Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 197 Matching Results

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Design of a Basin-Type Solar Still
From Introduction: "This report describes the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a particular solar still that has been shown to be a practical for converting saline water to fresh water at low cost in localities where there is a reasonable amount of sunshine. A series of photographs is included which illustrate the steps in constructing a still."
Conceptual Design Study of a 50 Million Gallon Per Day MSF Desalination Plant and Test Module
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over design studies for a 50 million gallon desalination plant. As stated in the introduction, "this report presents a conceptual design of a 50 MGD multistage flash plant and a conceptual design of a test module based on the 50 MGD plant design and proposed to demonstrate large plant design concepts. The report also includes a discussion of the more important engineering design studies employed in the development of the conceptual designs" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Further Properties of Hydrates and Hydrating Agents
Analysis and Summary of Reports and Data From the Freeport, Texas, Test Bed Plant (1961-1969)
Report issued by the Office of Saline over a summary of all work conducted at the Freeport, Texas test bed plant. The work done at the plant between 1961 and 1969 is presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Equipment Components for Large Evaporator Plants: A Summary Report
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on equipment needed at seawater distillation plants. Each equipment component is discussed in detail. This report includes tables, illustrations, and a photograph.
Corrosion of Metals in Sea Water
Report issued by the Office of Saline over the corrosive properties of sea water on metals. As stated in the report, "the following paragraphs outline the major factors which influence corrosion reactions" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Evaluation of a Thin-Film Sea Water Distillation Unit for Marine and Shore Base Application
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on a thin film sea water distillation unit. As stated in the summary, "a General Electric Thin Film Sea Water Distillation Unit designed for marine application has been evaluated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the thin film process for this application. The technology made available by this work provides criteria for the design of compact equipment" (p. 1). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Absorption-Multistage Flash Distillation Process
No Description Available.
Bolsa Island Nuclear Power and Desalting Project Facilities (Cost and Description) and Cost of Desalted Water
Report that contains information regarding the plans for a combined nuclear power plant and water desalination facility on a man-made island in the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. Includes the estimated costs associated with the conceptual plant as well as unit costs for desalted water.
Analysis and Summary Report of Operation Guantanamo Naval Base Desalination Facility
Report analyzing the Guantanamo Naval Base 2.25 MGD desalting and power generation facility in order to create a guide for the research and development programs for the Office of Saline Water and for commercial desalinization facilities.
Annual Report (FY 1969): Webster Test Facility and Electrodialysis Test-Bed Plant, Webster, South Dakota
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Test-Bed Plant in Webster, South Dakota, and the economics of its operation.
Annual Report (FY 1969): Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant in Freeport, Texas, and the economics of its operation. Includes information regarding the LTV multiple-effect evaporation method of desalination.
Annual Report (FY 1968): Webster Test Facility and Electrodialysis Test-Bed Plant, Webster, South Dakota
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Test-Bed Plant in Webster, South Dakota, and the economics of its operation.
The Feasibility of Siting an 8 MGD Vapor Compression Distillation Desalting Plant at Brownsville, Texas
Report regarding the feasibility of placing a desalting plant at Brownsville, Texas, at one of three possible locations.
Freon-12 Hydrate Desalting Process
Report that "evaluates an operation program of a hydrate process for the desalination of sea water in a 10,000 GPD plant located at the Office of Saline Water Research and Development Test Station (Wrightsvile Beach Test Facility at Wrightsville Beach, New Carolina) for the period march 1967 through July 1968" (p. i).
Bibliography of the Literature on Dropwise Condensation 1930-64
No Description Available.
Case Studies of Desalted Water for Irrigation
Report studying the use of desalinated water for irrigation at three locations in Arizona and California. Costs and benefits are measured among several different areas, including multiple concentrations of desalinated water, different desalting methods, and the desalting process.
Annual Report (FY 1968): Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report that presents "information, findings, and recommendations concerning the multiple-effect falling-film-evaporation method of desalination" (p. 1).
