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Design, Construction, Field Testing, and Cost Analysis of An Experimental Electrodialysis Demineralizer for Brackish Waters
No Description Available.
Research on and Development of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distillation Techniques and Equipments
From Summary: "Based upon the results of the investigations on both the No. 3 and No. 4 stills, engineering designs for a 25,000 g.p.d. unit were developed. Sketches of this design and a description of the process are presented in this report."
Research Continuation of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distallation Testing on Unit 4
From Summary: "The work covered by this report includes a variety of subjects designed, generally, to test the utility of a centrifugal phase barrier as the boiler-condenser unit of a vapor recompression still for producing water from sea water."
Development of A Direct-Freezing Continuous Wash-Separation Process for Saline Water Conversion
Report regarding the successful development of a freezing sea water to produce fresh water. Contains the experimental methods used as well as an economic analysis.
Investigation of the Availability of Geothermal Energy for the Demineralization of Saline Water
From Introduction: "The purpose of this investigation was to examine the question of the availability of geothermal energy and in particular the availability of geothermal energy from the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Operation of Pilot Plant LTV Evaporator at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina
From Introduction: "The primary objective in the development of the W. L. Badger Long Tube Vertical Multiple Effect Evaporator for saline water conversion is to minimize the ultimate cost of producing potable water. To accomplish the primary objective, it is necessary to (1) prevent formation of scale on heating surfaces, and (2) minimize corrosion to permit use of inexpensive materials of construction. The work done leading to this report was guided in the direction of accomplishing the two secondary objectives."
Saline Water Conversion by Freezing: An Integral Processing unit Using a Secondary Refrigerant
From Introduction: "The study of the conversion of saline water by direct freezing using a secondary refrigerant has been sponsored by the the Office of Saline Water at Cornell University since the beginning of 1958. This report first considers the energy relationships which can be the basis for much controversy regarding the freezing process."
A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still
From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Corrosion of Metals in Sea Water
Report issued by the Office of Saline over the corrosive properties of sea water on metals. As stated in the report, "the following paragraphs outline the major factors which influence corrosion reactions" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Investigation of Supersaturation in Saline Water Conversion
From Objectives and Outline of the Program: "The primary objective of this work has been the determination of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of the conditions which control the allowable level of supersaturation of calcium sulfate in the waste stream of electrodialysis demieralizers."
A New Process for the Production of Fresh Water From Sea Water
From Summary: "This report is not only the final report under contract #14-01-001-189 but also the first submitted for publication and general distribution on the subject of fresh water from saline water by the Struthers Wells - Scientific Design process."
Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Evaluation of a Thin-Film Sea Water Distillation Unit for Marine and Shore Base Application
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on a thin film sea water distillation unit. As stated in the summary, "a General Electric Thin Film Sea Water Distillation Unit designed for marine application has been evaluated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the thin film process for this application. The technology made available by this work provides criteria for the design of compact equipment" (p. 1). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Vapor Compression with Secondary Heat-Transfer Media
From Introduction: "The use of a secondary heat-transfer media in a vapor-compression distillation unit was suggested for investigation as a process for saline water conversion because previous studies on the vapor-compression cycle at low temperatures showed that the fixed charges on the compressor are a substantial part of the final water-product cast. Other fluids were evaluated as above, the results of which are shown in table 1. Data on the other fluids shown in table 1 will be found in the appendix."
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From Recommendations: "Laboratory research on the process for descaling sea water should be continued to improve the process and thereby lower the cost. Research efforts should be concentrated on methods for producing low cost sodium phosphates (needed for the precipitation of the scale-forming elements) from fertilizer grade phosphates and on increasing the crystalline nature of the phosphate precipitates (to reduce dewatering costs). The descaled sea water should be experimentally evaluated first in the laboratory and later under actual operating conditions so that its value to the water recovery program may be established."
