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The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard

Description: Report discussing the 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.
Date: August 1935
Creator: Desmond, G L & Mccrary, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of several airfoils of low aspect ratio

Description: This paper presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of several airfoils of low aspect ratio. The airfoils included three circular Clark Y airfoils with different amounts of dihedral, two Clark Y airfoils with slots in their portions, and three flat-plate airfoils. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; pitching moment characteristics of one of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; and lift characteristics of the flat-plate airfoils are included. The results reveal a definite improvement of lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics with increase in dihedral of the circular Clark Y wing. Lift characteristics near the stall were found to depend markedly on the shape of the extreme tip but were not greatly affected by slots through the after portion of the airfoils. Changes in plan form of the flat-plate airfoils gave erroneous indications of the effect to be expected from changes in plan form of an airfoil of Clark Y section. The minimum drag characteristics of the circular Clark Y airfoils were found to be substantially the same as for a Clark Y airfoil of conventional aspect ratio.
Date: August 1935
Creator: Zimmerman, C H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The aerodynamic drag of flying-boat hull model as measured in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel I.

Description: Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.
Date: April 1935
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The aerodynamic forces and moments on a spinning model of the F4B-2 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Description: The aerodynamic forces and moments on a 1/12-scale model of the F4B-2 airplane were measured with the spinning balance in nine spinning attitudes with three sets of tail surfaces, namely, F4B-2 surfaces; F4B-4 fin and rudder with rectangular stabilizer; and with all tail surfaces removed. In one of these attitudes measurements were made to determine the effect upon the forces and moments of independent and of simultaneous displacement of the rudder and elevator for two of the sets of tail surfaces. Additional measurements were made for a comparison of model and full-scale data for six attitudes that were determined from flight tests with various control settings. The characteristics were found to vary in the usual manner with angle of attack and sideslip. The F4B-2 surfaces were quite ineffective as a source of yawing moments. The F4B-4 fin and F4B-2 stabilizer gave a greater damping yawing moment when controls were against the spin than did the F4B-2 surfaces but otherwise there was little difference. Substitution of a rectangular stabilizer for the F4B-2 stabilizer made no appreciable difference in the coefficient. Further comparisons with other airplane types are necessary before final conclusions can be drawn as to the relations between model and full-scale spin measurements.
Date: February 1935
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerman, C H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An application of the von Karman-Millikan laminar boundary-layer theory and comparison with experiment

Description: The von Karman-Millikan theory of laminar boundary layers presented in NACA Technical Report No. 504 is applied to the laminar boundary layer about an elliptic cylinder on which boundary-layer and pressure-distribution measurements were made. An outline of the procedure of the von Karman-Millikan method is given. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated and experimental results, indicating that the method may be applied generally to the laminar boundary layer about any body provided that an experimentally determined pressure distribution is available. It appears that for all Reynolds Number above 24,000 the separation point for the elliptic cylinder should occur at a constant distance behind the point of minimum pressure, provided that the boundary layer does not become turbulent.
Date: October 1935
Creator: Von Doenhoff, Albert E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bending stresses due to torsion in cantilever box beams

Description: The paper beings with a brief discussion on the origin of the bending stresses in cantilever box beams under torsion. A critical survey of existing theory is followed by a summary of design formulas; this summary is based on the most complete solution published but omits all refinements considered unnecessary at the present state of development. Strain-gage tests made by NACA to obtained some experimental verification of the formulas are described next. Finally, the formulas are applied to a series of box beams previously static-tested by the U.S. Army Air Corps; the results show that the bending stresses due to torsion are responsible to a large extent for the free-edge type of failure frequently experienced in these tests.
Date: June 1, 1935
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculations of the effect of wing twist on the air forces acting on a monoplane wing

Description: A method is presented for calculating the aerodynamic forces on a moncylane wing, taking into account the elastic twisting of the wing due to these forces. The lift distribution along the span is calculated by the formulas of Amstutz as a function of the geometrical characteristics of the wing and of the twist at stations 60 and 90 percent of the semispan. The twist for a given lift distribution is calculated by means of influence lines. As a numerical example, the forces on a Swiss military D.2V airplane are calculated. Comparisons with the strip method and with the ordinary stress-analysis method are also given.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Datwyler, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative tests of Pitot-static tubes

