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Scale effect on Clark Y airfoil characteristics from NACA full-scale wind-tunnel tests

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Clark Y airfoil over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Three airfoils of aspect ratio 6 and with 4, 6, and 8 foot chords were tested at velocities between 25 and 118 miles per hour, and the characteristics were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the airfoil chord) in the range between 1,000,000 and 9,000,000 at the low angles of attack, and between 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 at maximum lift. With increasing Reynolds number the airfoil characteristics are affected in the following manner: the drag at zero lift decreases, the maximum lift increases, the slope of the lift curve increases, the angle of zero lift occurs at smaller negative angles, and the pitching moment at zero lift does not change appreciably.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Silverstein, Abe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simplified application of the method of operators to the calculation of disturbed motions of an airplane

Description: A simplified treatment of the application of Heaviside's operational methods to problems of airplane dynamics is given. Certain graphical methods and logarithmic formulas that lessen the amount of computation involved are explained. The problem representing a gust disturbance or control manipulation is taken up and it is pointed out that in certain cases arbitrary control manipulations may be dealt with as though they imposed specific constraints on the airplane, thus avoiding the necessity of any integration. The application of the calculations described in the text is illustrated by several examples chosen to show the use of the methods and the practicability of the graphical and logarithmic computations described.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of frequency on the contribution of a vertical tail to the free aerodynamic damping of a model oscillating in yaw

Description: The damping in yaw and the directional stability of a model freely oscillating in yaw were measured tail-off and tail-on and compared with the values obtained by theoretical consideration of the unsteady lift associated with an oscillating vertical tail. A range of low frequencies comparable to those of the lateral motions of airplanes was covered. The analysis includes the effects of vertical-tail aspect ratio and the two-dimensional effects of compressibility.
Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Bird, John D; Fisher, Lewis R & Hubbard, Sadie M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of lateral stability on disturbed motions of an airplane with special reference to the motions produced by gusts

Description: Distributed lateral motions have been calculated for a hypothetical small airplane with various modifications of fin area and dihedral setting. Special combinations of disturbing factors to simulate gusts are considered and the influence of lateral stability on the motions is discussed. Fin area and wing dihedral were found to be of primary importance in side gusts. It was found that the rolling action of the wing with as much as 5 degrees dihedral was distinctly unfavorable, especially when the weathercock stability was small. It is pointed out that the greatest susceptibility to lateral disturbances lies in the inherent damping and coupling moments developed by the wing.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The interference between struts in various combinations

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests made to determine the interference drag arising from various arrangements of streamline struts and round struts, or cylinders. Determinations were made of the interference drag of struts spaced side by side, struts in tandem, tandem struts encased in a single fairing, a strut intersecting a plane, and struts intersecting to form a v. Three sizes of struts were used for most of the tests. These tests show that the interference drag arising from struts in close proximity may be of considerable magnitude, in some instances amounting to more than the drag of the struts themselves.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Biermann, David & Herrnstein, William H , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interference of Tail Surfaces and Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 17 Combinations in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Tunnel

Description: An investigation of the interference associated with tail surfaces added to wing-fuselage combinations was included in the interference program in progress in the NACA variable-density tunnel. The results indicate that, in aerodynamically clean combinations, the increment of the high-speed drag can be estimated from section characteristics within useful limits of accuracy. The interference appears mainly as effects on the downwash angle and as losses in the tail effectiveness and varies with the geometry of the combination. An interference burble, which markedly increases the glide-path angle and the stability in pitch before the actual stall, may be considered a means of obtaining satisfactory stalling characteristics for complete combination.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Sherman, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interference of wing and fuselage from tests of 28 combinations in the NACA variable-density tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of tests conducted on 28 wing-fuselage combinations made in the variable-density wind tunnel as a part of the wing-fuselage interference program being conducted therein and in addition to the 209 combinations previously reported in NACA-TR-540. These tests practically complete the study of combinations with a rectangular fuselage and continue the study of combinations with a round fuselage and a tapered wing.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Sherman, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Rogallo, F M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of lateral-control research

Description: A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Toll, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of methods for calculating dynamic lateral stability and response and for estimating aerodynamic stability derivatives

Description: A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Detailed estimation methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic and supersonic speed conditions.
Date: January 1, 1952
Creator: Campbell, John P & Mckinney, Marion O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine

Description: The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W & Foster, H H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Induced velocities near a lifting rotor with nonuniform disk loading

Description: A method is given for converting known uniformly loaded rotor induced velocities to correspond with arbitrary axisymmetric nonuniform disk load distributions. Numerical results for two specific distributions are given in chart form. Symmetry relations and relations between radial disk loading and wake velocities are developed. Experimental flow measurements are presented and compared with theory. Reasonable agreement is shown in the forward part of the flow when nonuniform loading is assumed, but far behind the rotor the flow is more like that of a wing.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Heyson, Harry H & Katzoff, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

Description: The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author).
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Force measurements on a 1/40-scale model of the U. S. Airship "Akron."

