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1995 Midnite Mine Radiation Survey
Abstract: During the week of September 4, 1995, personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a Ra-226 survey at the Midnite Mine. One hundred thirty measurements were made on a rectangular grid with 150-m spacings. Concurrently, Shepherd Miller, Inc., took gross gamma readings in gR/h at the same grid points. In addition, the USBM collected 17 soil samples to be analyzed for radium, thorium, and potassium. The results of this survey are summarized in this report.
3DTOM, Three-Dimensional Geophysical Tomography
Abstract: 3DTOM is a DOS-compatible computer program developed by the Mines U.S. Bureau of for three-dimensional tomographic imaging of the subsurface at mine sites. The program uses the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) to invert travel- time data and produce maps of wave velocity, or to invert amplitude data and generate maps of wave attenuation coefficients. Either seismic (compressional and/or shear) or electromagnetic (e.g., radio or radar) wave data may be used. Ray tracing in 3DTOM uses several different methods, including ray bending, network theory, and a combination of these. User-defined constraints are important in reducing the mathematical nonuniqueness of inversions based on limited data. 3DTOM permits the use of hard constraints, or soft constraints based on fuzzy logic, to allow for uncertainty in the constraints. Reliable subsurface images are useful in many different mine-related problems, including void detection, fracture detection, fluid monitoring, and qualitative stress evaluation.
Accelerated Laboratory Test for Determination of Slacking Characteristics of Coal
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on laboratory testing developed to measure the slacking of coals. Testing methods and results are presented. This report includes tables and graphs.
Accident-Severity Rates For Certain Metal Mines
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the severity of accidents in the metal-mine industry. 34 metal-mines documented the number and severity of all accidents over the course if one calendar year. This report includes tables.
An Adaptive System for Process Control
Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by loosely modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule-based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the "rule-of-thumb" strategy used in human decisionmaking. Together, GA's and FLC's include all of the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a cont element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and an adaptive element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. The control system also employs a computer simulation of the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented; all results are from the physical laboratory system and not from a computer simulation.
Adhesion of Diamond Films on Tungsten
The U.S. Bureau of Mines has investigated the chemical vapor deposition of diamond films on tungsten substrates. The effects of deposition parameters on the adhesion of the films was determined. The films were produced using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition system. Parameters investigated were substrate temperature and methane concentration in the feed gas. Film quality, morphology, and composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Adhesion testing was performed using an indentation technique, and the results were quantified by relating adhesion to interface fracture toughness. Diamond films with well-faceted crystalline morphology with grain size greater than 1 pm had poor adhesion properties regardless of substrate temperature or methane concentration. Diamond films with smooth morphologies consisting of rounded clusters of small (<0.2 pm) diamond crystallites and amorphous carbon phases displayed much higher adhesion, although the conditions that led to the growth of these films are not understood.
Air and Gas Injection in the Oil Fields of Illinois
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the gas injection methods in the oil fields of Illinois. The results and properties of the injections are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, illustrations, and maps.
Alumina Miniplant Operations: Separation of Aluminum Chloride Liquor from Leach Residue Solids by Classification and Thickening
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over recovery methods of alumina through leaching of kaolin clay. The materials, equipment, and procedures used are discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Analyses of Crude Oils From Some Fields of Southern Louisiana
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the studies of crude oil samples collected from southern Louisiana. The properties of each sample are analyzed. This report includes tables.
Analysis of Oil Production in the Near-Depleted Mexia-Powell Fault-Line Fields of Texas
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the oil fields located near the Mexia-Powell fault line in Texas. Properties of the oil fields, including geology and oil production, are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, maps, and illustrations.
Andover-Sulphur Hill Iron Mines, Sussex County, New Jersey
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on the iron mines of Sussex County, New Jersey. Descriptions of the physicality, location, and drilling methods used on the deposits are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Annual Report of the Explosives Division, Fiscal Year 1936
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the U.S. Explosives Division, and the chemical and physical testing conducted. The properties of the studies conducted during 1936 are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Annual Report of the Explosives Division, Fiscal Year 1942
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the annual report of work conducted by the Explosives Division during the fiscal year of 1942. Descriptions of testing projects and operations are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
Annual Report of the Mining Division, Fiscal Year 1941
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the annual study of the work done by the Mining Division. Investigations, operations, and projects completed during the fiscal year are discussed. This report includes tables, and photographs.
Annual Report of the Mining Division, Fiscal Year 1942
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the annual work conducted by the Mining Division during 1942. Descriptions of projects and operations during the fiscal year are listed. This report contains tables, and photographs.
Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1949: Synthetic Liquid Fuels, Part 3. - Liquid Fuels from Agricultural Residues
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the development and production of synthetic liquid fuels derived from agricultural products. The amount of synthetic fuels developed from corn is presented. The report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Applicability of Radio to Emergency Mine Communications: Progress Report, September 1946 to November 1947
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the progress made in emergency mine communications. The results of testing done on low-frequency radio communication are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
Application of Buckley-Leverett Techniques in Oil-Reservoir Analysis
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over new techniques of oil-reservoir analysis. The methods used are presented. This report includes tables, and graphs.
Application of Electrical-Resistivity Surveys to Exploration for Zinc-Lead Deposits, Racine-Spurgeon Area, Newton County, Missouri
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over surveys conducted on zinc-lead deposits of Newton County, Missouri. Results of the surveys are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Application of Field Measurements and Computer Modeling to Evaluate Deep Mine Shaft Stability in Northern Idaho
Abstract: Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed personal-computer-based data acquisition, instrumentation, and mine visualization and modeling techniques to evaluate a mine accessway in a deep hard-rock mine in northern Idaho. These techniques were applied to a mine shaft in a large silver mine that has been in operation for many years. A very deep, rectangular, timber-supported shaft extending to depths exceeding 2.3 km (7,500 ft) had been deforming continuously as a result of nearby mining, resulting in operational problems. Preliminary visual observations and rock and support monitoring confirmed that severe diagonal distortion was occurring. Extensive field measurements and data analysis confirmed initial observations, provided insights into the cause of deformation, and defined a general approach to structural modeling. Computer analysis of the problem was initiated by developing a three-dimensional model of the terrain. This represented a volume of rock approximately 80 km3 (40 x 1010 ft) and an area on the surface surrounding the mine 9 km2 (3 square miles). Based on this model, a three-dimensional, finiteelement analysis was conducted to establish boundary conditions for sequentially more detailed two- and three-dimensional submodels of the shaft area. Results from the computer study are being used to develop new approaches to mine design and to provide design guidelines for deep mine accessways subject to severe rock-mass loading conditions.
Bending Fatigue Tests on Flattened Strand Wire Rope at High Working Loads
Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines established a wire rope research laboratory to examine the factors that affect the safety and the useful life of wire rope. In the most recent work, two 32-mm 6x27H flattened strand ropes were degraded on a bending fatigue machine. The two tests were run at constant loads of 285 and 347 kN or safety factors of 2.5 and 2. Nondestructive and tensile strength tests were performed on samples of the ropes to determine the relationship between rope deterioration and rope breaking strength. Neither the area loss nor the number of broken wires measured from nondestructive tests could be used as clear indicators of the loss of strength. However, it was found from the tensile tests for both rope specimens that the strength loss was associated with the reduction of breaking strain. This suggests that measuring the strain of many short sections of a rope in the elastic region may locate the high stress sections and thus determine the condition of the rope.
Beneficiation of Chromite Ores From Western United States
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the sampling of chrome ore deposits in the western United States. Physical properties of the samples collected are presented. This report includes tables.
Beneficiation of Iron-Copper Ores from Kasaan Peninsula, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the beneficiation of iron-copper ores. As stated in the summary, "this report summarizes the results of laboratory testing of copper-bearing magnetite ore from the Poorman, Rush and Brown, and Copper Center deposits, Kasaan Peninsula, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska" (p. 1). This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Beneficiation Studies of the Oregon Coastal Dune Sands for Use as Glass Sand
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on the coastal sands and their potential for being used as glass sand. Samples were tested, and properties of the sands are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and photographs.
Beryl Mountain, Sullivan County, New Hampshire
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over exploration of mineral deposits on Beryl Mountain. As stated in the introduction, "testing by surface cuts, trenching, and tunneling was conducted by the Bureau of Mines from August to December 1943" (p. 1). This report includes maps.
Beryl Resources of the Black Hills of South Dakota
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the beryl deposits in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota. The properties and quantity of the beryl samples were evaluated. Maps, illustrations, and tables are included in the report.
Bituminous-Coal Deposits in the Vicinity of Eska, Matanuska Valley Coal Field, Alaska
Report of investigations issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the estimated recoverable reserves of bituminous coal found in the Matanuska Valley Coal Field. The investigation includes studies of the area, and methods of mining which include diamond and churn drilling. This report includes maps, photographs, and illustrations.
