Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 197 Matching Results

Search Results

Solidification and Separation of Ice From Saline Water
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this investigation is to promote fundamental understanding of the mechanism of solidification of aqueous solutions, and the effects of externally applied electrical and magnetic fields on solidification."
Design and Construction of a Desalination Pilot Plant, a Reverse Osmosis Process
Report containing plans for a desalination pilot plant for the purposes of evaluating the feasibility of reverse osmosis for the desalination of sea and brackish water with the capacity of 1,000 gallons of potable water produced per day.
Third Annual Report: Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 4, Roswell, New Mexico
From Abstract: "Primary interest was placed on the scale formation problem. Significant improvements were made in the process and described in this report. Maintenance requirements were unusually high during the year, primarily as a result of cumulative corrosion damage over the last three years. The most significant damage was in the circulating pumps, the heat exchangers and feed piping. These and other failures are described."
Economic and Technical Evaluation of the Wiped Film Evaporator
Report concerning the efforts to make the sea water distillation process more economical by improving the heat transfer surface. The General Electric wiped film process is one such improvement and is discussed along with its history, description, and related testing.
Research Continuation of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distallation Testing on Unit 4
From Summary: "The work covered by this report includes a variety of subjects designed, generally, to test the utility of a centrifugal phase barrier as the boiler-condenser unit of a vapor recompression still for producing water from sea water."
Research on and Development of Badger-Hickman Centrifugal Distillation Techniques and Equipments
From Summary: "Based upon the results of the investigations on both the No. 3 and No. 4 stills, engineering designs for a 25,000 g.p.d. unit were developed. Sketches of this design and a description of the process are presented in this report."
Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Engineering and Economic Feasibility Study for a Combination Nuclear Power and Desalting Plant: Phases 1 and 2
Scope: As defined by the subcontract, Bechtel's responsibility is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility and preliminary design of a combination power and desalting plant using a nuclear energy heat source, which plant shall be deemed suitable for operation by the District by the year 1970.
Optimum Brine Heater Outlet Temperature in Sea Water Conversion Evaporators
From Introduction & Scope: "This study was undertaken for the Office of Saline Water to determine the optimum brine heater outlet temperature in single-purpose sea water conversion evaporators for several fuel costs, based on balancing the increased performance ratio possible with high-temperature operations against the increased cost of pressure vessels, corrosion protection, and scale control."
A Study of Large Size Saline Water Conversion Plants
From Introduction: "The principal objective of this study is to digest the experience accumulated in the operation of the demonstration plants, and from this information, to arrive at the cost of fresh water when produced on a large scale. It is important to recognize that the costs, as calculated in this report, are based upon the state of development of the processes as exemplified and proven in the demonstration plants. The field is new, and the rate of development is such that further cost reductions may be expected."
Sea Water Corrosion Test Program
From Introduction: "The first demonstration plant sponsored by the Office of Saline Water was located in Freeport, Texas, and came 'on stream" in 1961. The incoming sea water was deaerated since both Speller (6) and Uhlig (7) recognized that dissolved oxygen was usually the controlling factor in the corrosion of iron stream condensate at temperatures even as high 400 degrees F. The water was acidified prior to daeration with H2SO4 to decompose the carbonates which subsequently would cause scale when the water was heated. After the carbonates were removed, the pH was raised to the neutral point, again to provide a less corrosive environment."
Economic Effects of Mineral Content in Municipal Water Supplies
No Description Available.
Effects of Manufacturing Variables and the Development of Replaceable Membrane Elements for Brackish Water Tubular Reverse Osmosis Systems
Report describing the development of a reliable means to cast brackish water desalination membranes, the quality control of membrane-support elements, and the development of replaceable membrane elements.
Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Design of a Basin-Type Solar Still
From Introduction: "This report describes the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a particular solar still that has been shown to be a practical for converting saline water to fresh water at low cost in localities where there is a reasonable amount of sunshine. A series of photographs is included which illustrate the steps in constructing a still."
Operation of a Reverse Osmosis Desalination Unit at Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This report covers the operation at Webster, South Dakota of an Aerojet Model 1-56OB-2 reverse osmosis (RO) unit purchased by the office of Saline Water (OSW) from Aerojet-General Corporation under Contract 14-0100001-1112."
Development of A Direct-Freezing Continuous Wash-Separation Process for Saline Water Conversion
Report regarding the successful development of a freezing sea water to produce fresh water. Contains the experimental methods used as well as an economic analysis.
