Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 33 Matching Results

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The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system

Description: From Summary: "An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified."
Date: March 1934
Creator: Wheatley, John B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups

Description: From Introduction: "The investigation was intended to cover the characteristics of individual cups and of similar cups mounted on complete cup wheals. This report treats the static tests run on the individual cups."
Date: February 1934
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Joyner, U T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic effects of a split flap on the spinning characteristics of a monoplane model

Description: From Summary: "The investigation described in this report was made to determine the change in aerodynamic forces and moments produced by split flaps in a steady spin. The test were made with the spinning balance in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. A low-wing monoplane model was tested with and without the split flaps in 12 spinning attitudes chosen to cover the probable spinning range. The results obtained indicate that the use of split flaps on an airplane is unlikely, in any case, to have much beneficial effect on a spin, and it might make the spin dangerous."
Date: December 1934
Creator: Bamber, M J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic rolling and yawing moments produced by floating wing-tip ailerons, as measured by spinning balance

Description: From Summary: "The investigation described in this report was made to determine the effectiveness of floating wing-tip ailerons as an airplane control in the spin. In these tests the ailerons, not being balanced, were set parallel to the axis of rotation, which is probably very nearly the attitude that balanced floating ailerons would assume in a spin. Rolling - and yawing moment coefficients are given as measured for the model with and without the ailerons, and computed values are given for the ailerons alone."
Date: March 1934
Creator: Bamber, Millard J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The calculated effect of trailing-edge flaps on the take-off of flying boats

Description: The results of take-off calculations are given for an application of simple trailing-edge flaps to two hypothetical flying boats, one having medium wing and power loading and consequently considerable excess of thrust over total resistance during the take-off run, the other having high wing and power loading and a very low excess thrust. For these seaplanes the effect of downward flap settings was: (1) to increase the total resistance below the stalling speed, (2) to decrease the get-away speed, (3) to improve the take-off performance of the seaplane having considerable excess thrust, and (4) to hinder the take-off of the seaplane having low excess thrust. It is indicated that flaps would allow a decrease in the high angles of wing setting necessary with most seaplanes, provided that the excess thrust is not too low.
Date: November 1, 1934
Creator: Parkinson, J E & Bell, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of several methods of measuring ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

Description: The ignition lag of a fuel oil in the combustion chamber of a high speed compression-ignition engine was measured by three different methods. The start of injection of the fuel as observed with a Stoborama was taken as the start of the period of ignition lag in all cases. The end of the period of ignition lag was determined by observation of the appearance of incandescence in the combustion chamber, by inspection of a pressure-time card for evidence of pressure rise, and by analysis of the indicator card for evidence of the combustion of a small but definite quantity of fuel. A comparison of the values for ignition lags obtained by these three methods indicates that the appearance of incandescence is later than other evidences of the start of combustion, that visual inspection of a pressure-time diagram gives consistent and usable values with a minimum requirement of time and/or apparatus, and that analysis of the indicator card is not worth while for ignition lag alone.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Spanogle, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A complete tank test of a flying-boat hull with a pointed step -N.A.C.A. Model No. 22

Description: The results of a complete tank test of a model of a flying-boat hull of unconventional form, having a deep pointed step, are presented in this note. The advantage of the pointed-step type over the usual forms of flying-boat hulls with respect to resistance at high speeds is pointed out. A take-off example using the data from these tests is worked out, and the results are compared with those of an example in which the test data for a hull of the type in general use in the United States are applied to a flying boat having the same design specifications. A definite saving in take-off run is shown by the pointed-step type.
Date: February 1, 1934
Creator: Shoemaker, James M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A complete tank test of the hull of the Sikorsky S-40 flying boat - American Clipper Class

Description: The results of a complete test in the N.A.C.A. tank on a model of the hull of Sikorsky S-40 flying boat ('American Clipper') are reported. The test data are given in tables and curves. From these data non-dimensional coefficients are derived for use in take-off calculations and the take-off time and run for the S-40 are computed. The computed take-off time was obtained by the Sikorsky Aviation Corporation in performance tests of the actual craft.
Date: December 1, 1934
Creator: Dawson, John R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complete tank tests of two flying-boat hulls with pointed steps - N.A.C.A. Models 22-A and 35

