven temperature distribution among the 18 engine cylinders obtained at the medium and high engine-power conditions. The tests consisted of flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The results of the study showed that a flow condition in the induction system associated with the wide-open throttle position, which affected either the fuel air or charge distribution, was primarily responsible for the uneven temperature distribution. For the range of fuel-air ratios tested (0.080 to 0.102), the temperature distribution remained essentially unchanged. The individual effects of thrust-axis inclination, cowl-flap opening, and quantity of auxiliary air were found to be secondary in importance. At low angles of throttle opening, engine speed was found to have little effect on the temperature pattern.
Date: October 9, 1946
Creator: Pesman, Gerard J & Kaufman, Samuel J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude cooling investigation of the R-2800-21 engine in the P-47g airplane III : individual-cylinder temperature reduction by means of intake-pipe throttle and by coolant injection

Description: Flight tests were conducted on a R-2800-21 engine in the P-47G airplane to determine the effect on the wall temperatures of cylinder 10 of throttling the charge in the intake pipe and of injecting a water-ethanol coolant into the intake pipe. Cylinder 10 was chosen for this investigation because it runs abnormally hot (head temperatures of the order of 45 F higher than those of the next hottest cylinder) at the medium and high-power conditions. Tests with interchanged cylinders showed that the excessive temperatures of cylinder 10 were inherent in the cylinder location and were not due to the mechanical condition of the cylinder assembly. Throttling the charge in the intake pipe is a simpler method than coolant injection into the intake pipe particularly when only one cylinder is considerably hotter than any other. Coolant injection into the individual cylinders is a more efficient method than throttling in the intake pipe and is warranted when several cylinders are to be cooled or when parts of the complex equipment required are already available.
Date: October 9, 1946
Creator: Bell, E Barton; Valerino, Michael F & Manganiello, Eugene J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight and test-stand investigation of high-performance fuels in Pratt & Whitney R-1830-94 engines IV : comparison of cooling characteristics of flight and test-stand engines

Description: The cooling characteristics of three R-1830-94 engines, two of which were mounted in a test stand and the other in a B-24D airplane, were investigated and the results were compared. The flight tests were made at a pressure altitude of 7000 feet; the test-stand runs were made at ground-level atmospheric conditions. Three cooling runs were made for each engine: variable cooling-air pressure drop, variable carburetor-air flow, and variable fuel-air ratio. Actual cylinder temperatures of the three engines at nearly the same operating conditions of charge-air flow, fuel-air ratio, and cooling-air pressure drop paralleled predicted temperatures for the same conditions. This result was found to be true for a limited period of engine running time, this period coinciding with the time during which the cooling-correlation data were taken.
Date: October 8, 1946
Creator: Werner, Milton & Dandois, Marcel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation of Effect of Various Vertical-Tail Modifications on the Directional Stability and Control Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889)

Description: Because the results of preliminary flight tests had indicated. the P-63A-1 airplane possessed insufficient directional stability, the NACA and the manufacturer (Bell Aircraft Corporation) suggested three vertical-tail modifications to remedy the deficiencies in the directional characteristics. These modifications included an enlarged vertical tail formed by adding a tip extension to the original vertical tail, a large sharp-edge ventral fin, and a small dorsal fin. The enlarged vertical tail involved only a slight increase in total vertical-tail area from 23.73 to 26.58 square feet but a relatively much larger increase in geometric aspect ratio from 1.24 to 1.73 based on height and area above the horizontal tail. At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were made to determine the effect of these modifications and of some combinations of these modifications on the directional stability and control characteristics of the airplane, In all, six different vertical-tail. configurations were investigated to determine the lateral and directional oscillation characteristics of the airplane, the sideslip characteristics, the yaw due to ailerons in rudder-fixed rolls from turns and pull-outs, the trim changes due to speed changes; and the trim changes due to power changes. Results of the tests showed that the enlarged vertical tail approximately doubled the directional stability of the airplane and that the pilots considered the directional stability provided by the enlarged vertical tail to be satisfactory. Calculations based on sideslip data obtained at an indicated airspeed of 300 miles per hour showed that the directional stability of the airplane with the original vertical tail corresponded to a value of 0(sub n beta) of -0.00056 whereas for the enlarged vertical tail the estimated va1ue of C(sub n beta) was -0.00130, The ventral fin was found to increase by a moderate amount the directional stability of the airplane with ...
Date: October 7, 1946
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation of the cooling characteristics of a two-row radial engine installation III : engine temperature distribution

