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The 5- by 7-meter wind tunnel of the DVL
The report contains a description of the DVL wind tunnel. According to the cones fixed, an elliptical stream with axes 5 by 7 meters and length 9 meters, or a stream 6 by 8 meters in cross section and 11 meters in length is available. The top speed with the smaller cone is 65 meters per second. The testing equipment consists of an automatic six-component balance and a test rig for propellers and engines up to 650 horsepower.
The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard
Report discussing the 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.
The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.
The 1929 Rhon soaring-flight contest
The limitation of the 1929 contest to performance gliders necessitated the establishment of a formula which would make it possible to distinguish between performance gliders and school and training gliders. The sinking speed was therefore adopted as the basis for such a distinction, and the requirement was made that the sinking speed of a performance glider should not exceed 0.8 m/s. The rest of the report details the different entries with regard to design and performance.
The 1933 contest for the Deutsch de la Meurthe trophy
Report discussing the regulations and airplanes participating in the 1933 contest competing for the Deutsch de la Meurthe trophy.
The 1934 contest for the Deutsch de la Meurthe trophy
This report presents a description of the rules, history and new technical innovations in the Deutsch de la Meurthe Cup race of 1934.
N.A.C.A. Stall-Warning Device
With some airplanes the approach to the stall is accompanied by changes in the behavior, such as tail buffeting or changes in the control characteristics of the airplane so that the pilot obtains a warning of the impending stall. Vith other airplanes it is possible to approach the stall without any perceptible warning other than the reading of the air-speed meter, in which case the danger of inadvertent stalling is considerably greater. Although it is not within the scope of this paper to discuss stalling characteristics, it is desired to point out that in general the danger of inadvertent stalling is greatest with those airplanes that behave worse when the stalling occurs; that is, with airplanes in which the stall starts at the wing tips. A warning of the impending stall is desirable in any case, but is particularly desirable with airplanes of the latter type.
The Aachen wind-tunnel balance
Report discussing a description of the balance in the Aachen wind-tunnel.
Accelerated Laboratory Test for Determination of Slacking Characteristics of Coal
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on laboratory testing developed to measure the slacking of coals. Testing methods and results are presented. This report includes tables and graphs.
Acceleration, stress, and deflection measurements on the XB-15 bomber in gusty air
From Introduction: "This report presents the results of these tests which cover a total of about 70 flying hours on this airplane."
Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear
In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances.
Accident Experience and Cost of Accidents in Washington Coal Mines
Report containing tables detailing cost of mining accidents in Washington state in comparison with other states.
Accounting System and Office-Management Procedure for Medium-Size Metal Mines
Report discussing an accounting system and management of office procedures design for medium-size metal mines, offered by the United States Bureau of Mines, to be more efficient in the mining industry.
Accurate calculation of multispar cantilever and semicantilever wings with parallel webs under direct and indirect loading
In the present report the computation is actually carried through for the case of parallel spars of equal resistance in bending without direct loading, including plotting of the influence lines; for other cases the method of calculation is explained. The development of large size airplanes can be speeded up by accurate methods of calculation such as this.
An accurate method of measuring the moments of inertia of airplanes
From Summary: "This note contains a description of an improved apparatus and procedure used by the NACA for determining the moments of inertia of airplanes. The method used, based on the pendulum theory, is similar to that previously used, but a recent investigation of its accuracy has resulted in the improvements described herein. The error, when using the new apparatus and procedure, has been found to be of the order of 1 per cent."
Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number
This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.
Additional test data on static longitudinal stability
From Summary: "The purpose of this investigation was to explore the influence of weights of the controls on the stability with elevator released. The available test data were extended to stability with elevator locked. In this connection the study of the propeller effect seemed of vital importance."
Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes
The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection.
Advantages of oxide films as bases for aluminum pigmented surface coatings for aluminum alloys
Report discussing both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized.
An aerodynamic analysis of the autogiro rotor with a comparison between calculated and experimental results
This report presents an extension of the autogiro theory of Glauert and Lock in which the influence of a pitch varying with the blade radius is evaluated and methods of approximating the effect of blade tip losses and the influence of reversed velocities on the retreating blades are developed. A comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that most of the rotor characteristics could be calculated with reasonable accuracy, and that the type of induced flow assumed has a secondary effect upon the net rotor forces, although the flapping motion is influenced appreciably. An approximate evaluation of the effect of parasite drag on the rotor blades established the importance of including this factor in the analysis.
The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system
From Summary: "An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified."
