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Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes

Description: The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection.
Date: August 1939
Creator: Rothrick, A M & Selden, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes

Description: A quantitative criterion of merit has been needed to assist airplane designers to incorporate satisfactory spinning characteristics into new designs. An approximate empirical criterion, based on the projected side area and the mass distribution of the airplane, has been formulated in a recent British report. In the present paper, the British results have been analyzed and applied to American designs. A simpler design criterion based solely on the type and the dimensions of the tail, has been developed: it is useful in a rapid estimation of whether a new design is likely to comply with the minimum requirements for safety in spinning.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Donlan, Charles J & Seidman, Oscar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The charging process in a high-speed, single-cylinder, four-stroke engine

Description: Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were made on an aircraft-type, single cylinder engine, in order to determine the physical nature of the inlet process, especially at high piston speeds. The engine was run at speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m. (mean piston speeds of 1,370 to 2,380 feet per minute). Measurements were made of the cylinder pressure during the inlet stroke and of the power output and volumetric efficiency. Measurements were also made, with the engine not running, to determine the resistance and mass of air in the inlet valve port at various crank angles. Results of analysis indicate that mass has an appreciable effect, but friction plays the major part in restricting flow. The observed fact that the volumetric efficiency is considerably less than 100 percent is attributed to thermal effects. An estimate was made of the magnitude of these effects in the present case, and their general nature is discussed.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Reynolds, Blake; Schecter, Harry & Taylor, E S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Circulation measurements about the tip of an airfoil during flight through a gust

Description: Measurements were made of the circulation about the rectangular tip of a short-span airfoil passing through an artificial gust of known velocity gradient. A Clark Y airfoil of 30-centimeter chord was mounted on a whirling arm and moved at a velocity of 29 meters per second over a vertical gust with a velocity of nearly 7 meters per second. Flow angles were measured with a hot-wire apparatus. The rate at which the lift at the tips of a wing entering a gust is realized was found to be in satisfactory agreement with that predicted on the basis of the two-dimensional theory of von Karman and Sears.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Kuethe, Arnold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combined beam-column stresses of aluminum-alloy channel sections

Description: The results of a research program to obtain design data on the strength of open-channel aluminum-alloy sections subjected to combined column and beam action. The results of the tests of about 70 specimens were graphed for stresses due to axial load and stresses due to bending loading as functions of length to radius of gyration of the specimens. From these graphs a design chart was derived that is suitable for ready use.
Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: Gottlieb, R; Thompson, T M & Witt, E C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative performance of engines using a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection

Description: The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Clark, J Denny
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of ignition characteristics of diesel fuels as determined in engines and in a constant-volume bomb

Description: Ignition-lag data have been obtained for seven fuels injected into heated, compressed air under conditions simulating those in a compression-ignition engine. The results of the bomb tests have been compared with similar engine data, and the differences between the two sets of results are explained in terms of the response of each fuel to variations in air density and temperature.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Selden, Robert F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of profile-drag and boundary-layer measurements obtained in flight and in the full-scale wind tunnel

Description: The effect of the existing turbulence in the full scale tunnel was determined from measurements of the profile drag of an N-22 section by the momentum method under corresponding conditions in flight and the tunnel. The transition-point location on the upper surface of the air-foil was also determined from velocity surveys in the boundary layer. The measurements were made at section lift coefficients from 0.480 to 0.635 with a range of Reynolds Numbers from 4,600,000 to 3,900,000. The results show that the end of transition occurs at approximately the same point on the airfoil in flight and in the tunnel. The transition region was somewhat broader in the tunnel and started farther forward than in flight. The laminar profiles in the tunnel had some characteristics of transition profiles in the tunnel and had a much steeper slope near the surface than did the laminar profiles obtained in flight. These differences, however, caused an increase of only 0.0001 in the profile-drag coefficients, as determined by the momentum method.
Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Goett, Harry J & Bicknell, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of several tapered wings designed to avoid tip stalling

Description: Optimum proportions of tapered wings were investigated by a method that involved a comparison of wings designed to be aerodynamically equal. The conditions of aerodynamic equality were equality in stalling speed, in induced drag at a low speed, and in the total drag at cruising speed. After the wings were adjusted to aerodynamic equivalence, the weights of the wings were calculated as a convenient method of indicating the optimum wing. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated from wing theory and test data for the airfoil sections. Various combinations of washout, camber increase in the airfoil sections from the center to the tips, and sharp leading edges at the center were used to bring about the desired equivalence of maximum lift and center-stalling characteristics. In the calculation of the weights of the wings, a simple type of spar structure was assumed that permitted an integration across the span to determine the web and the flange weights. The covering and the remaining weight were taken in proportion to the wing area. The total weights showed the wings with camber and washout to have the lowest weights and indicated the minimum for wings with a taper ratio between 1/2 and 1/3.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

