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Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Heat Transfer for Large-Scale Desalination
Report evaluating the possibility of eliminating corrodible metallic heat transfer surfaces from sea water desalination streams, using direct-contact liquid-liquid heat transfer instead.
Conceptual Design Study of a 250-Million Gallons Per Day Combined Vertical Tube-Flash Evaporator Desalination Plant
Report containing a design study of a 250 million gallons per day desalination plant. Contains a description of the desalination process, information regarding the design's efficiency, estimated capital and production costs
Development of Polyphenylene Oxide Membranes
Report concerning manufacturing variables on sulfonated polyphenylene oxide reverse osmosis membranes. The effects these variables have membrane performance are discussed as well as procedures to increase membrane reproducibility and performance.
Development of Propane Hydrate Desalting Process
Report that summarizes research on the propane hydrate saline water conversion process. Contains the design of the plant where the testing occurred as well as summaries of the tests.
Development of Precipitation Processes for Removal of Scale Formers From Sea Water
Report regarding the ongoing study of the removal of salt water scale formers using phosphate precipitation and lime-magnesium carbonate precipitation.
Development Report Number 5: Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding plant productivity of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Two developmental trail runs are discussed, including their objectives, results, and a summary of the findings.
Development Report Number 7: Saline Water Conversion Test Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding the ninth Development Run of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Primary objectives include studying "various aspects of heat transfer and sea water and condensate treatment and their effect on the Multiple-Effect Long-Tube-Vertical Evaporation Process" (p. 1).
Development Report Number 6: Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas
Report regarding the eighth Development Run of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1. Primary objectives include studying "various aspects of heat transfer and water treatment and their effect on the Multiple-Effect Long-Tube-Vertical Evaporation Process" (p. 1).
Development of Water Purification Systems Based on Reverse Osmosis
Report demonstrating the concept of a small and disposable reverse-osmosis cartridge. Research includes "1) a search for suitable membrane supporting structures and materials during which the hydrodynamic characteristics of a number of potential materials were evaluated, 2) the evaluation of reverse-osmosis membranes cast directly on support materials and on reinforcing materials, and 3) the design, fabrication and testing of a small reverse-osmosis cartridge" (p. 1).
Development of Tubular Reverse Osmosis Module Assembly Techniques
Report concerning the development of equipment and processes required for the production of porous wall reverse osmosis tubes lined with membrane material deposited by extrusion. These include a chilled water membrane gellation system, "a heat treat fixture permitting simultaneous heat treatment of several reverse osmosis tubes" (p. 1), and the optimization of the structure of fiberglass filament/resin composite material.
Development of a Thin-Liquid-Film Membrane Unit for Desalination by Reverse Osmosis
No Description Available.
Development of Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash Distillation Process: Phase 1
Report investigating the feasibility of the Atomics International Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash (DCC-MSF) Distillation process using "analytical and experimental studies on a direct contact condensation module and a plastic film heat exchanger. (p. iii)
Development of Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash Distillation Process Phase IIIA
Report investigating the feasibility of the Atomics International Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash (DCC-MSF) Distillation process using "analytical and experimental studies on a direct contact condensation module and a plastic film heat exchanger. (p. iii) Contains further studies and evaluations of the direct-contact condensation unit and plastic film heat exchanger.
Development of Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash Distillation Process Phase 2
Report investigating the feasibility of the Atomics International Direct Contact Condensation Multistage Flash (DCC-MSF) Distillation process using "analytical and experimental studies on a direct contact condensation module and a plastic film heat exchanger. (p. iii) Contains further studies and evaluations of the direct-contact condensation unit and plastic film heat exchanger.
Development of Economical Methods of Boron Removal From Irrigation Return Waters
Report that examines a method for reducing the boron levels of irrigation return waters to nonphytotoxic levels.