Annual Report (FY 1970): Webster Test Facility and Electrodialysis Test-Bed Plant Webster, South Dakota
Report containing history, maintenance, and repairs of the Webster, South Dakota, test bed plant as well as reviews of optimization tasks performed therein.
VTE Pilot Plant Annual Report for the Period Ending July 1, 1968
From Summary and Conclusions: "After a period of tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1966 and 1967, the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) Pilot Plant was moved to the OSW's East Coast Test Station at Wrightsville Beach, N.C. In the summer of 1967 it was installed and was started in upflow operation with seawater feed, using stem and other services provided by the station. The operation of the Pilot Plant at Wrightsville Beach was performed by Stearns-Roger Corporation under subcontract to ORNL. Operation was in the upflow mode during the entire reporting period."
Pilot Plant Tests and Design Study of a 2.5 MGD Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Plant
From Summary: "Heat transfer coefficients for 2-, 2.5-, and 3-inch diameter horizontal aluminum-brass tubes are presented and correlated as functions of tube diameter, tube spacing, feed rate, feed salinity, heat flux, boiling point, and vapor velocity. A model of the heat transfer mechanism is proposed to explain and correlate the results."
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From introduction: "In the process of being developed under Contract No. 14-01-001-202 fertilizer grade phosphoric acid (or sodium phosphates obtained from reacting phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide or soda ash) is mixed with sea water. The subsequent addition of ammonia causes the precipitation of solids which are then allowed to settle from water. The resulting descaled sea water is now ready for utilization in a water recovering plant."
A Study of Desalting Plants (15 to 150 mgd) and Nuclear Power Plants (200 to 1500 MWt) for Combined Water and Power Production
From Summary and Conclusions: "This report presents the results of an economic analysis of dual-purpose plants for the combined production of electronic power and potable water from sea water."
Process and Configuration Development for Tubular Reverse Osmosis Units
From Introduction and Summary: "The overall objective of this program was to develop an economical tubular reverse osmosis system for desalination of brackish water. Major emphasis was placed on the following aspects of the system. The work accomplished is summarized in the following paragraphs."
Operation of Pilot Plant LTV Evaporator at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina
From Introduction: "The primary objective in the development of the W. L. Badger Long Tube Vertical Multiple Effect Evaporator for saline water conversion is to minimize the ultimate cost of producing potable water. To accomplish the primary objective, it is necessary to (1) prevent formation of scale on heating surfaces, and (2) minimize corrosion to permit use of inexpensive materials of construction. The work done leading to this report was guided in the direction of accomplishing the two secondary objectives."
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Freezing Process Desalination
From Introduction: "In this report we will present the results of extending our study of MPE desalination systems to include freezing processes."
Study of Multi-Phase Ejectors for Distillation Desalination Systems
From Introduction: "The purpose of this study was to investigate analytically the performance of various combination heat and work-input MPE desalination systems ranging from pure heat-input to pure work-input types. MPE desalination systems are described in the following section, while, the analytical methods and discussions of the results obtained are presented in the appendices."
Study of Two-Phase Metastable Flow
From Abstract: "An experimental study was made to determine the flow rate of saturated water through short tubes of various lengths and diameters. Tubes of both rounded and sharp edge entrances were tested in the horizontal and vertical positions. Test results were analyzed and correlated."
A Study of Water Plant Isolation From Contamination
From Introduction: "In this study, data has been obtained on radioactive nuclide concentrations in nuclear power plants of both the BWR direct cycle and the PWR indirect cycle. These data, together with leakage rates actually experienced in the PWR steam generators and with assumed leakage rates in brine heaters, are used to calculate concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the water plant product and effluent."
Heat Transfer in the LTV Evaporator: An Analysis of Pilot Plant Data and Predictive Techniques for Plant Operation and Design
Summary & Conclusions: "The study presented in this report was directed toward resolving the uncertainties in the design and prediction methods for heat transfer performance as well as toward analyzing certain aspects of the scaling problem."
