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Environmental Geochemical Studies of Selected Mineral Deposits in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

Description: From abstract: Environmental geochemical investigations took place in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, between 1994 and 1997. Areas studied include the historic Kennecott stratabound copper mines and mill area; the historic mines and mill in the Bremner district, where gold was produced from polymetallic veins; the sporadically active gold placer mines at Gold Hill; the undisturbed, unmined porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek; and the historic mines and mill at Nabesna, where gold-bearing iron skarn deposits were exploited. The cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service focused on identifying and characterizing geochemical signatures associated with these mineralized areas. Sample media included surface water, bedload sediment, rock, mine waste, and mill tailings samples.
Date: 2000
Creator: Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Rosenkrans, Danny S. & Ballestrazze, Vanessa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Evolution of Sedimentary Basins/Onshore Oil and Gas Investigations--Santa Maria Province: Chapters Y and Z]

Description: From abstract: A complex Neogene history characterizes the offshore Santa Maria basin and the northwest margin of the western Transverse Ranges, California. This history includes the transition from subduction to a transtensional and then transpressional plate boundary, including about 900 of clockwise rotation of the western Transverse Ranges. This report uses seismic reflection data to document the geometry of structures that accommodated this deformation and offshore well data to date and correlate the sediments which were affected by the different tectonic episodes.
Date: 1999
Creator: Sorlien, Christopher C.; Nicholson, Craig; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Miller, Kate C. & Meltzer, Anne S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Evolution of Sedimentary Basins/Onshore Oil and Gas Investigations--Santa Maria Province: Chapters W and X]

Description: From abstract: Bulletin W is about the deformation of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex of the Eastern Santa Maria basin in California. Bulletin X is about the regional thermal maturity of the surface rocks of the mentioned basin as well as the Santa Barbara-Ventura basin area in California.
Date: 1998
Creator: Wahl, Arthur D.; Naeser, Nancy D.; Isaacs, Caroline M. & Keller, Margaret A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burns Harbor, Indiana, Monitoring Study, Volume 1: Overview of Approach and Results

Description: From introduction: The program's objective is to acquire information through intensive monitoring of coastal projects in an effort to improve project purpose and attainment, design procedures, construction methods, and operation and maintenance techniques.
Date: March 1997
Creator: McGehee, David D.; Prickett, Terri; Shirley, Janean & Moritz, Heidi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Cutler Group and Permian Kaibab Limestone in the Paradox Basin, Southeastern Utah and Southwestern Colorado

Description: From abstract: This report talks about the geology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Cutler Group that consists of the lower Cutler beds, Cedar Mesa Sandstone, Organ Rock Formation, White Rim Sandstone, and De Chelly Sandstone. The report also talks about the Permian Kaibab Limestone in the Paradox Basin that overlays the Cutler.
Date: 1997
Creator: Condon, Steven M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1995 Midnite Mine Radiation Survey

Description: Abstract: During the week of September 4, 1995, personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a Ra-226 survey at the Midnite Mine. One hundred thirty measurements were made on a rectangular grid with 150-m spacings. Concurrently, Shepherd Miller, Inc., took gross gamma readings in gR/h at the same grid points. In addition, the USBM collected 17 soil samples to be analyzed for radium, thorium, and potassium. The results of this survey are summarized in this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Stroud, William P. & Droullard, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Field Measurements and Computer Modeling to Evaluate Deep Mine Shaft Stability in Northern Idaho

Description: Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed personal-computer-based data acquisition, instrumentation, and mine visualization and modeling techniques to evaluate a mine accessway in a deep hard-rock mine in northern Idaho. These techniques were applied to a mine shaft in a large silver mine that has been in operation for many years. A very deep, rectangular, timber-supported shaft extending to depths exceeding 2.3 km (7,500 ft) had been deforming continuously as a result of nearby mining, resulting in operational problems. Preliminary visual observations and rock and support monitoring confirmed that severe diagonal distortion was occurring. Extensive field measurements and data analysis confirmed initial observations, provided insights into the cause of deformation, and defined a general approach to structural modeling. Computer analysis of the problem was initiated by developing a three-dimensional model of the terrain. This represented a volume of rock approximately 80 km3 (40 x 1010 ft) and an area on the surface surrounding the mine 9 km2 (3 square miles). Based on this model, a three-dimensional, finiteelement analysis was conducted to establish boundary conditions for sequentially more detailed two- and three-dimensional submodels of the shaft area. Results from the computer study are being used to develop new approaches to mine design and to provide design guidelines for deep mine accessways subject to severe rock-mass loading conditions.
Date: 1996
Creator: Beus, Michael J.; Orr, T. J. & Whyatt, J. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Dictionary and Discussion for the Midnite Mine GIS Database

