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Air force tests of sperry messenger model with six sets of wings

Description: The purpose of this test was to compare six well-known airfoils, the R.A.F 15, U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35-B, Clark Y, and Gottingen 387, fitted to the Sperry Messenger model, at full scale Reynolds number as obtained in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; and to determine the scale effect on the model equipped with all the details of the actual airplane. The results show a large decrease in minimum drag coefficient upon increasing the Reynolds number from about one-twentieth scale to full scale. Maximum lift coefficient was increased with increasing scale for all the airfoils except the Gottingen 387, for which it was slightly decreased. A comparison is made between the results of these tests and those obtained from tests made in this tunnel on airfoils alone. (author).
Date: 1928?~
Creator: Shoemaker, James M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air forces and moments on triangular and related wings with subsonic leading edges oscillating in supersonic potential flow

Description: This analysis treats the air forces and moments in supersonic potential flow on oscillating triangular wings and a series of sweptback and arrow wings with subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges. For the wings undergoing sinusoidal torsional oscillations simultaneously with vertical translations, the linearized velocity potential is derived in the form of a power series in terms of a frequency parameter. This method can be useful for treatment of similar problems for other plan forms and for wings undergoing other sinusoidal motions. For triangular wings, as many terms of such a series expansion as may be derived can be determined; however, the terms after the first few become very cumbersome. Closed expressions that include the reduced frequency to the fifth power, an order which is sufficient for a large class of practical application, are given for the velocity potential and for the components of chordwise section force and moment coefficients. These wings are found to exhibit the possibility of undamped torsional oscillations for certain ranges of Mach number and locations of the axis of rotation. The ranges of these parameters are delineated for triangular wings.
Date: 1952?~
Creator: Watkins, Charles E & Berman, Julian N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air forces, moments and damping on model of fleet airship Shenandoah

Description: To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship.
Date: 1922~
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The air forces on a model of the sperry messenger airplane without propeller

Description: This is a report on a scale effect research which was made in the variable-density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service. A 1/10 scale model of the sperry messenger airplane with USA-5 wings was tested without a propeller at various Reynolds numbers up to the full scale value. Two series of tests were: the first on the original model which was of the usual simplified construction, and the second on a modified model embodying a great amount of detail. The experimental results show that the scale effect is almost entirely confined to the drag. It was also found that the model should be geometrically similar to the full-scale airplane if the test data are to be directly applicable to full scale.
Date: 1926?~
Creator: Munk, Max M. & Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models

Description: The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models are the subject of this report. The test consist in the determination of the lift, drag, and moment of each individual airfoil in each cellule, mostly with the same wing section. The magnitude of the gap and of the stagger is systematically varied; not, however, the decalage, which is zero throughout the tests. Certain check tests with a second wing section make the tests more complete and conclusions more convincing. The results give evidence that the present army and navy specifications for the relative lifts of biplanes are good. They furnish material for improving such specifications for the relative lifts of triplanes. A larger number of factors can now be prescribed to take care of different cases.
Date: 1927
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air propellers in yaw

Description: Report presents the results of tests conducted at Stanford University of a 3-foot model propeller at four pitch settings and at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees yaw. In addition to the usual propeller coefficients, cross-wind and vertical forces and yawing, pitching, and rolling moments were determined about axes having their origin at the intersection of the blade axis and the axis of rotation. The tests showed that the maximum efficiency was reduced only slightly for angles of yaw up to 10 degrees but that at 30 degrees yaw the loss in efficiency was about 10 percent. In all cases the cross-wind force was found to be greater than the cross-wind component of the axial thrust. With a yawed propeller an appreciable thrust was found for v/nd for zero thrust at zero yaw. Yawing a propeller was found to induce a pitching moment that increased in magnitude with yaw.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Lesley, E P; Worley, George F & Moy, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

Description: This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

Description: This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.
Date: January 1, 1937
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

Description: The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.
Date: January 1, 1931
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft compass characteristics

Description: A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Peterson, John B. & Smith, Clyde W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft power-plant instruments

Description: This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Sontag, Harcourt & Brombacher, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft rate-of-climb indicators