Development of Mathematical Model and Computer Program for Optimization of VTE Saline Water Plants
Report concerning "the development of techniques and mathematical models for an optimum design of a Vertical Tube Evaporator desalting plant." (p. 1)
Development Report Number 9: V.T.E. Process Development, Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting accounts of testing saline water conversion and the economics thereof. This report covers the fifteenth and sixteenth Development Runs, which evaluated the following: the performance of the plant's double-fluted tube bundle and titanium tube bundle; the condensate handling-restrictions in the 5 effect module; a sump to sump brine transfer system modification; porcelain spray nozzles; enhanced surface tubes; and an oxygen scavenging system.
Communities of Over 1000 Population With Water Containing in Excess of 1000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids
Report containing lists of communities within the United States that have a population over 1,000 and that have water supplies that contain total dissolved solids over 1,000 parts per million. These are listed separately by state and resource region.
Bench Scale Study of the Vacuum Freezing Ejector Absorption Process
No Description Available.
Fabrication of Felt-Membrane Composites
Report containing development information and economic evaluation of felt membrane composition meant for use as a reverse osmosis desalination membrane.
Aluminum Heat Transfer Surfaces Multistage Flash Distillation Plant
Report issued by the Office of Saline over studies conducted on heat transfer of aluminum alloy in multistage flash distillation plants. Results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Comparison Study of a 2.5 MGD VTE Upflow Versus Downflow
Report comparing "the capital and operating costs of an upflow and downflow plant" (p. 2). Cost saving recommendations are made.
Cost of Steam Supply for Desalting Using Coal Fired Boilers
Report studying the application and cost of using coal based steam power plants in desalination plants. Both Single Purpose Plants (wherein power is produced for the plant's needs) and Dual Purpose Plants (wherein extra power is produced for sale) are investigated.
Design and Furnishing Flash Enhancers for MSF Test Module
Report describing experiments that attempt to minimize the heat loss within a multi-stage flash evaporator.
Design and Fabrication of a 50,000 GPD Portable Reverse Osmosis Pilot Plant
Report regarding the first year of work designing and constructing a portable reverse osmosis pilot plant for converting brackish water.
Desorption of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen From Sea Water
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies on seawater degasification with a focus on desorption of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The results are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Design Study of A Reverse Osmosis Plant for Sea Water Conversion
No Description Available.
Design Study of Large Multiple Phase Ejector Driven Desalination Plants
Report concerning "the use of Multiple Phase Ejectors with distillation desalination plants, including detailed thermodynamic analyses of ejector-driven distillation plants and the optimization of parameters for the most promising plant arrangement derived form the thermodynamic analyses." (p. 1)
Economics of Combining Distilled Seawater and Renovated Wastewater
Report containing a methodology for determining the least expensive plan to use water from desalination plants. Elements of this methodology include treatment requirements for fresh water, sea water, and waste water, storage, conveyance, and waste water disposal.
An Economic and Engineering Analysis of the Electrodialysis Process
Report containing an "economic and engineering analysis of the electrodialysis process" among eighteen different cases.
Economic Effects of Mineral Content in Municipal Water Supplies
No Description Available.
Economics of Seawater Desalting in Combination with Ammonia and Power Production
Report that examines the feasibility of lowering the operational cost of combining the production of desalted water, ammonia, and electricity.
Economics and Use of Large Scale Electrodialysis Plants on Selected Tidal Estuarial Waters
Report concerning the relative costs of providing water via an electrodialysis-based water desalination plant that was only to be operated during periods of drought.
Effects of Manufacturing Variables and the Development of Replaceable Membrane Elements for Brackish Water Tubular Reverse Osmosis Systems
Report describing the development of a reliable means to cast brackish water desalination membranes, the quality control of membrane-support elements, and the development of replaceable membrane elements.
Exploratory Study of Brine Disposal Using Fluid-Bed Evaporation
Report concerning fluid-bed evaporation as a possible method of separating waste brine into salts and pure water. Two process operations are examined: "(1) feed introduction to the evaporator through submered tubes, and (2) fludizization of soluble salt particles by superheated steam" (p. viii).