The aerodynamic aspect of wing-fuselage fillets
Report discussing model tests prove the feasibility of enhancing the aerodynamic qualities of wing-fuselage fillets by appropriate design of fuselage and wing roots. Abrupt changes from maximum fuselage height to wing chord must be avoided and every longitudinal section of fuselage and wing roots must be so faired and arranged as to preserve the original lift distribution of the continuous wing. Adapting the fuselage to the curvilinear circulation of the wing affords further improvement. The polars of such arrangements are almost the same as those of the "wing alone," thus voiding the superiority of the high-wing type airplane known with conventional design.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 4-engine monoplane showing comparison of air-cooled and liquid-cooled engine installations
From Introduction: "An investigation has been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/4-scale model of a 4-engine monoplane when equipped with comparable air-cooled engine and liquid-cooled engine installations. The air-cooled engine installation consisted of nacelles equipped with N..A.C.A. cowlings and oil coolers located in the leading edge of the wing."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 4-engine monoplane showing effects of enclosing the engines in the wing and comparisons of tractor- and pusher-propeller arrangements
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of airfoils tested in the variable-density wind tunnel
The aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of miscellaneous airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel have been reduced to a comparable form and are published in this report for convenient reference. Plots of the standard characteristics are given in tabular form. Included is a tabulation of important characteristics for the related airfoils reported in NACA report 460. This report, in conjunction with NACA report 610, makes available in comparable and convenient form the aerodynamic data for airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel since January 1, 1931.
The aerodynamic characteristics of a model wing having a split flap deflected downward and moved to the rear
Tests were made on a model wing with three different sized split trailing-edged flaps, in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. The flaps were formed of the lower rear portion of the wing and were rotated downward about axes at their front edges. The lift, drag, and center of pressure were measured with the axis in its original position and also with it moved back in even steps to the trailing edge of the main wing, giving in effect an increase in area. The split flaps when deflected about their original axis locations gave slightly higher maximum lift coefficients than conventional trailing-edge flaps, and the lift coefficients were increased still further by moving the axes toward the rear. The highest value of C(sub L max), which was obtained with the largest flap hinged at 90 per cent of the chord from the leading edge, was 2.52 as compared with 1.27 for the basic wing.
The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position
Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off
From Summary: "This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash."
The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as affected by surface roughness
The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.
The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at negative angles of attack
A number of airfoils, including 14 commonly used airfoils and 10 NACA airfoils, were tested through the negative angle-of-attack range in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds Number of approximately 3,000,000. The tests were made to supply data to serve as a basis for the structural design of airplanes in the inverted flight condition. In order to make the results immediately available for this purpose they are presented herein in preliminary form, together with results of previous tests of the airfoils at positive angles of attack. An analysis of the results made to find the variation of the ratio of the maximum negative lift coefficient to the maximum positive lift coefficient led to the following conclusions: 1) For airfoils of a given thickness, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to decrease as the mean camber is increased. 2) For airfoils of a given mean camber, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to increase as the thickness increases.
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups
The static lift and drag forces on three hemispherical and two conical cups were measured over a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees and a range of Reynolds Numbers from very small up to 400,000. The problems of supporting the cup for measurement and the effect of turbulence were also studied. The results were compared with those of other investigators.
Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds
The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached.
The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel
Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.
The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms
Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type.
The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections
Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section
Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.
Aerodynamic characteristics of several airfoils of low aspect ratio
This paper presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of several airfoils of low aspect ratio. The airfoils included three circular Clark Y airfoils with different amounts of dihedral, two Clark Y airfoils with slots in their portions, and three flat-plate airfoils. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; pitching moment characteristics of one of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; and lift characteristics of the flat-plate airfoils are included. The results reveal a definite improvement of lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics with increase in dihedral of the circular Clark Y wing. Lift characteristics near the stall were found to depend markedly on the shape of the extreme tip but were not greatly affected by slots through the after portion of the airfoils. Changes in plan form of the flat-plate airfoils gave erroneous indications of the effect to be expected from changes in plan form of an airfoil of Clark Y section. The minimum drag characteristics of the circular Clark Y airfoils were found to be substantially the same as for a Clark Y airfoil of conventional aspect ratio.
The aerodynamic characteristics of six commonly used Airfoils over a large range of positive and negative angles of attack
This paper presents the results of tests of six commonly used airfoils: the CYH, the N-22, the C-72, the Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398. The lifts, drags, and pitching moments of the airfoils were measured through a large range of positive and negative angles of attack. The tests were made in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a large Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398 airfoils, the negative maximum lift coefficients were found to be approximately half the positive; but for the M-6 and the CYH, which have less effective values were, respectively, 0.8 and 0.6 of the positive values.
