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An accurate method of measuring the moments of inertia of airplanes

Description: This note contains a description of an improved apparatus and procedure used by the NACA for determining the moments of inertia of airplanes. The method used, based on the pendulum theory, is similar to that previously used, but a recent investigation of its accuracy has resulted in the improvements described herein. The error, when using the new apparatus and procedure, has been found to be of the order of 1 per cent.
Date: October 1930
Creator: Miller, M P
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alterations and tests of the "Farnboro" engine indicator

Description: The 'Farnboro' electric indicator was tested as received from the manufacturers, and modifications made to the instrument to improve its operation. The original design of disk valve was altered so as to reduce the mass, travel, and seat area. Changes were made to the recording mechanism, which included a new method of locating the top center position on the record. The effect of friction on the motion of the pointer while taking motoring and power cards was eliminated by providing a means of putting pressure lines on the record. The modified indicator gives a complete record of the average cyclic variation in pressure per crank degree for any set of engine operating conditions which can be held constant for the period of time required to build up the composite card. The value of the record for accurate quantitative measurement is still questioned, although the maximum indicated pressure recorded on the motoring and power cards checks the readings of the balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator.
Date: September 1930
Creator: Collins, John H , Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical determination of the load on a trailing edge flap

Description: This report presents a theoretical analysis of the lift on a trailing edge flap. An analytical expression has been derived which enables the computation of the flap load coefficient. The theoretical results seem to show a fair agreement with the meager experimental results which are available.
Date: October 1930
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator

Description: A balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator was designed to give results consistent with engine operating conditions. The apparatus consists of a pressure element, a source of controlled high pressure and a neon lamp circuit. The pressure element, which is very compact, permits location of the diaphragm within 1/8 inch of the combustion chamber walls without water cooling. The neon lamp circuit used for indicating contact between the diaphragm and support facilitates the use of the apparatus with multicylinder engines.
Date: December 1, 1930
Creator: Spanogle, J A & Collins, John H , Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bending Tests of Metal Monocoque Fuselage Construction

Description: Study of the bending stress in smooth skin, aluminum alloy, true monocoque fuselage sections of varying ratio of diameter to thickness.
Date: November 1930
Creator: Mossman, Ralph W. & Robinson, Russell G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration and lag of a Friez type cup anemometer

Description: Tests on a Friez type cup anemometer have been made in the variable density wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to calibrate the instrument and to determine its suitability for velocity measurements of wind gusts. The instrument was calibrated against a Pitot-static tube placed directly above the anemometer at air densities corresponding to sea level, and to an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Air-speed acceleration tests were made to determine the lag in the instrument reading. The calibration results indicate that there should be an altitude correction. It is concluded that the cup anemometer is too sluggish for velocity measurements of wind gusts.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative performance obtained with XF7C-1 airplane using several different engine cowlings

Description: Discussed here are problems with the use of cowlings with radial air cooled engines. An XF7C-1 airplane, equipped with service cowling and with narrow ring, wide ring, and exhaust collector ring cowlings over the service cowling, was used. For these four cowling conditions, the rate of climb and high speed performance were determined, the cylinder conditions were measured, and pictures to show visibility were taken. The level flight performance obtained with an engine speed of 1900 r.p.m. for the service type, the narrow ring, the wide ring, and the exhaust collector ring was 144.4, 146.6, 152.8, and 155 mph, respectively. The rate of climb was practically the same for each type tested. The visibility was not materially impaired by the use of the wide or the narrow cowlings. With the narrow ring and exhaust collector ring cowlings there was an increase in cylinder temperature. However, this increase was not enough to affect the performance of the engine. The use of an exhaust collector ring incorporated into the cowling is practical where the problem of visibility does not enter.
Date: February 1, 1930
Creator: Schey, Oscar W.; Johnson, Ernest & Gough, Melvin N.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of orifice length-diameter ratio on spray characteristics