Description: Comparative tests were made on seven conventional Pitot-static tubes to determine their static, dynamic, and resultant errors. The effect of varying the dynamic opening, static opening, wall thickness, and inner-tube diameter was investigated. Pressure-distribution measurements showing stem and tip effects were also made. A tentative design for a standard Pitot-static tube for use in measuring air velocity is submitted.
Date: November 1, 1935
Creator: Merriam, Kenneth G & Spaulding, Ellis R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The compressibility bubble

Description: Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements have been made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds in order to determine the physical nature of the compressibility bubble. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations on the 5-inch-chord wing by means of a multiple-tube photographic manometer. Pressure-measurement results and typical Schlieren photographs are presented. The general nature of the phenomenon called the "compressibility bubble" is shown by these experiments. The source of the increased drag is the compression shock that occurs, the excess drag being due to the conversion of a considerable amount of the air-stream kinetic energy into heat at the compression shock.
Date: October 1, 1935
Creator: Stack, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads

Description: In this paper there is presented a deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads of the types commonly encountered in airplane design. The form of the equation is obtainable by dimensional analysis. Tables and curves of the non dimensional coefficients are appended to facilitate the use of the formula. The equation is applied to the determination of the spring constant of a beam. Tables and curves are presented to show the variation of the spring constant with changes in the axial load and position along the beam.
Date: September 1, 1935
Creator: Burke, Walter F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the NACA slot-lip aileron

Description: An investigation of the undesirable delayed action, or lag, of the spoiler-type lateral control device led to the development of the NACA slot-lip aileron. The tests were made in the 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel with a 4- by 8-foot wing hinged at the tunnel jet boundary and taken of the motion of the control device under test and of the resulting wing motion. First, the lag, as affected by the fore-and-aft location of retractable ailerons or spoilers was determined. The lag was found to increase regularly as the spoiler was moved from the rear of the wing toward the front. Then a combination of spoilers and fixed slot was developed that, with the spoiler retracting into the forward part of the slot, reduced the time lag to a negligible value. In addition, an arrangement was developed using a hinged aileron-type flap as the upper portion, or lip, of a slot through the wing. This arrangement appears to be usable as a form of lateral control device that shows promise of giving improved control and stability at the high angles of attack through stall, with negligible lag, low control forces, and relatively simple construction.
Date: November 1, 1935
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Shortal, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag of prestone and oil radiators on the YO-31A airplane

Description: At the request of the Army Air Corps tests were conducted on a mock-up of the YO-31A airplane to determine the drag of the prestone and oil radiators. The drag of the airplane was determined with both radiators exposed on the lower surface of the fuselage; with each radiator exposed; and with no radiators. The results show that at 120 m.p.h the oil radiator accounted for 2.8 percent of the drag of the complete airplane; the prestone radiator 8.3 percent; and both radiators together, 11.8 percent.
Date: December 1, 1935
Creator: Defrance, S J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model

Description: NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.
Date: July 1, 1935
Creator: Bell, Joe W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of the Angle of Afterbody Keel on the Water Performance of a Flying-Boat Hull Model

Description: NACA model 11-C was tested according to the general method with the angle of afterbody keel set at five different angles from 2-1/2 degrees to 9 degrees, but without changing other features of the hull. The results of the tests are expressed in curves of test data and of non-dimensional coefficients. At the depth of step used in the tests, 3.3 percent beam, the smaller angles of afterbody keel give greater load-resistance ratios at the hump speed and smaller at high speed than the larger angles of afterbody keel. Comparisons are made of the load-resistance ratios at several other points in the speed range. The effect of variation of the angle of afterbody keel upon the take-off performance of a hypothetical flying boat of 15,000 pounds gross weight having a hull of model 11-C lines is calculated, and the calculations show that the craft with the largest of the angles of afterbody keel tested, 9 degrees, takes off in the least time and distance.
Date: September 1, 1935
Creator: Allison, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of a balanced split flap with particular reference to rapid operation

Description: The flight path of a small parasol monoplane equipped with a special type of balanced split flap was determined for a series of glides during which the time taken to deflect or retract the flap was varied from 1 to 15 seconds in order to study the effect of the time taken to complete a flap movement on the motion of an airplane between the start of a flap movement and the attainment of steady flight with the new flap setting. For flap movements accompanied by a change of lift characteristics, and consequently of velocity, there is an appreciable delay in obtaining a desired change in glide angle even though the flap is operated instantaneously. Immediate control of the glide path is obtained only when the speed is maintained during the flap movement. When the speed is changed, the deviation from the desired path during the transition increases in proportion to the rapidity with which the flap is moved so that, with a high-lift flap, abrupt retraction at speeds less than the minimum speed with the flap retracted may be dangerous if practiced close to the ground.
Date: December 1, 1935
Creator: Soule, H A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale force and pressure-distribution tests on a tapered U.S.A. 45 airfoil

