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Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume I, Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

Description: The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.
Date: April 1, 1955
Creator: Barnett, Henry C. & Hibbard, Robert R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair F-102A airplane at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01

Description: Tests have been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01 of various arrangements of a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair F-102A airplane with faired inlets. Tests made of the model equipped with a plain wing, a wing with 6.4 percent conical camber, and a wing with 15 percent conical camber. Body modifications including an extended nose, a modified canopy, and extended afterbody fillets were evaluated. In addition, the effects of a revised vertical tail and two different ventral fins were determined. The results indicated that the use of cambered wings resulted in lower drag in the lift-coefficient range above 0.2. This range, however, is above that which would generally be required for level flight; hence, the usefulness of camber might be confined to increased maneuverability at the higher lifts while its use may be detrimental to the high-speed (low-lift) capabilities.
Date: September 30, 1955
Creator: Spearman, M. Leroy & Driver, Cornelius
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.04956-Scale Model of the Convair F-102A Airplane at Transonic Speeds

Description: Tests have been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel on a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair F-102A airplane which employed an indented and extended fuselage, cambered wing leading edges, and deflected wing tips. Force and moment characteristics were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.135 at angles of attack up to 20 . In addition, tests were made over a limited angle-of-attack range to determine the effects of the cambered leading edges, deflected tips, and a nose section with a smooth area distribution. Fuselage modifications employed on the F-102A were responsible for a 25.percent reduction in the minimum drag-coefficient rise between the Mach numbers of 0.85 and 1.075 when compared with that for the earlier versions of the F-102. Although the wing modifications increased the F-102A subsonic minimum drag-coefficient level approximately 0.0020, they produced large decreases in drag at lifting conditions over that for the original (plane-wing) F-102. The F-102A had 15 to 25 percent higher maximum lift-drag ratios than did the original F-102. The F-102A had about 15 percent lower maximum lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers below 0.95 and slightly higher maximum lift-drag ratios at supersonic speeds when compared with those ratios for sn earlier modified-wing version of the F-102. Chordwise wing fences which provided suitable longitudinal stability for the original F-102 were not adequate for the cambered-wing F-102A The pitching-moment curves indicated a region of near neutral stability with possible pitch-up tendencies for the F-102A at high subsonic Mach numbers for lift coefficients between about 0.4 and 0.5.
Date: March 28, 1955
Creator: Tempelmeyer, Kenneth E. & Osborne, Robert S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of various configurations of a model of a 45 degree swept-wing airplane at a Mach number of 2.01

Description: An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach nmber of 2.01 to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of several configurations of a model of a 45 deg swept-wing airplane. The basic configuratin had a wing with 45 deg sweepback at the quarter-chord line, aspect ration 3.2, taper ration 0.468, NACA 65A005.5 sections just outboard of the inlet and NACA 65A003.7 sections at the tip. The wing was mounted slightly above the body center line and an all-movable horizantal tail was located slightly below the extended chord line of the wing. Tre design incorporated twin wing-root supersonic inlets ducted to a single exit at the base of the fuselage. The configurations investigated included an extended nose length, a bumped-fuselage afterbody, an inlet droop, an lncreased wing aspect ratio, and a revised canopy shape. Configurations employing the wing of increased aspect ratio of 3.7, which constituted the bulk of the tests, produced about a 10-percent increase in lift and in longitudinal stability as compared with the basic wing of aspect ratio 3.2. There was a slight but masurable increase in minimum drag and maximum lift-drag ratio.
Date: May 26, 1955
Creator: Spearman, Leroy M; Driver, Cornelius & Robinson, Ross B
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. VI - Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades

Description: Available experimental two-dimensional cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of blade-profile performance. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.
Date: November 11, 1955
Creator: Lieblein, Seymour
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Compressors. VII - Blade-Element Flow in Annular Cascades

Description: Annular blade-element data obtained primarily from single-stage compressor installations are correlated over a range of inlet Mach numbers and cascade geometry. The correlation curves are presented in such a manner that they are related directly to the low-speed two-dimensional-cascade data of part VI of this series. Thus, the data serve as both an extension and a verification of the two-dimensional-cascade data. In addition, the correlation results are applied to compressor design.
Date: August 9, 1955
Creator: Robbins, William H.; Jackson, Robert J. & Lieblein, Seymour
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department