Description: The effect of variations of orifice length to diameter ratio on spray characteristics was determined for a 0.014-inch and a 0.040-inch orifice for ratio of 0.5 to 4.0. The nozzles containing the orifices were mounted in an injection valve and tested with a plan stem and with a helically grooved stem. The injection pressure was varied from 4000 to 8000 pounds per square inch. The air density into which the fuel was sprayed was varied from the density obtained with a pressure of 60 pounds per square inch to the density obtained with a pressure of 250 pounds per square inch at room temperature. The tests showed that increasing the orifice length to diameter ratio with a plain stem in the injection valve causes the spray tip penetration first to decrease, reaching a minimum between a ratio of 1.5 and 2.5, and then to increase, reaching a maximum at a ratio greater than 3.5. The spray cone angle showed little change with variation of the ratio. With a helically grooved stem and small ratio of orifice area to groove area, the penetration at first shows little tendency towards a minimum; but as the time of injection is increased to 0.004 second, the penetration becomes a minimum at a ratio between 0.5 and 2.0.
Date: October 1, 1930
Creator: Gellales, A G
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of wing tip floating ailerons on the autorotation of a monoplane wing model

Description: The preliminary tests described here were made to determine the extent to which wing tip floating ailerons might be effective in reducing airplane spinning tendencies. The tests showed that initial spinning tendencies and rates of stable spinning could doubtless be reduced by the use of tip floating ailerons on an airplane. It also appears to be desirable to reduce to a minimum the interference between wing and aileron. This would serve to maintain uniformity of action at all angles of attack and enable calculation of the aileron characteristics.
Date: March 1, 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments with a model water tunnel

Description: This report describes a model water tunnel built in 1928 by the NACA to investigate the possibility of using water tunnels for aerodynamic investigations at large scales. The model tunnel is similar to an open-throat wind tunnel, but uses water for the working fluid.
Date: December 1, 1930
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Abbott, Ira H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full scale drag tests on various parts of Fairchild (FC-2W2) cabin monoplane

Description: The drag due to the various parts of a Fairchild (FC-2W2) cabin monoplane was measured at air speeds varying from 50 to 100 m.p.h., in the Twenty-Foot Propeller Research Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It was found that the largest drag was due to the radial air-cooled engine. The measured drag due to the landing gear was also large, being about 4/5 of that due to the engine. Substituting Musselman type wheels for the standard wheels caused no change in the drag due to the landing gear. A small decrease in drag was effected by adding a turtle back to the airplane fuselage.
Date: May 1, 1930
Creator: Hernstein, William H , Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of aircraft by Rockwell test

Description: A large number of tests were made on tubes of 1025 and 4130X steel, in various diameters and wall thicknesses, and after diverse heat treatments. The Rockwell B scale was employed, as being the best suited to the ranges of hardness encountered. Only satisfactory chrome molybdenum tubes were found to show a hardness in excess of 90-B after normalizing. The method therefore provided the desired means of identification of chrome molybdenum steel. It is a qualitative test only. The conditions of a satisfactory test are as follows. 1) The tubing must be normalized. 2) It must be clean inside and out at the point where the test is to be made. 3) The tube must be held in correct alignment with the penetrator and must not move during the test. 4) For thin-walled tubes, the anvil must extend within the tube so as to support the wall.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Knerr, Horace
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of Aircraft Tubing by Rockwell Test

Description: Seamless steel tubing is today the principal material of construction for aircraft. The commercial grade of tubing containing about 0.10 to 0.20% carbon at first used is being superseded by two grades which are approved by the army and navy, and which are also becoming standard for commercial airplanes.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Knerr, Horace C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of airplane landing speeds

Description: This paper describes an investigation on airplane landing speeds which was made to determine the applicability of accepted aerodynamic theory to the prediction of this particular performance characteristic. The experimental work consisted in measuring the landing speed of several monoplanes by a new photographic method. The results of these tests supplemented by available information regarding biplanes were compared with predictions made with basic aerodynamic theory. The prediction makes use of the fundamental relation between wing loading, lift coefficient, and speed of level flight, and the effects of aspect ratio and proximity to the ground on lift curve slope.
Date: September 1, 1930
Creator: Ridley, Kenneth F
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for the identification of aircraft tubing of plain carbon steel and chromium-molybdenum steel