Description: Abstract: A geographic information system (GIS) database has been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) for the Midnite Mine and surroundings in northeastern Washington State (Stevens County) on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mine is an open pit uranium mine which has been inactive since 1981. The GIS database was compiled to serve as a repository and source of historical and research information on the mine site. The database supported USBM hydrological and reclamation research on the mine site. The database also will be used by the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (as well as others) for environmental assessment and reclamation planning for future remediation and reclamation of the site. This report describes the data in the GIS database and their characteristics. The report also discusses known backgrounds on the data sets and any special considerations encountered by the USBM in developing the database. Most of the database also is planned to be available to the public as a two-CD-ROM set, although separately from this report.
Date: 1996
Creator: Peters, Douglas C.; Smith, M. Antoinette & Ferderer, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dust Control Considerations for Deep-Cut Mining when Utilizing Exhaust Ventilation and a Scrubber

Description: Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a series of laboratory tests to investigate the effectiveness of using a flooded-bed scrubber with exhaust ventilation in deep-cut faces of up to 12.2 m in length. An experimental test program to determine the impact on respirable dust levels resulting from changes in face airflow, curtain setback distance, operator positioning, and operating parameters of the external spray system on the miner was completed. Gravimetric sampling was conducted in the immediate return and at three sampling locations on the off-curtain side of the entry. Statistically significant differences in dust levels on the order of 0.5 to 1.2 mg/m3 were observed between specific sampling locations and changes in several test parameters. Several of the statistically significant relationships were found at the inby operator position, which is the least desirable of the operator locations that were tested. The relative effectiveness of the dust control at the other sampling locations was not severely impacted with the scrubber operating. Dust control was the primary focus of this research; results indicated that a flooded-bed scrubber and exhaust ventilation can be a viable system for extracting deep cuts up to 12.2 m in length. The impact on methane was not evaluated.
Date: 1996
Creator: Colinet, Jay F. & Jankowski, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater Flow Model (GWFM) Development, Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington

Description: This Report of Investigations (RI) is one of several describing work that has been completed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines at the Midnite uranium mine, Wellpinit, WA. Dean (in preparation) describes the entire project history. Four diskettes containing three archives compressed using WINZIP (or PKZIP) accompany the current RI. The ultimate purpose of this research effort was to develop a groundwater flow model (GWFM) for the Midnite Mine that can be utilized by the contractor preparing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and by other interested parties. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a shell model of the geology at the site, (2) develop the basis for a GWFM that will meet criteria described elsewhere in this RI and that can be updated with new information generated during the EIS process, and (3) present the results of two steady-state simulations of groundwater flow within the bedrock units. The current GWFM generates nonunique solutions because flow data for the bedrock units currently do not exist. However, the model provides useful results with respect to direction of flow. More data are required to model the bedrock aquifer system accurately. Volmnetric flow rates of the bedrock units should be measured or estimated. Measurements obtained from one or two drains completed in the bedrock in the southern portion of the site should yield these values.
Date: 1996
Creator: Kirschner, Frederick E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic Characterization of Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington: Summary of 1994 Field Season

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals, primarily pyrite, produces acidic water. Uranium and other radioactive constituents are chemically leached and dissolved in ground and surface waters. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has worked closely with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians to address data needs for remediation of the disturbed area. As part of this effort, USBM personnel initiated research to determine water quality and define groundwater flow characteristics. Preliminary results of hydraulic stress tests performed in the bedrock at the site are described. Slug tests and pumping tests were conducted using preexisting USBM monitoring wells. Slug test results were used to generate hydraulic conductivity estimates for fractured and unfractured intrusives. The pumping tests demonstrated varying degrees of spatial continuity. Hydraulically continuous fractured zones along north-south planes were demonstrated in two cases for distances of 90 and 116 m (300 and 380 ft). The short-term pumping tests provided no evidence of east-west hydraulic continuity in fractured zones.
Date: 1996
Creator: Williams, Barbara C. & Riley, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic and Geophysical Studies at Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington: Summary of 1995 Field Season