Description: This note presents the results of complete tank test of N.A.C.A. Models 22-A and 35, two flying-boat hulls of the deep pointed-step type with low dead rise. Model 22-A is a form derived by modification of Model 22, the test results of which are given in N.A.C.A. Technical Note No. 488. Model 35 is a form of the same type but has a higher length-beam ratio than either Model 22 or 22-A. Take-off examples are worked out using data from these tests and a previous test of a conventional model applied to an arbitrary set of design specifications for a 15,000-pound flying boat. The comparison of these examples shows both pointed-step models to be superior to the conventional form, and Model 35 to be the better of the two. Model 35 is applied to a hypothetical 100,000-pound flying boat of the twin-hull type and performance calculations are made both for take-off and range. The results indicate that the high performance of this type of hull will enable the designer to use higher wing and power loadings than are found in current practice, with a resulting increase in range and pay load.
Date: September 1, 1934
Creator: Shoemaker, James M & Bell, Joe W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of combustion-chamber shape on the performance of a prechamber compression-ignition engine

Description: The effect on engine performance of variations in the shape of the prechamber, the shape and direction of the connecting passage, the chamber volume using a tangential passage, the injection system, and the direction od the fuel spray in the chamber was investigated using a 5 by 7 inch single-cylinder compression-ignition engine. The results show that the performance of this engine can be considerably improved by selecting the best combination of variables and incorporating them in a single design. The best combination as determined from these tests consisted of a disk-shaped chamber connected to the cylinder by means of a flared tangential passage. The fuel was injected through a single-orifice nozzle directed normal to the air swirl and in the same plane. At an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. and with the theoretical fuel quantity for no excess air, the engine developed a brake mean effective pressure of 115 pounds per square inch with a fuel consumption of 0.49 pound per brake horsepower-hour and an explosion pressure of 820 pounds per square inch. A brake mean effective pressure of 100 pounds per square inch with a brake-fuel consumption of 0.44 pound per horsepower-hour at 1,500 r.p.m. was obtained.
Date: December 1, 1934
Creator: Moore, C S & Collins, J H , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of retractable-spoiler location on rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients

Description: In this report are presented the results of wind-tunnel tests of retractable spoilers on the upper surface of a Clark Y wing, which have been made as part of an investigation of lateral control devices being conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Spoilers with chords up to 15.0 percent of the wing chord were tested in several locations on a plain rectangular wing and in two locations on the same wing equipped with a 20.0 percent chord split flap down 60 degrees. Charts are given for four representative angles of attack from which values of rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients may be obtained for spoilers up to 15.0 percent chord located on the upper surface of a Clark Y wing. The tests showed that at low angles of attack practically the same rolling moments can be obtained with a given spoiler at any location back of 30.0 percent of the wing chord, while at high angles of attack there is a definite advantage in locating the spoiler at least as far forward as 30.0 percent of the chord. The yawing moments accompanying a given rolling moment increase positively as the spoiler location is moved forward from the trailing edge of the wing. It is concluded that the 30.0 percent chord location is probably the optimum provided that instantaneous response of the airplane to a control movement can be obtained.
Date: July 1, 1934
Creator: Shortal, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the surface condition of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane

Description: In order to determine the effect of the surface conditions of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane, tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on the Fairchild F-22 airplane first with normal commercial finish of wing surface and later with the same wing polished. Comparison of the characteristics of the airplane with the two surface conditions shows that the polish caused a negligible change in the lift curve, but reduced the minimum drag coefficient by 0.001. This reduction in drag if applied to an airplane with a given speed of 200 miles per hour and a minimum drag coefficient of 0.025 would increase the speed only 2.9 miles per hour, but if the speed remained the same, the power would be reduced 4 percent.
Date: April 1, 1934
Creator: Defrance, S J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of trim angle on the take-off performance

Description: Data obtained at the N.A.C.A. tank from tests on the models of three flying-boat hulls - N.A.C.A. models 11-A, 16, and 22 - are used to demonstrate the effect of trim angle on water resistance. A specific example is taken, and data from Model 11-A are used to show that the trim angle giving the minimum water resistance will give minimum total air-plus-water resistance. Total-resistance curves for best trimmed angles and other angles are compared for the same example. The effect of wind on best trim angles and upon the take-off and run is shown by the working of an example. The possibility of using tank data on trim angles as aid in piloting is discussed, and an instrument for use in determining the trim angle of seaplanes is described. The importance of maintaining the best trim angle throughout the take-off is indicated.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Shoemaker, James M & Dawson, John R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of equal-pressure fixed slots on the characteristics of a Clark Y Airfoil

Description: A type of fixed open slot so arranged that no flow would pass through it at a lift coefficient corresponding to high-speed flight was investigated in the N.A.C.A. 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel to determine the possibilities of such a high-lift device for increasing the speed-range ratio of a wing. The condition of no through flow was achieved by locating the slot openings at points of equal static pressure at the design lift coefficient as determined from the pressure distribution about the plain wing. Two models of Clark Y wings with such equal-pressure slots were tested and the smoke-flow patterns about them observed. The results of this investigation show that the condition of no air flow through the slot at the desired lift coefficient is attainable. The surface discontinuities produced by the slot openings have, however, such a large effect on the drag that such slots show little promise. An appreciable increase is produced in the maximum lift and the speed-range can be as high as for the plain wing.
Date: October 1, 1934
Creator: Harris, Thomas A & Sherman, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of full-span and partial-span split flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of a tapered wing