Description: The survey of the possibilities for distinguishing between plain carbon and chromium-molybdenum steel tubing included the Herbert pendulum hardness, magnetic, sparks, and chemical tests. The Herbert pendulum test has the disadvantages of all hardness tests in being limited to factory use and being applicable only to scale-free, normalized material. The small difference in the range of hardness values between plain carbon and chromium-molybdenum steels is likewise a disadvantage. The Rockwell hardness test, at present used in the industry for this purpose, is much more reliable. It may be concluded on the basis of the experiments performed that of all methods surveyed, spark testing appears to be, at present, the most suitable for factory use from the standpoint of speed, accuracy, nondestructiveness and reliability. It is also applicable for field use.
Date: October 1, 1930
Creator: Mutchler, W H & Buzzard, R W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a high-speed compression-ignition engine using multiple orifice fuel injection nozzles

Description: This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Spanogle, J A & Foster, H H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution on the tail surfaces of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in flight

Description: Presented here are pressure distribution data obtained from the tail surfaces of a PW-9 in a number of flight maneuvers. The results given are part of those obtained in an extensive investigation of the pressure distribution over all of the lifting and control surfaces of this airplane. The results are given in tabular and curve form and are discussed briefly with respect to their comparison with existing tail surface design specifications. It is recommended that tail load design loadings should be revised upwards. This is particularly true of leading edge loads, which should be at least doubled for thick sections.
Date: April 1, 1930
Creator: Rhode, Richard V
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution over a Douglas wing tip on a biplane in flight

Description: This note presents the results obtained in pressure distribution tests on the right upper wing panel and tip of a Douglas M-3 airplane in flight. These tests are a part of a more extensive investigation of the effect of changes in tip shape on the load distribution, the tip reported herein being the first of a series of tip shapes being tested. The results are given in tables and curves in such form that the load distribution for any conditions may be determined easily. Tests were made at Langley Field by the NACA in the spring of 1930.
Date: August 1, 1930
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Lundquist, Eugene E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The prevention of the ice hazard on airplanes

Description: A review of various methods to prevent ice formation and adhesion to aircraft surfaces is given. It was concluded that the adhesion of ice to a surface may be reduced somewhat by the application of certain waxes and varnishes. In the experiments described, the varnishes containing calcium stearate and calcium oleate gave the best results. In wind tunnel tests, the adhesion was further reduced by the application of these waxes and varnishes to a thin, heat insulating layer of rubber. The adhesion of ice is greatly reduced when the surface consists of a vehicle which carries an oil in sufficient quantity so that the surface of the vehicle is self lubricating. Ice may be removed from wings, struts, wires and other parts of an airplane during flight by the inflation of properly constructed pneumatic rubber members, providing that these members have been previously treated with a suitable low adhesion oil.
Date: July 1, 1930
Creator: Geer, William C & Scott, Merit
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rate of heat transfer from finned metal surfaces

Description: The object was to evaluate the factors which control the rate of heat transfer to a moving current of air from finned metal surfaces similar to those used on aircraft engine cylinders. The object was to establish data which will enable the finning of cooling surfaces to be designed to suit the particular needs of any specific application. Most of the work was done on flat copper specimens 6 inches square, upon which were mounted copper fins with spacings varying from 1/2 inch to 1/12 inch. All fins were 1 inch deep, 6 inches long, and .020 inch thick. The results of the investigation are given in the form of curves included here. In general, it was found that for specimens of this kind, the effectiveness of a given fin does not decrease very rapidly until its distance from adjacent fins has been reduced to 1/9 or 1/10 of an inch. A formula for the heat transfer from a flat surface without fins was developed, and an approximate formula for the finned specimens is suggested.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Taylor, G Fayette & Rehbock, A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refrigerated wind tunnel tests on surface coatings for preventing ice formation

Description: This investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various surface coatings as a means for preventing ice formations on aircraft in flight. The substances used as coatings for these tests are divided into two groups: compounds soluble in water, and those which are insoluble in water. It was found that certain soluble compounds were apparently effective in preventing the formation of ice on an airfoil model, while all insoluble compounds which were tested were found to be ineffective.
Date: May 1, 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Clay, William C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department