Description: Abstract: The Midnite Mine is an inactive, hard-rock uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals, primarily pyrite, produces large quantities of acidic water. Uranium and other radioactive constituents are chemically leached and dissolved in ground and surface waters. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has worked closely with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians to address data needs for remediation of the disturbed area. As part of this effort, USBM personnel initiated research to determine water quality and define groundwater flow characteristics. Long-term changes in water quality and the results of slug tests and two geophysical surveys are described. Of the locations monitored, only two exhibited water quality degradation over time. Hydraulic conductivity measurements from slug tests are reported for five additional locations in the bedrock. Relative values of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests agreed well with ranked specific capacity data. A geophysical survey identified buried constructed features that channel subsurface water to a contaminated seep. Historic aerial photos corroborated the results of the geophysical study. A new geophysical technique was successfully used to monitor hydraulic and geochemical responses to a pumping test in saturated waste rock.
Date: 1996
Creator: Williams, Barbara C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Midnite Mine Summary Report

Description: The Midni'e Mine is an inactive, hard-rock uranium mine in Stevens County, WA. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals in the ore body produces large quantities of acidic water. The U.S. Bureau of Mines was directed by Congress in Fiscal Year 1994 to perform technological research on the treatment of radioactive water and disposal of treatment residues at the Midnite Mine and en overall site reclamation. This Report of Investigations summarizes the studies that were completed on: 1) treatment alternatives for uranium contaminated acid mine drainage, and 2) overall site reclamation, including: ground water flowpaths in the bedrock, radiation, and waste rock reactivity. As an aid to site reclamation, a Geographic Information System database was also produced that contains available current and historic data and information on the Midnite Mine. This report explains the scope of the Bureau's study and summarizes the results of its investigations.
Date: 1996
Creator: Dean, N. E.; Boldt, C. M. K.; Schultze, L. E.; Nilsen, D. N.; Isaacson, A. E.; Williams, B. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivity in the South Spoils and Hillside Dump at the Midnite Mine

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive open-pit uranium mine located on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Drill samples from two large waste rock dumps on the site, known as South Spoils and Hillside Dump, were collected with a Becker hammer drill and evaluated to determine potential of the rock to generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Waste rock at this mine contains both pyrite and uranium, and AMD effects are more complicated on this site than most in that uranium is soluble in both acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. Although AMD protocols identified 26% of the South Spoils samples as potentially acid, under 7% of the spoil samples were actually producing acid. Considerable calcite exists in the South Spoils, and weathering feldspars further contribute to acid neutralization. The Hillside Dump has low concentrations of pyrite and calcite that acid-base accounting protocols would predict to be non-acidic. Accumulation of sulfate in rocks with concentrations of less than 0.3% S causes some of those normally non-acid producing rocks to produce acid in the Hillside Dump.
Date: 1996
Creator: Moore, Bruce W.; Price, Jesse W. & Gardner, Ted
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-Time Monitoring of Field Measurements for Mine Design: Greens Creek Mine, Admiralty Island, Alaska

Description: Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted field investigations at the Greens Creek Mine in southeast Alaska for the purpose of validating computer design of mining methods and assessing real-time monitoring capabilities. The field study required the application of new technology because of the remoteness of the study site, the need for timely acquisition of data, and a limited budget for instruments and data acquisition. Various sensors were installed to monitor rock mass deformation and strain, temperature, SO gas emissions, and blasting. Data were collected through a distributed personal computer network and high-speed modems. These readings were used to develop visualization models of underground metal mining operations and drift-and-fill mining and real-time graphics displays of ground conditions. Results of the field tests showed that it is possible to gather, process, visualize, and verify mine designs on a real-time basis.
Date: 1996
Creator: Orr, T. J. & Beus, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Bureau of Mines Final Report : Midnite Mine Water Treatment Studies

Description: The U.S. Bureau of Mines reviewed and evaluated options for treatment of the approximately 500 million gallons of contaminated water in flooded pits at the Midnite Mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation. While current lime treatment produces discharge quality water, the resultant sludges are radioactive, presenting a disposal problem. Of the 24 commercial processes and seven emerging technologies evaluated, none demonstrated a significant advantage over ion exchange using a strong base anion exchange resin in either laboratory or field tests. Uranium was lowered from 22 ppm to 0.2 ppb in treated water. Radium was lowered from 44 pCi/L to <1 pCi/L using a modified precipitation with BaCl2 . The natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, lowered radium to 6-8 pCi/L when used as an ion exchanger.
Date: 1996
Creator: Schultze, L. E.; Nilsen, D. N.; Isaacson, A. E. & Lahoda, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Archean and Early Proterozoic Tectonic Framework of North-Central United States and Adjacent Canada

Description: From abstract: This report contains the analysis of the southern part of the Canadian Shield and the subsurface of the southern interior platform where they comprise two Archean cratons and three Early Proterozoic collisional orogens.
Date: 1995
Creator: Sims, P. K. (Paul Kibler), 1918-2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department