Transport-Depletion Desalination Pilot Plant
From Summary: "The transport-depletion data obtained by the Southern Research Institute and by the Bureau of Reclamation at Denver, Colorado and at Webster, South Dakota, was reviewed. This data review made it possible to develop a design methodology for the pilot plant, and to identify the additional data required to adequately predict the performance of a transport-depletion stack."
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1970
From Introduction: "This report covers the work done in fiscal 1970 and the small amount of work done in the early part of fiscal 1971; the inclusive dates covered are July 1, 1969 through July 10, 1970. A four effect VTE train operating in the downflow mode. A single effect VTE unit operating in the downflow mode. A mixed phase high pressure water and steam jet compression unit complete with a boiler to supply high pressure motive steam."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process: Evaluation on Brackish Water
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression (VFVC) Process was evaluated on high salinity brackish water during the period from February 1968 through December 1969 by Colt Industries Inc., under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-967 at Roswell, New Mexico. The 15,000 gpd VFVC test plant is mounted on a mobile trailer which was built by Colt Industries Inc. in their factory at Beloit, Wisconsin. Prior to operation at Roswell, the plant was operated at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina to check out the system and to operate the trailer on sea water." Process Description: "A simplified diagram, Figure 2, shows both the essential components of the process and flow paths of the various streams in the system. Typical heat and mass balances are shown on Figures 3 and 4."
Third Report on Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests
From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first portions of which were reported in References 1 and 2. A major purpose in the testing of the three-effect pilot plant was to demonstrate mutiple-effect operability of the the horizontal tube method, when utilizing basically the same construction methods and materials as those proposed for commercial HTME plants."
Second Annual Report: Operation of the Muti-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California
From Introduction: "The Office of Saline Water (OSW) maintains the MSF Module at the San Diego Test Facility, Chula Vista, California, for the purpose of further advancing and developing the state of art of the multistage flash distillation process and thereby reduce the cost of seawater conversion. The MSF Module has been built and operated to obtain engineering design and operating data to serve as a basis for: a. Future process development. b. Improved full scale plant design. Improved full scale plant operating conditions."
Removal of Scale-Forming Compounds from Sea Water
From Recommendations: "Laboratory research on the process for descaling sea water should be continued to improve the process and thereby lower the cost. Research efforts should be concentrated on methods for producing low cost sodium phosphates (needed for the precipitation of the scale-forming elements) from fertilizer grade phosphates and on increasing the crystalline nature of the phosphate precipitates (to reduce dewatering costs). The descaled sea water should be experimentally evaluated first in the laboratory and later under actual operating conditions so that its value to the water recovery program may be established."
Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Second Annual Report: Saline Water Demonstration Plant Number 3, Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This Annual Report on the maintenance and operation of Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 3, located in Webster, South Dakota, presents the Plant Maintenance and Operational History and the Technical, Economic and Administrative evaluations of the Plant's operation during the period 1 July 1963 through 30 June 1964. This Report is prepared in compliance with Management and Operations Contract No. 14-01-001-225 dated 2 October 1961."
Sixth Annual Report: Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
From Introduction: "The Sixth Annual Report presents a wide variety of information findings and recommendations concerning the Multiple-Effect VTE evaporation method of desalination. The included data are derived from the results obtained from operation, maintenance, and development studies conducted for the the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water, at Freeport, Texas. Not only are the technical, logistical, and economical evaluations for the Fiscal Year 1967 operations presented herein, but also the process and mechanical development program results as related to the process in particular, and desalination in general."
Thermodynamic Properties of Saline Water
From Abstract: "Activity coefficients of calcium sulfate were calculated from solubilities of gypsum in 0 to 1.0m sodium chloride at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 95 degrees C. X-ray diffraction studies for calcium sulfate modifications before and after contact with aqueous and saline solutions are given."