Description: The temperature distribution of a two-row radial engine in a twin-engine airplane has been investigated in a series of flight tests. The test engine was operated over a wide range of conditions at density altitudes of 5000 and 20,000 feet; quantitative results are presented showing the effects of flight and engine variables upon average engine temperature and over-all temperature spread. Discussions of the effect of the variables on the shape of the temperature patterns and on the temperature distribution of individual cylinders are also included. The results indicate that, for the tests conducted, the temperature distribution patterns were chiefly determined by the fuel-air ratio and cooling-air distributions. It was possible to calculate individual cylinder temperature, on the assumption of equal power distribution among cylinders, to within an average of plus or minus 14 degrees F. of the actual temperature. A considerable change occurred in either the spread or the thrust axis, the average engine fuel-air ratio, the engine speed, the power, or the blower ratio. Smaller effects on the temperature pattern were noticed with a change in cowl-flap opening and altitude. In most of the tests, a change in conditions affected the temperature of the barrels less than that of the heads. The variation of flight and engine variables had a negligible effect on the temperature distributions of the individual cylinders. (author).
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Rennak, Robert M; Messing, Wesley E & Morgan, James E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow Investigation with the Aid of the Ultramicroscope

Description: On the basis of photographic pictures the laminar flow at a pipe inlet was measured and compared with other measurements and computational results. The test setup is described in detail, and a series of the pictures obtained for turbulent flow is given.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Vogelpohl, G. & Mannesmann, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in a two-dimensional supersonic flow

Description: An account is given of the Possio theory of non stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron torsion. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for numerous values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one degree of freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I E & Rubinow, S I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in two-dimensional supersonic flow

Description: A connected account is given of the Possio theory of non-stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to the determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron rotations. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for various values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are shown in figures and are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one-degree-of-freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I E & Rubinow, S I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The infrared spectra of spiropentane methylenecyclobutane and 2-methyl-1-butene

Description: The infrared spectra of spiropentane, methylenecyclobutane, and 2-methyl-1-butene were measured in the region from 3 to 14 microns with a rock salt prism spectrometer of medium dispersion. The pure samples were prepared at the NACA Cleveland Laboratory. The vapors of these three C5 hydrocarbons were investigated at room temperature and at pressures in the range from 80 to 300 millimeters of mercury absolute in a 10-centimeter cell. The spectra were compared with each other and with Ramon spectra for the same compounds.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Cleaves, Alden P & Sherrick, Mildred E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plane and Three-Dimensional Flow at High Subsonic Speeds

Description: For two- and three-dimensional flow in a compressible medium, a simple relation is given by which, to a first approximation, the quantitative influence of compressibility upon the velocities and pressures can be understood in a clear manner. In the application of this relation the distinct behaviors of two-dimensional and axially symmetric three-dimensional flow with increasing Mach number are brought out. For slender elliptic cylinders and ellipsoids of revolution, calculations are made of the critical Mach number; that is, the Mach number at which local sonic velocity is achieved on the body. As a further example, the lifting wing of finite span is considered, and it is shown that the increase of wing lift with Mach number at a given angle of attack is greatly dependent upon the aspect ratio b(exp 2)/F.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Gothert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/18-Scale Model of the Fairchild XNQ-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2398