Description: Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Moore, Charles S & Foster, Hampton H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive tests of a monocoque box

Description: A monocoque box specimen of aluminum alloy was subjected to end compression and the strains in the stringers were measured up to loads at which permanent set became noticeable. The stringer strains at low loads agreed closely with those computed from the assumption of uniform stress distribution. Buckling of the 0.026-inch sheet between stringers and of the 0.075-inch shear web took place at stresses in accord with theoretical values. Permanent set became noticeable at a load of 115,200 pounds, corresponding to an average stringer stress of about 16,000 pounds per square inch. The measured average strain above the first buckling load was within 2 percent of the theoretical strain as calculated from the dimensions of the box and effective width formulas due to Marguerre and to Cox.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Ramberg, Walter; Mcpherson, Albert E & Levy, Sam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of partial-span slotted flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of a rectangular and a tapered N.A.C.A. 23012 wing

Description: An investigation was made in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of tapered and rectangular wings with partial-span slotted flaps. Two N.A.C.A. 23012 airfoils equipped with center-section and tip-section flaps were tested. The results showed that the changes in lift and drag due to changes in flap span for both rectangular and tapered wings having partial-span slotted flaps were similar to those for corresponding wings having partial-span split or plain flaps. For the two wings tested, higher values of maximum lift were obtained with center-section slotted flaps than with tip-section slotted flaps of the same size. The highest values of lift-drag ratio at maximum lift for the rectangular wing were obtained with center-section flaps and, for the tapered wing, with tip-section flaps. Center-section flaps on the tapered wing gave higher values of drag at maximum lift than tip-section flaps; no great difference in drag at maximum lift was apparent for either center-section or tip-section slotted flaps on the rectangular wing.
Date: July 1, 1939
Creator: House, Rufus O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Some Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag

Description: The N.A.C.A. has conducted tests to provide more complete data than were previously available for estimating the effects of common surface irregularities on wing drag. The irregularities investigated included: brazier-head and countersunk rivets, spot welds, several types of sheet-metal joints, and surface roughness. Tests were also conducted to determine the over-all effect of manufacturing irregularities incidental to riveted aluminum alloy and to spot-welded stainless-steel construction. The tests were made in the 8-foot high speed wind tunnel at Reynolds Numbers up to 18,000,000. The results show that any of the surface irregularities investigated may increase wing drag enough to have important adverse effects on high-speed performance and economy. A method of estimating increases in wing drag caused by brazier-head rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints on a wing of 20-foot chord flying at 250 miles per hour are shown.
Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Drag, Manley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of surface waviness and of rib stitching on wing drag

Description: Surface waviness and rib stitching have been investigated as part of a series of tests to determine the effects on wing drag of common surface irregularities. The tests were made in the N.A.C.A. 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel at Reynolds Numbers up to 17,000,000. The results of the tests showed that the waviness common to airplane wings will cause no serious increase in drag unless the waviness exists on the forward part of the wing, where it may cause premature transition or premature compressibility effects. Waves 3 inches wide and 0.048 inch high, for example, increased the drag 1 percent when they covered the rear 67 percent of both surfaces and 10 percent when they covered the rear 92 percent. A single wave 3 inches wide and only 0.020 inch high at the 10.5-percent-chord point on the upper surface caused transition to occur on the wave and increased the drag 6 percent. Rib stitching increased the drag 7 percent when the rib spacing was 6 inches; the drag increment was proportional to the number of ribs for wider spacings. About one-third of the increase was due to premature transition at the forward ends of the stitching.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Hood, Manley J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of deformation and of effective width in axially loaded sheet-stringer panels

Description: The deformation of two sheet-stringer panels subjected to end compression under carefully controlled end conditions was measured at a number of points and at a number of loads, most of which were above the load at which the sheet had begun to buckle. The two panels were identical except for the sheet, which was 0.70-inch 24st alclad for specimen 1 and 0.025-inch 24st aluminum alloy for specimen 6. A technique was developed for attaching Tuckerman optical strain gauges to the sheet without disturbing the strain distribution in the sheet by the method of attachment. This technique was used to explore the strain distribution in the sheet at various loads. The twisting and the bending of the stringers was measured by means of pointers attached to the stringers. The shape of the buckles in the sheet of specimen 6 was recorded at two loads by means of plaster casts. The sheet and the stringer loads at failure are compared with the corresponding loads for five similar panels tested at the Navy Model Basin. A detailed comparison is made between the measured deformation of the buckled sheet and the deformation calculated from approximate theories for the deformation in a rectangular sheet with freely supported edges buckling under end compression advanced by Timoshenko, Frankland, and Marguerre. The measured effective width for the specimens is compared with the effective width given by nine different relations for effective width as a function of the edge stress divided by the buckling stress of the sheet. The analysis of the measured stringer deformation is confined to an application of Southwell's method of plotting deformation against deformation over load. It was concluded that the stringer failure in both specimens were due to an instability in which the stringer was simultaneously twisted and bent as a column.
Date: February 1, 1939
Creator: Ramberg, Walter; MCPHERSON ALBERT E & Levy, Sam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of torsional column failure

