Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 1,424 Matching Results

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Subsonic flow over thin oblique airfoils at zero lift

Description: A previous report gave calculations for the pressure distribution over thin oblique airfoils at supersonic speed. The present report extends the calculations to subsonic speeds. It is found that the flows again can be obtained by the superposition of elementary conical flow fields. In the case of the swept-back wing the pressure distributions remain qualitatively similar at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Thus a distribution similar to the Ackeret type of distribution appears on the root sections of the swept-back wing at Mach=0. The resulting positive pressure drag on the root section is balanced by negative drags on outboard sections.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow

Description: The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and air flow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J & Butterly, Jack G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report on the high-speed characteristics of six model wings having NACA 65sub1-series sections

Description: A summary of the results of wind-tunnel tests to determine the high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of six model wings having NACA 65sub1-series sections is presented in this report. The 8-percent-thick wings were superior to the 10-percent and 12-percent-thick wings from the standpoint of power economy during level flight for Mach numbers above 0.76. However, airplanes that are to fly at Mach numbers below 0.76 will gain aerodynamically if the percentage thickness of the wing and the aspect ratio are both increased. The lift-curve slopes for the 8-percent-thick wings at 0.85 Mach number were roughly twice their low-speed values.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Hamilton, William T & Nelson, Warren H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components I : aerodynamic and matching characteristics of turbine component determined with cold air

Description: The performance of the turbine component of an NACA research jet engine was investigated with cold air. The interaction and the matching of the turbine with the NACA eight-stage compressor were computed with the combination considered as a jet engine. The over-all performance of the engine was then determined. The internal aerodynamics were studied to the extent of investigating the performance of the first stator ring and its influence on the turbine performance. For this ring, the stream-filament method for computing velocity distribution permitted efficient sections to be designed, but the design condition of free-vortex flow with uniform axial velocities was not obtained.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Goldstein, Arthur W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Velocity distributions on two-dimensional wing-duct inlets by conformal mapping

Description: The conformal-mapping method of the Cartesian mapping function is applied to the determination of the velocity distribution on arbitrary two-dimensional duct-inlet shapes such as are used in wing installations. An idealized form of the actual wing-duct inlet is analyzed. The effects of leading edge stagger, inlet-velocity ratio, and section lift coefficients on the velocity distribution are included in the analysis. Numerical examples are given and, in part, compared with experimental data.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Perl, W & Moses, H E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On similarity rules for transonic flows

Description: A method used by Tsien to derive similarity rules for hypersonic flows is utilized to derive Von Karman's similarity rules for transonic flows. At the lower limit of the transonic region of flow the theory yields a formula for the critical stream Mach numbers of a given family of symmetrical profiles. It is further shown that this formula can also be obtained by means of the Prandtl-Glauert small-perturbation method. Investigation of the behavior of the similarity parameter in the region where the thickness coefficient approaches zero and the critical stream Mach number approaches unity shows that it possesses a limiting value characteristic of the prescribed family of shapes.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of variation of piston temperature with piston dimensions and undercrown cooling

Description: From Summary: "A theoretical analysis is presented that permits estimation of the changes in piston-temperature distribution induced by variations in the crown thickness, the ring-groove-pad thickness, and the undercrown surface heat-transfer coefficient. The analysis consists of the calculation of operating temperatures at various points in the piston body on the basis of the experimentally determined surface heat-transfer coefficients and boundary-region temperatures, as well as arbitrarily selected surface coefficients."
Date: January 15, 1948
Creator: Sanders, J C & Schramm, W B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knocking combustion observed in a spark-ignition engine with simultaneous direct and Schlieren high-speed motion pictures and pressure records

Description: Simultaneous direct and Schlieren photographs at 40,000 frames per second and correlated pressure records were taken of knocking combustion in a special spark-ignition engine to ascertain the intensity of certain end-zone reactions previously noted from Schlieren photography alone. A violent propagated homogeneous autoignition, or a similar phenomenon, previously observed, was again observed. The pressure records show autoignition of varying violence before the passage of a probable detonation wave. Extensive autoignition without occurrence of gas vibrations was seen in one explosion.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Osterstrom, Gordon E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A general small-deflection theory for flat sandwich plates

Description: A small-deflection theory is developed for the elastic behavior of orthotropic flat plates in which deflections due to shear are taken into account. In this theory, which covers all types of flat sandwich construction, a plate is characterized by seven physical constants (five stiffnesses and two Poisson ratios) of which six are independent. Both the energy expression and the differential equations are developed. Boundary conditions corresponding to simply supported, clamped, and elastically restrained edges are considered.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Libove, Charles & Batdorf, S B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical and experimental data for a number of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections

Description: The NACA 6a-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6a-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6a-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure of 30, 40, and 50 percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for ternary and quaternary blends containing triptane or other high-antiknock aviation-fuel blending agents

Description: Charts are presented that permit the estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for certain ternary and quaternary fuel blends. Ratings for various ternary and quaternary blends estimated from these charts compare favorably with experimental F-3 and F-4 ratings. Because of the unusual behavior of some of the aromatic blends in the F-3 engine, the charts for aromatic-paraffinic blends are probably less accurate than the charts for purely paraffinic blends.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Barnett, Henry C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a typical single-rotor helicopter in forward flight