Description: Spin tests have been performed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/18-scale model of the Fairchild XNQ-1 airplane. The spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal gross-weight loading and for two variations from this loading - center of gravity moved rearward and relative mass distribution increased along the fuselage. These tests were performed for two vertical-tail plan forms. The investigation also included simulated pilot-escape tests and rudder-force tests. The recovery characteristics of the model were satisfactory for all conditions tested by full reversal of the rudder and by simultaneous neutralization of the rudder and elevator. It was indicated that if necessary to escape from the spinning airplane, the pilot should jump from the outboard side of the fuselage and as far rearward as possible. Aa determined from spin model tests, the rudder pedal force required to reverse the rudder for recovery from the spin will be light.
Date: September 30, 1946
Creator: Daughtridge, Lee T., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests to Determine Aileron Characteristics of the McDonnell XFD-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 23102

Description: Tests were performed on a partial span of the wing of a McDonnell XFD-1 airplane to determine a combination of sealed internal balance and spring-tab stiffness for the aileron that would give satisfactory stick-force characteristics for the airplane. Two sealed internal balances were tested in combination with spring tabs of various stiffnesses. One of the combinations was tested at several speeds to determine the variation of stick force with speed. Estimates, based on the results of the tests, indicate that for this airplane any reduction of stick force by use of the spring tab reduces the helix angle pb/2V below the required value of 0.09. The estimates show that, of the configurations tested, the most satisfactory combination for obtaining a stick force of 30 pounds at 300 miles per hour indicated airspeed is a 0.48-chord internal balance in combination with a spring-tab stiffness of 500 pounds per inch. With this combination, a wing-tip helix angle of 0.078 is estimated. Stick-force curves for all configurations show a rapid increase in stick force above approximately 20 deg. total aileron deflection.
Date: September 26, 1946
Creator: Yates, Campbell C. & Schneiter, Leslie E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Three Design Modifications of the NACA Injection Impeller in an R-3350 Engine

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of three design modifications of the original NACA injection impeller on the performance of an R-3350 engine. Different methods of injecting the fuel into the impeller air stream were studied and evaluated from the individual cylinder fuel-air ratios and the resulting cylinder temperatures. Each impeller was tested for a range of engine powers normally used in flight operation. The relatively simple design of the original injection impeller produced approximately the same mixture- and temperature-distribution characteristics as the modified impellers of more complex design. None of the modifications appreciably affected the manifold pressure, the combustion-air flow, nor the throttle angle required to maintain a given engine power,.
Date: September 9, 1946
Creator: Hickel, Robert O. & Michel, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Oil-System Performance of XR-4360-8 Engine in XTB2D-1 Airplane

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.
Date: September 4, 1946
Creator: Conrad, E. William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation of the Knock-Limited Performance of a Triptane Blend, a Toluene Blend, and 28-R Fuel in an R-1830-75 Engine

Description: Knock-limited performance data were obtained for three fuels on an R-1830-75 engine in a B-24D airplane at engine speeds of 1800, 2250, and 2600 rpm, a spark advance of 25 degrees B.T.C., and carburetor-air temperatures of 85 F for 1800 and 2250 rpm and 100 F for 2600 rpm. The test fuels were a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 20 percent triptane (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL/gal), a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 15 percent toluene (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL / gal), and 28-R fuel. The knock-limited manifold pressure of the toluene blend depreciated more in the lean region than the triptane blend or 28-R fuel. The knock-limited brake horsepower for the triptane blend varied from 16 to 25 percent higher than 28-R in the lean region and 18 to 30 percent higher in the rich region. The knock-limited brake horsepower of the toluene blend was approximately 15 percent higher than that of 28-R in the rich region and varied from 2 to 10 percent higher in the lean region. Knock limits of the triptane blend and 28-R fuel tested in the R-1830-75 engine agreed with limits for the same fuels determined with the R-1830-94 engine for engine speeds of 1800 and 2250 rpm.
Date: September 3, 1946
Creator: Blackman, Calvin C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department