Bituminous Coal Deposits of the Matanuska Coalfield, Alaska: Central and Western Parts, Wishbone District
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing bituminous coal production of the Matanuska coalfield in Alaska. A history of the coalfield is presented, as well as drilling methods and data. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Blackbird Cobalt Deposits, Lemhi County, Idaho
Report from the U.S. Bureau of Mines on exploration of known cobalt ore deposits in Lemhi County, Idaho. Physical features of the area, and properties of the cobalt samples collected are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Bovill Clay and Sand Deposit, Latah County, Idaho: Geology, Minerology, and Beneficiation Tests
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on the clay-silica deposits found in Bovill, Idaho. As stated in the abstract, "the geology, mineralogy, beneficiation, and potential uses of the clay and quartz fractions of the Bovill deposit are described" (p. 1). This report includes tables, graphs, photographs, and maps.
Briquetting Subbituminous Coal
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over briquetting of coal for development of more effective fuel. Materials, equipment, and processes are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Bucket-Drilling the Coso Mercury Deposit, Inyo County, California
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on the Coso mercury deposits of Inyo County, and development of the bucket drill for obtaining samples. Descriptions of the physical features of the deposits are listed. This report includes tables, maps, photographs, and illustrations.
Bureau of Mines Multiple-Diaphragm Recording Subsurface-Pressure Gage
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the measuring of temperature and pressure in oil and gas wells. Descriptions of the instrumentation developed and used for these measurements are presented. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Bureau of Mines Research on Trailing-Cable-Fault Locators
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over fault locators in trailing cables. The methods used for locating faults are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Burning Anthracite Barley on a Chain-Grate Stoker in a Two-Arch Furnace
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the use of anthracite barley as a fuel for a chain-grate stoker in a two-arch furnace. The efficiency and capacity of the anthracite barley as fuel is presented. Tables, graphs, and illustrations are included in the report.
Byproduct Coke-Oven Tests of Washington Coals
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coking-coal testing done on Washington coal. Descriptions of the testing, and properties of the coals tested are presented. This report includes tables, and photographs.
Carbon Tetrachloride Extinguisher of Electric Fires
Report discussing "the extent and nature of the hazards to firefighters from gases and smoke resulting from the application of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher to electric arcs, burning insulation or fires such as may occur in electrical apparatus and machinery. The experiments described were made for the purpose of determining the nature of gases and smoke and ascertaining their toxic properties" (p. 1).
Characteristics and Analyses of Ninety-Two Colorado Crude Oils
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the characteristics and properties of many different crude-oil samples from Colorado. The properties of each sample are presented. This report includes table, maps, and illustrations.
Characterization of Dredged River Sediments in 10 Upland Disposal Sites of Alabama
Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under interagency Agreement No. 14-09-0078-1510, conducted a comprehensive sampling program of 10 upland disposal sites along the Alabama, Black Warrior, and Tombigbee River systems in Alabama. Samples from each site were characterized according to particle size, chemical analysis, mineralogical content, and potential end use. Additionally, samples were subjected to the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Procedure to determine the presence of potentially harmful heavy metals. Based on the results of these studies, each sample was determined to have properties amenable for use as aggregate in general-purpose portland cement concretes and certain asphalt concrete applications.
Clay in Petroleum-Reservoir Rocks: Its effect on Permeability, with Particular Reference to Tejon-Grapevine Area, Kern County, California
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on clays of petroleum-reservoir rocks in Kern County, California. The effects of water sensitivity of clays are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Cle Elum Iron-Nickel Deposits, Kittitas County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the iron-nickel deposits of Kittitas County, Washington. As stated in the introduction, "the investigation consisted of road building, diamond drilling, sampling, and metallurgical tests" (p. 1). This report includes tables and maps.
Coal Carbonization: Carbonizing Properties of Medium-Volatile Coals of Different Types
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the characteristics of different coal varieties after carbonization. The properties of these different coals are presented. This report includes tables, and photographs.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in April, 1931
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths during the month of April, 1931. The number of fatalities and the causes are presented. This report includes tables and graphs.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in December, 1930
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths during December, 1930. The number of fatalities and the causes are presented. This report includes tables.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in February, 1931
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths during the month of February, 1931. The number of fatalities and the causes of each are presented. This report includes tables.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in June, 1931
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths that occurred during the month of June, 1931. The number of fatalities and the causes of each are presented. This report includes tables and a graph.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in March, 1931
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths that occurred during the month of March, 1931. The number of fatalities and their causes are listed. This report includes tables.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in May, 1926
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal-mining related deaths in May, 1926. The 126 accidents are documented and categorized. The accidents are analyzed in order to prevent future accidents, and to implement safety procedures. This report includes tables.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in May, 1931
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coal mine related deaths that occurred during the month of May, 1931. The number of fatalities and their causes are presented. This report includes tables and graphs.
Coal-Mine Fatalities in November, 1930
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the fatalities of coal miners in November, 1930. The common causes of death, and the location of the mines that the fatalities occurred in are listed. This report includes tables.