Description: The investigation was made to determine the effects of full-span and of partial-span split flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of a tapered wing. Aerodynamic force tests were made in the N.A.C.A. 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel on a highly tapered Clark Y wing equipped with various split flaps. Two sizes of tapered-chord flaps were tested as full-span flaps, and a narrow tapered-chord flap was tested as a partial-span flap by cutting off portions first from the tip and then from the center. The investigation showed that with full-span split flaps the lift and drag characteristics of the tapered wing up to the stall are similar to those of a rectangular wing with flaps of comparable size, but that the stall of the tapered wing with full-span flaps occurs at progressively lower angles of attack with increasing flap deflection up to that for maximum lift. For partial-span tapered split flaps on a tapered wing it was found that the maximum lift is greater, and the lift-drag ratio at maximum lift is less, when the partial-span flap is located at the center of the wing than when it is located at the tip portion.
Date: September 1, 1934
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental verification of Theodorsen's theoretical jet-boundary correction factors

Description: Prandtl's suggested use of a doubly infinite arrangement of airfoil images in the theoretical determination of wind-tunnel jet-boundary corrections was first adapted by Glauert to the case of closed rectangular jets. More recently, Theodorsen, using the same image arrangement but a different analytical treatment, has extended this work to include not only closed but also partly closed and open tunnels. This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests conducted at the Georgia School of Technology for the purpose of verifying the five cases analyzed by Theodorsen. The tests were conducted in a square tunnel and the results constitute a satisfactory verification of his general method of analysis. During the preparation of the data two minor errors were discovered in the theory and these have been rectified.
Date: October 1, 1934
Creator: Schliestett, George Van
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale drag tests of landing lamps

Description: Drag tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on full-scale models of two Army Air Corps type A-6 landing lamps mounted on an 8 by 48 foot airfoil. Drag measurements were made with the lamps in the leading edge and attached to the lower surface at the 5 and 10 percent chord positions. The drag of the lamps when faired into the airfoil was also measured. The results show that at 100 miles per hour and at the angle of minimum drag of the airfoil the unaired lamps in the leading edge produced an increase in drag of 5.5 pounds and that the unaired lamps on the lower surface at either position increased the airfoil drag 22.5 pounds. These increases represent 6 and 24 percent of the minimum drag of the airfoil, respectively. Fairing the lamps into the airfoil reduced the drag of the lamps about 50 percent for the leading-edge position and about 60 percent for the two lower surface positions.
Date: May 1, 1934
Creator: Dearborn, C H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landing characteristics of an autogiro

Description: An investigation to determine the rate of descent, the horizontal velocity, and the attitude at contact of an autogiro in landings was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Bureau of Air Commerce, Department of Commerce. The investigation covered various types of landings. The results of the investigation disclosed that the maximum rate of descent at contact with the ground (10.6 feet per second) was less than the minimum rate of descent attainable in a steady glide (15.8 feet per second); that the rates of descent at contact were of the same order of magnitude as those experienced by conventional airplanes in landings; that flared landings resulted in very low horizontal velocities at contact. Also that unexpectedly high lift and drag force coefficients were developed in the latter stages of the flared landings.
Date: November 1, 1934
Creator: Peck, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landing-shock recorder

Description: A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.
Date: July 1, 1934
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of altitude in blind flying

Description: In this note, instruments for measuring altitude and rate of change of altitude in blind flying and landing of aircraft and their performance are discussed. Of those indicating the altitude above ground level, the sonic altimeter is the most promising. Its present bulk, intermittent operation, and more or less unsatisfactory means of indication are serious drawbacks to its use. The sensitive type aneroid altimeter is also discussed and errors in flying at a pressure level and in landing are discussed in detail.
Date: August 1, 1934
Creator: Brombacher, W G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of calculating the performance of controllable propellers with sample computations

Description: This paper contains a series of calculations showing how the performance of controllable propellers may be derived from data on fixed-pitch propellers given in N.A.C.A. Technical Report No. 350, or from similar data. Sample calculations are given which compare the performance of airplanes with fixed-pitch and with controllable propellers. The gain in performance with controllable propellers is shown to be largely due to the increased power available, rather than to an increase in efficiency. Controllable propellers are of particular advantage when used with geared and with supercharged engines. A controllable propeller reduces the take-off run, increases the rate of climb and the ceiling, but does not increase the high speed, except when operating above the design altitude of the previously used fixed-pitch propeller or when that propeller was designed for other than high speed.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department