The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections
Wind-tunnel tests are reported of six 3-blade 10-foot propellers operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers were identical except for blade airfoil sections, which were: Clark y, R.A.F. 6, NACA 4400, NACA 2400-34, NACA 2rsub200, and NACA 6400. The range of blade angles investigated extended for 15 degrees to 40 degrees for all propellers except the Clark y, for which it extended to 45 degrees. The results showed that the range in maximum efficiency between the highest and lowest values was about 3 percent. The highest efficiencies were for the low-camber sections.
The aerodynamic characteristics of three tapered airfoils tested in the variable density wind tunnel
This report contains the lift, drag, and moment characteristics of tapered Clark Y, Gottingen 393, and USA 45 airfoils as obtained from tests made in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the NACA. The results are given at both low and high Reynolds Numbers to show scale effect and to provide data for use in airplane design.
Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds
The aerodynamic characteristics of 24 airfoils are given for speeds of 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound, as measured in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The 24 airfoils belong to four general groups. The first is the standard R. A. F. family in general use by the Army and Navy for propeller design, the members of the family differing only in thickness. This family is represented by nine members ranging in thickness from 0.04 to 0.20 inch. The second group consists of five members of the Clark Y family, the members of the family again differing only in thickness. The third group, comprising six members, is a second R. A. F. Family in which the position of the maximum ordinate is varied. Combined with two members of the first R.A.F. family, this group represents a variation of maximum ordinate position from 30 to 60 percent of the chord in two camber ratios, 0.08 and 0.16. The fourth group consists of three geometrical forms, a flat plate, a wedge, and a segment of a right circular cylinder. In addition one section used in the reed metal propeller was included. These measurements form a part of a general program outlined at a Conference on Propeller Research organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the work was carried out with the financial assistance of the committee (author).
Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap
The results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the NACA 23012, the NACA 23021, and the Clark Y airfoils, each equipped with a cambered external-airfoil flap, are presented in this report. The purpose of the research was to determine the relative merit of the various airfoils in combination with the cambered flap and to investigate the use of the flap as a combined lateral-control and high-lift device.
The aerodynamic drag of five models of side floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J
The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.
The aerodynamic drag of flying-boat hull model as measured in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel I.
Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.
The aerodynamic effect of a retractable landing gear
Tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full scale wind tunnel at the request of the Army Air Corps to determine the effect of retractable landing gear openings in the bottom surface of a wing upon the characteristics of a Lockheed Altair airplane. The tests were extended to include the determination of the lift and drag characteristics throughout the angle-of-attack range with the landing gear both retracted and extended. Covering the wheel openings in the wing with sheet metal when the wheels were extended reduced the drag only 2 percent at a lift coefficient of 1.0, which was assumed for the take-off condition. Therefore, the wheel openings in the bottom side of the wing have a negligible effect upon the take-off of the airplane. Retracting the landing gear reduced the minimum drag of the complete airplane 50 percent.
Aerodynamic effects of a split flap on the spinning characteristics of a monoplane model
The investigation described in this report was made to determine the change in aerodynamic forces and moments produced by split flaps in a steady spin. The test were made with the spinning balance in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. A low-wing monoplane model was tested with and without the split flaps in 12 spinning attitudes chosen to cover the probable spinning range. The changes in coefficients produced by adding the split flaps are given for longitudinal force, normal force, and rolling and yawing moments about body axes. The results obtained indicate that the use of split flaps on an airplane is unlikely, in any case, to have much beneficial effect on a spin, and it might make the spin dangerous. The change in the spin will depend upon the aerodynamic and inertia characteristics of the particular airplane. A dangerous condition is most likely to be attained with airplanes which are statically stable in yaw in the spinning attitude and which have large weights distributed along wings.
The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs
In connection with the interference program being conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel, an analysis was made of available material with the object of presenting a qualitative discussion on wing characteristics as affected by cut-outs and of determining means for their quantitative calculation.
The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance
A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the ny-1 airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane. Two spinning conditions were investigated. All six components of the aerodynamic reaction were measured and are presented in coefficient form refereed to airplane axes. The results indicate that the change in yawing moment produced by the rudder with the elevator up was the only component of force or moment produced by the elevator and rudder that could not have been balanced in an actual spin by small changes in attitude and angular velocity.
Aerodynamic forces and moments of a seaplane on the water
This report gives the results of wind-tunnel tests with a seaplane model as a contribution to the solution of the aerodynamic problems. In the tests it was assumed that the seaplane rested motionless on the water and was exposed, in various positions with respect to the supposedly flat surface of the water, to a uniform air current 0 to 360 degrees.