Third Annual Report: Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 4, Roswell, New Mexico
From Abstract: "Primary interest was placed on the scale formation problem. Significant improvements were made in the process and described in this report. Maintenance requirements were unusually high during the year, primarily as a result of cumulative corrosion damage over the last three years. The most significant damage was in the circulating pumps, the heat exchangers and feed piping. These and other failures are described."
Research on Thermoelectric Heat Pumps
From Results: "Prior to stating results achieved, let us first discuss the measurements we were able to make, and how these measurements might--or might not--be indicative of the objective we strove to reach. Tables I and II, and related Figs. 11 and 12, show the best results obtained. Final Columns of Tables I and II are believed to show, at least to a degree, how good or how poor our best sputtered films turned out to be, compared with top-quality Peliter semiconductor materials."
Scale Control With Graphite Heat-Transfer Tubes of Controlled Permeability to Steam
From Introduction: "The present project authorized under OSW Contract No. 14-01-0001-685 was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of controlling calcium sulfate scale by permission of condensate through graphite heat-transfer tubes. Specifically, the following tasks were accomplished during the course of this contract: Graphite tubes 108" long X 2" O.D. x 1 1/2" I.D. were manufactured at three permeability levels. A test apparatus was constructed and proved out as a useful and reliable probe. Tests were conducted at two brine concentrations. Some correlation of test considerations with scale formation was found. The economic practicality and the feasibility of using permeable tubes for desalinization were established."
Investigation of Membrane Stack Resistance Increase With a Natural Brackish Water
From Introduction: "An investigation was undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation to identify the cause of causes of this problem with a particular brackish water. The resistance increase of is of great concern principally because of the increase in power consumption that ultimately contributes to a higher cost for product water. Reports show that membrane stack resistance has increased as much as 200 percent over period of several days."
Theoretical Studies of the Behavior of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Electrolytes With Respect to Osmionic Cell Operation
From Forward: "This is the seventy-sixth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost demineralization of sea or other saline water."
Utilization of Isotopes for Saline Water Conversion
From Abstract: "This report covers a study involving the use of radioisotope power as a heat source for saline water conversion."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Desalting Process
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process (VFVC) was evaluated during the period from February, 1965, through March, 1967, by Colt Industries Inc. under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-532." From Process Description: "The primary principles involved for converting of sea and brackish water to fresh water in the VFVC Process are rather well known in physical chemistry and are summarized below. The principles discussed above, applied to a practical VFVC desalting system, are illustrated in the schematic flow diagram, Figure 3. This simplified diagram shows both the essential components of the process and the flow paths of the various fluids in the system. A typical mass and heat balance is shown in Figure 4."
Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation
From Introduction: "This report contains the results of a research study on the "Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation" undertaken in January 1967 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Saline Water, United Sates Department of the Interior. The objectives of the study were: a. To determine, through application of desalting techniques, the costs and benefits associated with the progressive decreases in the salinity of irrigation water supplies. b. To identify the possible means of introducing desalted water into irrigation supply systems. To relate current desalting technology to potential applications in agriculture."
Vapor Compression with Secondary Heat-Transfer Media
From Introduction: "The use of a secondary heat-transfer media in a vapor-compression distillation unit was suggested for investigation as a process for saline water conversion because previous studies on the vapor-compression cycle at low temperatures showed that the fixed charges on the compressor are a substantial part of the final water-product cast. Other fluids were evaluated as above, the results of which are shown in table 1. Data on the other fluids shown in table 1 will be found in the appendix."
Transport Processes in Electrochemically Controlled Ion-Exchange Desalination
From Summary: "The results of such experiments are summarized as follows: 1. Anion-responsive electrodes formed with Kraton, graphite, Norit, and Amberlite CG-4B demineralized well at currents up to 10 milli-amperes; regeneration was efficient up to 8 milliamperes. 2. Satisfactory anion-responsive electrodes containing Amberlite IRA-68 could only be formed when resin was first ground while in the sulfate form; it was required that it be added to the paste mixture (Kraton, Norit, and graphite) in the same form."