Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 374 Matching Results

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Slip-and-Fall Accidents During Equipment Maintenance in the Surface Mining Industry

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing mining accidents during equipment maintenance. As stated in the abstract, "this U.S. Bureau of Mines report identifies potential causes of slip-and-fall accidents occurring during surface mine equipment maintenance and describes the relative roles of direct worker behavior and machine design" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1990
Creator: Albin, Thomas J. & Adams, W. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970 : Description of Individual Studies, Data Files, Codes, and Summaries of Significant Findings

Description: Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Grahn, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic TRUEX Process for Rocky Flats Plant

Description: The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (plutonium, americium) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. T\
Date: August 1994
Creator: Leonard, R. A.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Dow, J. A.; Farley, S. E.; Nuñez, Luis; Regalbuto, M. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for Removing Transuranic Elements from Waste Solutions

Description: This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.
Date: November 1994
Creator: Slater, S. L.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Conner, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems : Final Report, Contract No. 22822402

Description: This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure hydrogen fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles.
Date: August 1994
Creator: James, Brian D.; Baum, George N. & Kuhn, Ira F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems

Description: Directed Technologies, Inc. has previously submitted a detailed technical assessment and concept design for a mid-size, five-passenger fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), under contract to Argonne National Laboratory. As a supplement to that contract, DTI has reviewed the literature and conducted a preliminary evaluation of two energy carriers for the FCEV: hydrogen and methanol. This report compares the estimated fuel efficiency, cost of producing and delivering the fuel, and the resultant life cycle costs of the FCEV when fueled directly by hydrogen and when fueled by methanol with on-board reforming to produce the required hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell. This work will be supplemented and expanded under the Ford contract with the Department of Energy to develop the FCEV and its fuel infrastructure.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Thomas, C. E. & James, Brian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sludge Technology Assessment

Description: This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Krause, T. R.; Cunnane, J. C. & Helt, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Fuel Cells R & D Review. Final Report, Purchase Order No. 062014

Description: The aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD & D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD & D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.
Date: September 1994
Creator: Michael, Philip D. & Maguire, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992 : the JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

Description: A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of "the JANUS program". The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF₁ mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Grahn, D.; Wright, B. J.; Carnes, B. A.; Williamson, F. S. & Fox, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Plutonium-Bearing Solutions: a Brief Survey of the DOE Complex

Description: With the abrupt shutdown of some DOE facilities, a significant volume of in-process material was left in place and still requires treatment for interim storage. Because the systems containing these process streams have deteriorated since shutdown, a portable system for treating the solutions may be useful. A brief survey was made of the DOE complex on the need for a portable treatment system to treat plutonium-bearing solutions. A survey was completed to determine (1) the compositions and volumes of solutions and heels present, (2) the methods that have been used to treat these solutions and heels in the past, and (3) the potential problems that exist in removing and treating these solutions. Based on the surveys and on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1, design criteria for a portable treatment system were generated.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Chen, L. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equipment Decontamination: a Brief Survey of the DOE Complex

Description: Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for using testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plants and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Chen, L. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aqueous Biphasic Extraction of Uranium and Thorium from Contaminated Soils : Final Report

Description: The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethylene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Chaiko, David J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J. L.; Krause, T. R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Plutonium-Bearing Wastes by Chemical Analysis and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Description: This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO2, PuO₂x, and Pu4O7 phases, of about 1micrometer or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 micrometer to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.
Date: September 1995
Creator: Behrens, R. G.; Buck, E. C.; Dietz, N. L.; Bates, J. K.; Van Deventer, E. & Chaiko, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DART Dispersion Analysis Research Tool: a Mechanistic Model for Predicting Fission-Product-Induced Swelling of Aluminum Dispersion Fuels : User's Guide for Mainframe, Workstation, and Personal Computer

Description: This report describes the primary physical models that form the basis of the DART mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels; the calculated results are compared with test data. In addition, DART calculates irradiation-induced changes in the thermal conductivity of the dispersion fuel, as well as fuel restructuring due to aluminum fuel reaction, amorphization, and recrystallization. Input instructions for execution on mainframe, workstation, and personal computers are provided, as is a description of DART output. The theory of fission gas behavior and its effect on fuel swelling is discussed. The behavior of these fission products in both crystalline and amorphous fuel and in the presence of irradiation-induced recrystallization and crystalline-to-amorphous-phase change phenomena is presented, as are models for these irradiation-induced processes.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Rest, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review of Dynamic Characteristics of Magnetically Levitated Vehicle Systems

Description: The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Cai, Y. & Chen, Shoei-Sheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extraction of Long-Lived Radionuclides from Caustic Hanford Tank Waste Supernatants

Description: A series of polymer-based extraction systems, based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or polypropylene glycols (PPGs), was demonstrated to be capable of selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99 and I-129, from Hanford SY-101 tank waste, neutralized current acid waste, and single-shell tank waste simulants. During the extraction process, anionic species like TcO₄⁻ and I⁻ are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG-rich aqueous phase. The partition coefficients for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate, are all less than one. The partition coefficients for pertechnetate ranged from 12 to 50, depending on the choice of waste simulant and temperature. The partition coefficient for iodide was about 5, while that of iodate was about 0.25. Irradiation of the PEG phase with gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad had no detectable effect on the partition coefficients. The most selective extraction systems examined were those based on PPGs, which exhibited separation factors in excess of 3000 between TcO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻/NO₂⁻. An advantage of the PPG-based system is minimization of secondary waste production. These studies also highlighted the need for exercising great care in extrapolating the partitioning behavior with tank waste simulants to actual tank waste.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Chaiko, David J.; Mertz, C. J.; Vojta, Y.; Henriksen, J. L.; Neff, R. & Takeuchi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VARIANT: VARIational Anisotropic Nodal Transport for Multidimensional Cartesian and Hexagonal Geometry Calculation

Description: The theoretical basis, implementation information and numerical results are presented for VARIANT (VARIational Anisotropic Neutron Transport), a FORTRAN module of the DIF3D code system at Argonne National Laboratory. VARIANT employs the variational nodal method to solve multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport problems. The variational nodal method is a hybrid finite element method that guarantees nodal balance and permits spatial refinement through the use of hierarchical complete polynomial trial functions. Angular variables are expanded with complete or simplified P₁, P₃ or P₅5 spherical harmonics approximations with full anisotropic scattering capability. Nodal response matrices are obtained, and the within-group equations are solved by red-black or four-color iteration, accelerated by a partitioned matrix algorithm. Fission source and upscatter iterations strategies follow those of DIF3D. Two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries are implemented. Forward and adjoint eigenvalue, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems may be performed.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Palmiotti, G.; Lewis, E. E. & Carrico, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department