Design Study of A Reverse Osmosis Plant for Sea Water Conversion
No Description Available.
Economics of Seawater Desalting in Combination with Ammonia and Power Production
Report that examines the feasibility of lowering the operational cost of combining the production of desalted water, ammonia, and electricity.
Temperature Distribution in the Crystallization of Undercooled Liquids in Cylindrical Tubes
From Introduction: "The major difficulty in interpreting the results obtained by this simple experimental technique is the specification of the temperature at the crystal-liquid interface. Since, the liquid-to-solid transformation is exothermic the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature in the vicinity of the interface will exceed the temperature of the bulk of the cooling bath, which is the quantity most conveniently measured and most frequently reported."
Study of Two-Phase Metastable Flow
From Abstract: "An experimental study was made to determine the flow rate of saturated water through short tubes of various lengths and diameters. Tubes of both rounded and sharp edge entrances were tested in the horizontal and vertical positions. Test results were analyzed and correlated."
A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still
From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 2, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and operations of the saline water conversion demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Seawater Desalting with Chemical Recovery
From Introduction: "The report describes the studies made on 20mgd desalting plants, a size that was selected based on recovering 3,000 tons per day of salt for feed to a chlorine-caustic plant that would be part of the Energy Center."
Annual Report (FY 1969): Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant in Freeport, Texas, and the economics of its operation. Includes information regarding the LTV multiple-effect evaporation method of desalination.
Development Report Number 9: V.T.E. Process Development, Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting accounts of testing saline water conversion and the economics thereof. This report covers the fifteenth and sixteenth Development Runs, which evaluated the following: the performance of the plant's double-fluted tube bundle and titanium tube bundle; the condensate handling-restrictions in the 5 effect module; a sump to sump brine transfer system modification; porcelain spray nozzles; enhanced surface tubes; and an oxygen scavenging system.
First Annual Report - Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), San Diego, California
Annual report discussing the activities and operation of the Senator Clair Engle Plant (CEP), a multi-effect multi-stage flash (MEMS) distillation plant for converting sea water, located in San Diego, California.
Operation of the Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the operation and economic considerations of the multi-stage flash distillation plant in San Diego, California.
Second Annual Report: Operation of the Muti-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California
From Introduction: "The Office of Saline Water (OSW) maintains the MSF Module at the San Diego Test Facility, Chula Vista, California, for the purpose of further advancing and developing the state of art of the multistage flash distillation process and thereby reduce the cost of seawater conversion. The MSF Module has been built and operated to obtain engineering design and operating data to serve as a basis for: a. Future process development. b. Improved full scale plant design. Improved full scale plant operating conditions."
A Study of Desalting Plants (15 to 150 mgd) and Nuclear Power Plants (200 to 1500 MWt) for Combined Water and Power Production
From Summary and Conclusions: "This report presents the results of an economic analysis of dual-purpose plants for the combined production of electronic power and potable water from sea water."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Fourth Report (Semi-Annual), San Diego, California
From Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations: "The operation and development programs carried out in the CEP, E-1A and LMC plant during the period July 1, 1970 to December 31, 1970 are described in this report. Data was developed on several development tasks as follows. A summary is presented of material evaluation studies made over the past three and a half years. Data on the experiences with coatings, mortar linings, elastomers, and nonferrous and ferrous metals are included. Details are presented of coatings and linings installed in the CEP II Effect including methods of surface preparation and costs."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Third Report (Annual), San Diego, California
From Introduction: "This report covers the activities by Catalytic, Inc., during the contract period from June 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970, a thirteen month period."
Vapor Compression Distillation using Secondary Heat Transfer Media
Report discussing a particular method of converting saline water through vapor compression distillation at plants of different sizes. From Introduction: "This report is divided into three Sections (Books) each with its own index. Books I and II contain process and economic data for a 50,000 gpd pilot plant and a 10,000,000 gpd production plant. Book III contains process and economic data for high and low temperature units of 1,000,000 gpd size."
Utilization of Isotopes for Saline Water Conversion
From Abstract: "This report covers a study involving the use of radioisotope power as a heat source for saline water conversion."
Development of Polyphenylene Oxide Membranes
Report concerning manufacturing variables on sulfonated polyphenylene oxide reverse osmosis membranes. The effects these variables have membrane performance are discussed as well as procedures to increase membrane reproducibility and performance.