Description: Thirty-three 24ST aluminum-alloy 2- by 2- by 0.10-inch channels, with lengths ranging from 10 to 90 inches were tested at Stanford University in compression to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical formulas for torsional failure developed by Eugene E. Lundquist of the N.A.C.A. The observed critical loads and twist-axis locations were sufficiently close to the values obtained from the formulas to establish the substantial validity of the latter. The differences between observed and computed results were small enough to be accounted for by small and mostly unavoidable differences between actual test conditions and those assumed in deriving the formulas. Some data were obtained from the shorter specimens regarding the growth of the buckles that resulted in local buckling failure.
Date: October 1, 1939
Creator: Nile, Alfred S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of N.A.C.A. nose-slot cowlings on the BFC-1 airplane

Description: The results of flight tests of four nose-slot cowling designs with several variations in each design are presented. The tests were made in the process of developing the nose-slot cowling. The results demonstrate that a nose-slot cowling may be successfully applied to an airplane and that it utilizes the increased slipstream velocity of low-speed operation to produce increased cooling pressure across the engine. A sample design calculation using results from wind-tunnel, flight, and ground tests is given in an appendix to illustrate the design procedure.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of retractable ailerons on a highly tapered wing

Description: A flight investigation was conducted to determine the lateral-control characteristics of retractable ailerons installed on a highly tapered wing. The effectiveness of the ailerons in producing roll was measured at various air speeds with full-span plain flaps both neutral and deflected 45 degrees. The direction of the yawing moment created by the ailerons was also noted. The lateral control provided by the retractable ailerons used in this investigation was approximately the same as that obtained with the plain ailerons of equal span with which the airplane was previously equipped. The amount of control available was found to be somewhat inadequate, apparently because of the rather short span of the ailerons (0.327 of the wing span). It is likely that, with an aileron span of from 0.50 to 0.60 of the wing span, a satisfactory degree of control would be obtained. With the full-span flaps deflected 45 degrees, the rolling action of the ailerons was increased about 30 percent over that obtained with the flaps neutral at the same speed. The yawing moment produced by the ailerons was in the same sense as the rolling moment, i.e., right roll was accompanied by yaw. Lag in the response of the rolling action to control application was not large enough to be noticed by the pilots. No appreciable control force was apparent to the pilots, which was considered somewhat undesirable. Minor modifications in the design of the ailerons, however, would probably correct this fault.
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Wetmore, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The frequency of torsional vibration of a tapered beam

Description: A solution for the equation of torsional vibration of tapered beams has been found in terms of Bessel functions for beams satisfying the following conditions: (a) the cross sections along the span are similar in shape; and (b) the torsional stiffness of a section can be expressed as a power of a linear function of distance along the span. The method of applying the analysis to actual cases has been described. Charts are given from which numerical values can be immediately obtained for most cases of practical importance. The theoretical values of the frequency ratio have been experimentally checked on five beams having different amounts of taper.
Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Coleman, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic tests of a family of models of seaplane floats with varying angles of dead rise - N.A.C.A. Models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C

Description: Three models of V-bottom floats for twin-float seaplanes (N.A.C.A. models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C) having angles of dead rise of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and thirty degrees, respectively, were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank and in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. Within the range investigated, the effect of angle of dead rise on water resistance was found to be negligible at speeds up to and including the hump speed, and water resistance was found to increase with angle of dead rise at planing speeds. The height of the spray at the hump speed decreased with increase in angle of dead rise and the aerodynamic drag increased with dead rise. Lengthening the forebody of model 57-B decreased the water resistance and the spray at speeds below the hump speed. Spray strips provided an effective means for the control of spray with the straight V sections used in the series but considerably increased the aerodynamic drag. Charts for the determination of the water resistance and the static properties of the model with 25 degrees dead rise and for the aerodynamic drag of all the models are included for use in design.
Date: July 1, 1939
Creator: Parkinson, John B.; Olson, Roland E. & House, Rufus O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department