Description: This report presents the results of force and pressure-distribution tests on a 2:1 tapered USA 45 airfoil as determined in the full-scale wind tunnel. The airfoil has a constant-chord center section and rounded tips and is tapered in thickness from 18 percent at the root to 9 percent at the tip. Force tests were made throughout a Reynolds Number range of approximately 2,000,000 to 8,000,000 providing data on the scale effect in addition to the conventional characteristics. Pressure-distribution data were obtained from tests at a Reynolds Number of approximately 4,000,000. The aerodynamic characteristics given by the usual dimensionless coefficients are presented graphically.
Date: March 1, 1935
Creator: Parsons, John F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A general tank test of NACA model 11-C flying-boat hull, including the effect of changing the plan form of the step

Description: The results of a general tank test model 11-C, a conventional pointed afterbody type of flying-boat hull, are given in tables and curves. These results are compared with the results of tests on model 11-A, from which model 11-C was derived, and it is found that the resistance of model 11-C is somewhat greater. The effect of changing the plan form of the step on model 11-C is shown from the results of tests made with three swallow-tail and three pointed steps formed by altering the original step of the model. These results show only minor differences from the results obtained with the original model.
Date: August 1, 1935
Creator: Dawson, John R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The initial torsional stiffness of shells with interior webs

Description: A method of calculating the stresses and torsional stiffness of thin shells with interior webs is summarized. Comparisons between experimental and calculated results are given for 3 duralumin beams, 5 stainless steel beams and 2 duralumin wings. It is concluded that if the theoretical stiffness is multiplied by a correction factor of 0.9, experimental values may be expected to check calculated values within about 10 percent.
Date: September 1, 1935
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of testing oxygen regulators

Description: Oxygen regulators are used in aircraft to regulate automatically the flow of oxygen to the pilot from a cylinder at pressures ranging up to 150 atmospheres. The instruments are adjusted to open at an altitude of about 15,000 ft. and thereafter to deliver oxygen at a rate which increases with the altitude. The instruments are tested to determine the rate of flow of oxygen delivered at various altitudes and to detect any mechanical defects which may exist. A method of testing oxygen regulators was desired in which the rate of flow could be determined more accurately than by the test method previously used (reference 1) and by which instruments defective mechanically could be detected. The new method of test fulfills these requirements.
Date: June 1, 1935
Creator: Sontag, Harcourt & Borlik, E L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance tests of a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine with a displacer piston

Description: Engine performance was investigated using a rectangular displacer on the piston crown to cause a forced air flow in a vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine. The optimum air-flow area was determined first with the area concentrated at one end of the displacer and then with the area equally divided between two passages, one at each end of the displacer. Best performance was obtained with the two-passage air flow arranged to give a calculated maximum air-flow speed of 8 times the linear crank-pin speed. With the same fuel-spray formation as used without the air flow, the maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure at 1,500 r.p.m. was increased from 90 to 115 pounds per square inch and the corresponding fuel consumption reduced from 0.46 to 0.43 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At 1,200 r.p.m., a maximum clear exhaust brake mean effective pressure of 120 pounds per square inch was obtained at a fuel consumption of 0.42 pound per brake horsepower-hour. At higher specific fuel consumption the brake mean effective pressure was still increasing rapidly.
Date: February 1, 1935
Creator: Moore, C S & Foster, H H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary determination of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Description: Rules and methods for insuring safe structural strength of racing airplanes used in the major air meets in this country have recently been considered. Acceleration records made in racing airplanes during actual air races were therefore considered desirable, and the NACA undertook the measurement of acceleration of loads on airplanes during all conditions of flight. Accelerations were measured on four airplanes at the Miami All-American Races in January 1934 and January 1935. The airplanes were representative of the fastest limited and unlimited displacement racing airplanes in current use in this country. Records during two races, or flights, on the race course were obtained with each airplane. The maximum normal acceleration recorded was 6.2g and the minimum was -1.2g.
Date: August 1, 1935
Creator: Scudder, N F & Kirschbaum, H W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department