Demineralization of Saline Water by Electrically-Induced Adsorption on Porous Carbon Electrodes
Report containing information regarding the demineralization of water via carbon electrodes. Includes steps taken in the experiment, advancements made in the types of carbon material used, and cost estimates.
Development of an Improved Solar Still
Report concerning the study of multiple designs of solar distillers with the goal of increasing the fresh water ouptut.
Seawater Softening by Ion Exchange as a Saline Water Conversion Pretreatment
From Introduction: "A pilot plant embodying these ideas, in an unusual method of softening, was designed and constructed by the Texas Division of The Dow Chemical Company. Two 4,000 gallon per day vapor compression evaporators were furnished for the testing program bu the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the United States Navy. This report summarizes the results of the testing program."
Determination of the Practicality of the Osmionic Process
Report that contains a design for a more efficient osmionic demineralizer that could run for two weeks with no problems that still 2 to 3 times as costly as demineralization by electrodialysis.
Effects of Impressed Electrostatic Fields on the Salt Water/Air Interface
Report examining the effects of of impressed electrostatic fields on the surface of NaCl solutions for the purposes of water desalination.
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From introduction: "In the process of being developed under Contract No. 14-01-001-202 fertilizer grade phosphoric acid (or sodium phosphates obtained from reacting phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide or soda ash) is mixed with sea water. The subsequent addition of ammonia causes the precipitation of solids which are then allowed to settle from water. The resulting descaled sea water is now ready for utilization in a water recovering plant."
Investigation and Preparation of Polymer Films to Improve the Separation of Water and Salts in Saline Water Conversion
From Introduction: "As will be explained in more detail elsewhere in this report, casting methods and drying conditions have been found to have a drastic effect on film permeability to both water and salt. Errors that became evident in temperature control indicated that some of the previous high rates were obtained at temperatures considerably higher than the 100 degrees C that was intended and reported."
Utilization of Isotopes for Saline Water Conversion
From Abstract: "This report covers a study involving the use of radioisotope power as a heat source for saline water conversion."
Further Properties of Hydrates and Hydrating Agents
Report
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
A Study of Large Size Saline Water Conversion Plants
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this study is to digest the experience accumulated in the operation of the demonstration plants, and from this information, to arrive at the cost of fresh water when produced on a large scale. It is important to recognize that the costs, as calculated in this report, are based upon the state of development of the processes as exemplified and proven in the demonstration plants. The field is new, and the rate of development is such that further cost reductions may be expected."
Heat Transfer in the LTV Evaporator: An Analysis of Pilot Plant Data and Predictive Techniques for Plant Operation and Design
Summary & Conclusions: "The study presented in this report was directed toward resolving the uncertainties in the design and prediction methods for heat transfer performance as well as toward analyzing certain aspects of the scaling problem."
Demineralization of Saline Water Through Pressurization Cycles with Ion Exchange Materials
Report regarding experiments to ionically desalinate water. Includes experimental procedures, interpretations of data, and a discussion of results.
Theoretical Studies of the Behavior of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Electrolytes With Respect to Osmionic Cell Operation
From Forward: "This is the seventy-sixth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost demineralization of sea or other saline water."
Bibliography of Publications on Compounds of Gas Hydrate Type
No Description Available.
Absorption-Multistage Flash Distillation Process
No Description Available.
Research on Vapor Reheat And Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchange
From Forward and From Introductory- Summary : "This is the seventy-eighth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost dimineralization of sea or other saline water. The distillation system has operated with only minor difficulties. Mass transfer coefficients are in the range predicted from previous experiments. It is emphasized that the data reported above are not the best values obtained, but rather those upon which there is statistical justification based upon analysis of all the data."
Conversion of Saline Water: A Bibliography of Literature Resulting From the Activities Sponsored by the Office of Saline Water
Bibliography compiled by the Office of Saline Water containing literature that is relevant to water conversion. As stated in the preface, "the bibliography which is arranged by author, is divided into two parts" (p. iii).