Description: The theory of the rate-of-climb indicator is developed in a form adapted for application to the instrument in its present-day form. Compensations for altitude, temperature, and rate of change of temperature are discussed from the designer's standpoint on the basis of this theory. Certain dynamic effects, including instrument lag, and the use of the rate-of-climb indicator as a statoscope are also considered. Modern instruments are described. A laboratory test procedure is outlined and test results are given.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Johnson, Daniel P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft speed instruments

Description: This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Beij, K Hilding
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

Description: Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Markwardt, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil pressure distribution investigation in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of pressure distribution measurements over one section each of six airfoils. Pressure distribution diagrams, as well as the integrated characteristics of the airfoils, are given for both a high and a low dynamic scale or, Reynolds number VL/V, for comparison with flight and other wind-tunnel tests, respectively. It is concluded that the scale effect is very important only at angles of attack near the burble. The distribution of pressure over an airfoil having a Joukowski section is compared with the theoretically derived distribution. A further study of the distribution of pressure over all of the airfoils resulted in the development of an approximate method of predicting the pressure distribution along the chord of any normal airfoil for all attitudes within the working range if the distribution at one attitude is known.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.; Stack, John & Pinkerton, Robert M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil profiles for minimum pressure drag at supersonic velocities -- general analysis with application to linearized supersonic flow

Description: A theoretical investigation is made of the airfoil profile for minimum pressure drag at zero lift in supersonic flow. In the first part of the report a general method is developed for calculating the profile having the least pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, such as a given structural requirement or a given thickness ratio. The various structural requirements considered include bending strength, bending stiffness, torsional strength, and torsional stiffness. No assumption is made regarding the trailing-edge thickness; the optimum value is determined in the calculations as a function of the base pressure. To illustrate the general method, the optimum airfoil, defined as the airfoil having minimum pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, is calculated in a second part of the report using the equations of linearized supersonic flow.
Date: January 1, 1952
Creator: Chapman, Dean R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by protuberances

Description: The drag and interference caused by protuberance from the surface of an airfoil have been determined in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number approximately 3,100,000. The effects of variations of the fore-and-aft position, height, and shape of the protuberance were measured by determining how the airfoil section characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances extending along the entire span of the airfoil. The results provide fundamental data on which to base the prediction of the effects of actual short-span protuberances. The data may also be applied to the design of air brakes and spoilers.
Date: July 11, 1932
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by variations of the Reynolds number

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.
Date: 1939
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Sherman, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil section characteristics as applied to the prediction of air forces and their distribution on wings

Description: The results of previous reports dealing with airfoil section characteristics and span load distribution data are coordinated into a method for determining the air forces and their distribution on airplane wings. Formulas are given from which the resultant force distribution may be combined to find the wing aerodynamic center and pitching moment. The force distribution may also be resolved to determine the distribution of chord and beam components. The forces are resolved in such a manner that it is unnecessary to take the induced drag into account. An illustration of the method is given for a monoplane and a biplane for the conditions of steady flight and a sharp-edge gust. The force determination is completed by outlining a procedure for finding the distribution of load along the chord of airfoil sections.
Date: 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Rhode, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airfoil section data obtained in the NACA variable-density tunnel as affected by support interference and other corrections

Description: The results of an investigation of the effect of support interference on airfoil drag data obtained in the variable-density tunnel are presented. As a result of the support interference, previously published airfoil data from the variable-density tunnel have shown too large drag coefficients and too large a rate of increase of drag coefficients and too large a rate increase of drag coefficients with airfoil thickness. The practical effect of the corrections on the choice of the optimum section is briefly considered and corrected data for a selected list of airfoils are presented as a convenience to the designer. Methods of correcting published data for other airfoils are presented.
Date: 1939
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Abbott, Ira H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airplane dopes and doping

Description: Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.
Date: January 1, 1919
Creator: Smith, W H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airplane Stress Analysis

Description: Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.
Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Zahm, A F & Crook, L H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The airplane tensiometer

Description: Certain parts of an airplane are subjected not only to the stresses imposed by the aerodynamic or flying load, but also to the initial stresses, caused by the tension in the stay and drift wires. Report describes a tensiometer that measures such stresses which is simple in construction, accurate, and easily and quickly operated even by inexperienced persons. Two sizes of the instrument are available. One is suitable for wires up to one-fourth inch in diameter and the other for wires from one-fourth to three-eights inch in diameter.
Date: 1919
Creator: Larson, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.
Date: January 27, 1931
Creator: Abbott, Ira H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department