Experimental Program to Improve the VTE Distillation Process
Report concerning research for the purpose of designing a fluted tube in downflow Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) operation. Liquid flowrate, salinity, and temperature are studied.
Evaluation of the Vertical Tube Evaporator and the Multistage Flash Desalination Processes
Report that compares and evaluates "the relative thermodynamic and engineering characteristics and economics of the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) and the Multistage Flash (MSF) process" (p. 1) for use in 250 Millions of Gallons per Day (MGD) and 2.5 MGD desalination plants.
Design and Economic Study of a Gas Turbine Powered Vapor Compression Plant for Evaporation of Seawater
Report that "presents the results of an engineering study of the design and economics of a single purpose gas tubine powered vapor compression cycle seawater desalting plant." (p. 1)
Engineering Study of the Potentialities and Possibilities of Desalting for Northern New Jersey and New York City
Report that includes results and methodology from an engineering study regarding drought in Northern New Jersey and New York City. Topics include the area's water systems, the possible integration of desalting plants, and the potential costs of such plants.
Engineering Evaluation of Factors Affecting Quality of Water Sources Available for Saline Water Conversion Plants
Report investing the "effects of contaminated raw water supplies on conversion processes," and studying "potential technical and economic advantages of combination saline water and sewage effluent conversion plants" (p. 1).
Evaluation of 75,000 GPD Sea Water Desulfating Pilot Plant
Report describing the design, construction, test programs, and economic issues relating to an Experimental Continuous Ion Exchange Desulfating Softening Plant and how the conclusions drawn from its operation could be used for the desulfation of sea water with desalination plants.
Evaluation of Concrete and Related Materials for Desalination Plants
Report examining the uses of concrete in evaporator-type desalting plants. Different types of concrete are evaluated, as well as structures, accessory coatings and sealants, reinforcement materials, and microstructures.
Experimental Investigation of Direct Freeze Separation Process Using Refrigerant R-C318 (Octafluorocyclobutane)
Report concerning the possible use of octafluorocyclobutane, R-C318, being used in the direct freezing process as a means of extracting fresh water from sea water. Topics include using R-C318 to make ice, flash precooling, design of a small direct freezing pilot plant using R-C318, and related economic studies.
Evaluation of Concrete and Related Materials for Desalination Plants: Second Annual Progress Report
Report investigating concrete for use in a sea water desalination plant. Concretes containing both natural and limestone aggregates were tested under the temperature, pressure, salinity, and structural stress conditions that could be expected in such a plant.
Dropwise Condensation Characteristics of Permanent Hydrophobic Systems
Report regarding the development of a new approach to dropwise condensation, understanding the role of nucleation in the process, and the possibility of permanent dropwise condensing surfaces. Report includes historical background, experiments with elements and dropwise condensation, economic considerations, and publications that came from his program.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 2, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and operations of the saline water conversion demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
An Engineering Evaluation of the Long-Tube Vertical Falling-Film Distillation Process
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over engineering studies on the long-tube vertical falling-film distillation process. As stated in the introduction, "it is the objective of this report to study the falling-film distillation and to prepare an engineering evaluation of the process and the design of major items of equipment, with particular emphasis upon improving production and operational reliability and upon reducing product cost" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Evaluation of Brine Desulfating Process As Applied To Desalination Phase 1
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the desulfating process at desalination plants. As stated in the introduction, "the explicit purpose of this study is to determine whether or not application of the feed-water desulfating process to the feed to a desalting plant will reduce the overall cost of desalted water" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Chamber Geometry in Multi-Stage Flash Evaporators
Report regarding "the importance of various parameters on the length of a typical stage in a multi-stage sea water flash evaporator" (p. 1). Parameter values were examined to determine their influence on chamber length.
The Economics of a Regional Municipal Desalting System in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas
Report containing the results of a study of the costs of a large-scale desalting system that served an inter-municipal area in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.