Demineralization by Transport Depletion
Report concerning the demineralization of water via the transport depletion process, which is a variation of electrodialysis that uses just one ion-exchange membrane. The first portion of the report covers a year of studying the transport depletion method, while the second part includes details regarding the experiments, equipment, and complications in greater detail.
Research on Thermoelectric Heat Pumps
From Results: "Prior to stating results achieved, let us first discuss the measurements we were able to make, and how these measurements might--or might not--be indicative of the objective we strove to reach. Tables I and II, and related Figs. 11 and 12, show the best results obtained. Final Columns of Tables I and II are believed to show, at least to a degree, how good or how poor our best sputtered films turned out to be, compared with top-quality Peliter semiconductor materials."
Design and Construction of a Desalination Pilot Plant, a Reverse Osmosis Process
Report containing plans for a desalination pilot plant for the purposes of evaluating the feasibility of reverse osmosis for the desalination of sea and brackish water with the capacity of 1,000 gallons of potable water produced per day.
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Distillation Desalination Systems
From Introduction: "The purpose of this study was to investigate analytically the performance of various combination heat and work-input MPE desalination systems ranging from pure heat-input to pure work-input types. MPE desalination systems are described in the following section, while, the analytical methods and discussions of the results obtained are presented in the appendices."
Test Manual (Tentative) For Permselective Membranes
From Introduction: "This test manual is intended to be used as an aid to persons purchasing or evaluating permselective membranes. This manual covers specified methods for testing, sampling, storing, and shipping permselective membrane materials of both cationic and anionic types."
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 2, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and operations of the saline water conversion demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Thin Film Vapor Compression Saline Water Conversion System
From Introduction: "This report is the final report on the research and development program carried out by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on the Westinghouse Thin Film Vapor Compression Saline Water Conversion System."
Demineralization of Saline Water by Electrically-Induced Adsorption on Porous Carbon Electrodes
Report containing information regarding the demineralization of water via carbon electrodes. Includes steps taken in the experiment, advancements made in the types of carbon material used, and cost estimates.
Demineralization of Saline Water by Electrically-Induced Adsorption on Porous Carbon Electrodes
Report containing the summation of the desalination studies carried out by The University of Oklahoma Research Institute, including their theories of carbon demineralization, electrode development, and the cost estimates for a demineralization plant.
High-Temperature Transference Numbers in Pure and Mixed Aqueous Electrolytes
From Abstract: "An electronic technique was used in determinations of transference numbers in aqueous electrolyte solutions by the moving-boundary method. Data for 0.1 N NaCl at temperature from 15 degrees to 125 degrees C are presented in this report. Probable causes of difficulty with the method were identified. and recommendations are made in this report for further research to overcome the difficulties."
The Influence of Acoustical Vibrations on Convective Heat Transfer to Liquids
From Introduction: "The research work described in this report consisted of two phases: analytical and experimental. Because of the complexity of the problem of the interaction between acoustical vibrations and heat transfer, the effort to analyze this problem theoretically began with a search for simplified "mathematical models" of the actual physical processes involved."
Mineral By-Products From The Sea
No Description Available.
Research on Saline Water Conversion by Freezing
From Introduction: "Progress of research related to problems encountered in processes for desalination by freezing is summarized in this report, which is the first annual progress report called for under the terms of Grant 14-01-0001-295 made to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by the Office of Saline Water in 1962."
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 2
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Salt Concentration at Phase Boundaries in Desalination Processes
From Introduction: "This report explores the theory of the salt build-up phenomenon in a preliminary way. Several simplifying assumptions will be made, since the purpose is to obtain only approximate estimates of the importance of the phenomenon described."
Solidification and Separation of Ice From Saline Water
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this investigation is to promote fundamental understanding of the mechanism of solidification of aqueous solutions, and the effects of externally applied electrical and magnetic fields on solidification."
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Freezing Process Desalination
From Introduction: "In this report we will present the results of extending our study of MPE desalination systems to include freezing processes."