Parametric Economic and Engineering Evaluation Study of the Electrodialysis Process for Water Desalination
From Abstract: "A parametric engineering and economic evaluation study of the electrodialysis (ED) process for water desalination has been conducted. A primary objective of this study was to evaluate present technology of ED process equipment in order to gain improvements in cost sensitive items. Results indicated that ED is competitive with the cheapest methods for desalting low salinity brackish waters."
Optimum Operation of Desalting Plants as a Supplemental Source of Safe Yield
From Summary: "The Operating Rule Program receives focus in this report. It is written in Fortran IV computer language and consists of about 1,700 statements. Principles results of the application of the program are summarized in Table 1 for the three systems analyzed."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Desalting Process
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process (VFVC) was evaluated during the period from February, 1965, through March, 1967, by Colt Industries Inc. under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-532." From Process Description: "The primary principles involved for converting of sea and brackish water to fresh water in the VFVC Process are rather well known in physical chemistry and are summarized below. The principles discussed above, applied to a practical VFVC desalting system, are illustrated in the schematic flow diagram, Figure 3. This simplified diagram shows both the essential components of the process and the flow paths of the various fluids in the system. A typical mass and heat balance is shown in Figure 4."
Research on Thermoelectric Heat Pumps
From Results: "Prior to stating results achieved, let us first discuss the measurements we were able to make, and how these measurements might--or might not--be indicative of the objective we strove to reach. Tables I and II, and related Figs. 11 and 12, show the best results obtained. Final Columns of Tables I and II are believed to show, at least to a degree, how good or how poor our best sputtered films turned out to be, compared with top-quality Peliter semiconductor materials."
Second Report on Horizontal-Tubes Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests and Design
From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first part of which was reported in Reference 1. Additional factors that affect HTME heat transfer coefficients were investigated, and the magnitude of their influence was determined."
A Study of Water Plant Isolation From Contamination
From Introduction: "In this study, data has been obtained on radioactive nuclide concentrations in nuclear power plants of both the BWR direct cycle and the PWR indirect cycle. These data, together with leakage rates actually experienced in the PWR steam generators and with assumed leakage rates in brine heaters, are used to calculate concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the water plant product and effluent."
Design, Construction, Field Testing, and Cost Analysis of An Experimental Electrodialysis Demineralizer for Brackish Waters
No Description Available.
Development of a Thin-Liquid-Film Membrane Unit for Desalination by Reverse Osmosis
No Description Available.
Development of a Thin-Liquid-Film Membrane Device for Reverse Osmosis
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on reverse-osmosis plants. The results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Operation of Reverse Osmosis Pilot Plants
From Introduction: "This report includes the sixth segment of a continuing effort begun early in 1963. Purpose of the work is the scale-up of reverse osmosis from a laboratory curiosity to an economical system for the production of potable water from salty feeds."
High-Temperature Transference Numbers in Pure and Mixed Aqueous Electrolytes
From Abstract: "An electronic technique was used in determinations of transference numbers in aqueous electrolyte solutions by the moving-boundary method. Data for 0.1 N NaCl at temperature from 15 degrees to 125 degrees C are presented in this report. Probable causes of difficulty with the method were identified. and recommendations are made in this report for further research to overcome the difficulties."
An Engineering Evaluation of the Long-Tube Vertical Falling-Film Distillation Process
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over engineering studies on the long-tube vertical falling-film distillation process. As stated in the introduction, "it is the objective of this report to study the falling-film distillation and to prepare an engineering evaluation of the process and the design of major items of equipment, with particular emphasis upon improving production and operational reliability and upon reducing product cost" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Experimental Program to Improve the VTE Distillation Process
Report concerning research for the purpose of designing a fluted tube in downflow Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) operation. Liquid flowrate, salinity, and temperature are studied.
Development of Mathematical Model and Computer Program for Optimization of VTE Saline Water Plants
Report concerning "the development of techniques and mathematical models for an optimum design of a Vertical Tube Evaporator desalting plant." (p. 1)
Development of Water Purification Systems Based on Reverse Osmosis
Report demonstrating the concept of a small and disposable reverse-osmosis cartridge. Research includes "1) a search for suitable membrane supporting structures and materials during which the hydrodynamic characteristics of a number of potential materials were evaluated, 2) the evaluation of reverse-osmosis membranes cast directly on support materials and on reinforcing materials, and 3) the design, fabrication and testing of a small reverse-osmosis cartridge" (p. 1).