Description: This report describes a series of tests made on a 1/40-scale model of the U. S. Airship "Akron" (ZRS-4) for the purpose of determining the drag, lift, and pitching moments of the bare hull and of the hull equipped with two different sets of fins. Measurements were also made of the elevator forces and hinge moments.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The forces and moments acting on parts of the XN2Y-1 airplane during spins

Description: The magnitudes of the yawing moments produced by various parts of an airplane during spins have previously been found to be of major importance in determining the nature of the spin. Discrepancies in resultant yawing moments determined from model and full-scale tests, however, have indicated the probable importance of scale effect on the model. In order to obtain data for a more detailed comparison between full-scale and model results, flight tests were made to determine the yawing moments contributed by various parts of an airplane in spins. The inertia moment was determined by the usual measurement of the spinning motion, and the aerodynamic yawing moments on the fuselage, fin, and rudder were determined by pressure-distribution measurements over these parts of the airplane. The wing yawing moment was determined by taking the difference between the gyroscopic moment and the fuselage, fin, and rudder moments. The numerical values of the wing yawing moments were found to be of the same order of magnitude as those measured in wind tunnels.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Scudder, N F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formulas for the elastic constants of plates with integral waffle-like stiffening

Description: Formulas are derived for the fifteen elastic constants associated with bending, stretching, twisting, and shearing of plates with closely spaced integral ribbing in a variety of configurations and proportions. In the derivation the plates are considered, conceptually, as more uniform orthotropic plates somewhat on the order of plywood. The constants, which include the effectiveness of the ribs for resisting deformations other than bending and stretching in their longitudinal directions, are defined in terms of four coefficients, and theoretical and experimental methods for the evaluation of these coefficients are discussed. Four of the more important elastic constants are predicted by these formulas and are compared with test results. Good correlation is obtained. (author).
Date: January 1, 1954
Creator: Dow, Norris R; Libove, Charles & Hubka, Ralph E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic changes in wings and tails IV : effect of center-of-gravity location

Description: Eight wings and three tails, covering a wide range of aerodynamic characteristics, were independently ballasted so as to be interchangeable with no change in mass distribution. For each of the 24 resulting wing-tail combinations, observations were made of the steady spin for four control settings and of recoveries for five control manipulations. The results are presented in the form of charts comparing the spin characteristics. The tests are part of a general investigation being made in the NACA free-spinning tunnel to determine the effects of systematic changes in wing and tail arrangement upon the steady-spin and the recovery characteristics of a conventional low-wing monoplane for various load distributions.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Neihouse, A I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic changes in wings and tails V : effect of airplane relative density

Description: The reported tests are a continuation of an NACA investigation being made in the free-spinning wind tunnel to determine the effects of independent variations in load distribution, wing and tail arrangement, and control disposition on the spin characteristics of airplanes. The standard series of tests was repeated to determine the effect of airplane relative density. Tests were made at values of the relative-density parameter of 6.8, 8.4 (basic), and 12.0; and the results were analyzed. The tested variations in the relative-density parameter may be considered either as variations in the wing loading of an airplane spun at a given altitude, with the radii of gyration kept constant, or as a variation of the altitude at which the spin takes place for a given airplane. The lower values of the relative-density parameter correspond to the lower wing loadings or to the lower altitudes of the spin.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Neihouse, A I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A full-scale investigation of ground effect

Description: This report describes flight tests which were made with the Vought VE-7 airplane to determine the effects of flying close to the ground. It is found that the drag of an airplane is materially reduced upon approaching the ground and that the reduction may be satisfactorily calculated according to theoretical formulas. Several aspects of ground effect which have had much discussion are explained.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Reid, Elliott G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer from finned metal cylinders in an air stream

Description: This report presents the results of tests made to supply design information for the construction of metal fins for the cooling of heated cylindrical surfaces by an air stream. A method is given for determining fin dimensions for a maximum heat transfer with the expenditure of a given amount of material for a variety of conditions of air flow and metals.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Biermann, Arnold, E & Pinkel, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

Description: From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer to fuel sprays injected into heated gases

Description: This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Selden, Robert F & Spencer, Robert C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department