Description: As part of the general helicopter research program being undertaken by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to provide designers with fundamental rotor information, the forward-flight performance characteristics of a typical single-rotor helicopter, which is equipped with main and tail rotors, have been investigated in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The test conditions included operation of tip-speed ratios from 0.10 to 0.27 and at thrust coefficients from 0.0030 to 0.0060. Results obtained with production rotor were compared with those for an alternate set of blades having closer rib spacing and a smoother and more accurately contoured surface in order to evaluate the performance gains that are available by the use of rotor blades having an improved surface condition. The wind tunnel results are shown to be in fair agreement with the results of both flight tests and theoretical predictions.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Dingeldein, Richard C & Schaefer, Raymond F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of stresses in gas-turbine disks subjected to plastic flow and creep

Description: A finite-difference method previously presented for computing elastic stresses in rotating disks is extended to include the computation of the disk stresses when plastic flow and creep are considered. A finite-difference method is employed to eliminate numerical integration and to permit nontechnical personnel to make the calculations with a minimum of engineering supervision. Illustrative examples are included to facilitate explanation of the procedure by carrying out the computations on a typical gas-turbine disk through a complete running cycle. The results of the numerical examples presented indicate that plastic flow markedly alters the elastic-stress distribution.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Millenson, M B & Manson, S S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equations for the design of two-dimensional supersonic nozzles

Description: Equations are presented for obtaining the wall coordinates of two-dimensional supersonic nozzles. The equations are based on the application of the method of characteristics to irrotational flow of perfect gases in channels. Curves and tables are included for obtaining the parameters required by the equations for the wall coordinates. A brief discussion of characteristics as applied to nozzle design is given to assist in understanding and using the nozzle-design method of this report. A sample design is shown.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Pinkel, I Irving
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability derivatives of triangular wings at supersonic speeds

Description: The analysis of the stability derivatives of low-aspect-ratio triangular wings at subsonic and supersonic speeds, given in NACA TN no. 1423, is extended to apply to triangular wings having large vertex angles and traveling at supersonic speeds. The lift, rolling moment due to sideslip, and damping in roll and pitch for this more general case have been treated elsewhere on the basis of the theory of small disturbances. The surface potentials for angle of attack and rolling taken therefrom are used to obtain the several side-force and yawing-moment derivatives that depend on leading-edge suction, and a tentative value for the rolling moment due to yawing. The lift and moment due to downward acceleration are obtained on the basis of an unpublished unsteady-flow solution. All the known stability derivatives of the triangular wing at supersonic speeds, regardless of source, are summarized for convenience and presented with respect to both body axes and stability axes. The results are limited to Mach numbers for which the triangular wing is contained within the Mach cone for its vertex. The spanwise variation of Mach number in the case of yawing is neglected, although the effect must be of importance.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Ribner, Herbert S & Malvestuto, Frank S , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interference method for obtaining the potential flow past an arbitrary cascade of airfoils

Description: A procedure is presented for obtaining the pressure distribution on an arbitrary airfoil section in cascade in a two-dimensional, incompressible, and nonviscous flow. The method considers directly the influence on a given airfoil of the rest of the cascade and evaluates this interference by an iterative process, which appeared to converge rapidly in the cases tried (about unit solidity, stagger angles of 0 degree and 45 degrees). Two variations of the basic interference calculations are described. One, which is accurate enough for most purposes, involves the substitution of sources, sinks, and vortices for the interfering airfoils; the other, which may be desirable for the final approximation, involves a contour integration. The computations are simplified by the use of a chart presented by Betz in a related paper. Illustrated examples are included.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Katzoff, S; Finn, Robert S & Laurence, James C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of jet-propulsion-engine combustion-chamber pressure losses

Description: From Summary: "The development and the use of a chart for estimating the pressure losses in jet-engine combustion chambers are described. By means of the chart, the pressure losses due to fluid friction and to momentum changes in the air flow accompanying combustion can be separately evaluated. The over-all pressure losses computed from the pressure-loss chart are within 7 percent of the experimental values for the three types of combustion chambers considered herein."
Date: July 31, 1946
Creator: Pinkel, I Irving & Shames, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

Description: The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Childs, J Howard; Mccafferty, Richard J & Surine, Oakley W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frequency-response method for determination of dynamic stability characteristics of airplanes with automatic controls

Description: A frequency-response method for determining the critical control-gearing and hunting oscillations of airplanes with automatic pilots is presented. The method is graphical and has several advantages over the standard numerical procedure based on Routh's discriminant. The chief advantage of the method is that direct use can be made of the measured response characteristics of the automatic pilot. This feature is especially useful in determining the existence, amplitude, and frequency of the hunting oscillations that may be present when the automatic pilot has nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Several examples are worked out to illustrate the application of the frequency-response method in determining the effect of automatic-pilot lag or lead on critical control gearing and in determining the amplitude and frequency hunting. It is shown that the method may be applied to the case of a control geared to airplane motions about two axes.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Greenberg, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bending of rectangular plates with large deflections

Description: The solution of Von Karman's fundamental equations for large deflections of plates is presented for the case of a simply supported rectangular plate under combined edge compression and lateral loading. Numerical solutions are given for square plates and for rectangular plates with a width-span ratio of 3:1. The effective widths under edge compression are compared with effective widths according to Von Karman, Bengston, Marguerre, and Cox and with experimental results by Ramberg, Mcpherson, and Levy. The deflections of a square plate under lateral pressure are compared with experimental and theoretical results by Kaiser. It is found that the effective widths agree closely with Marguerre's formula and with the experimentally observed values and that the deflections agree with the experimental results and with Kaiser's work.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground effect on downwash angles and wake location

Description: A theoretical study was made of the reduction in downwash and the upward displacement of the wake in the presence of the ground, and some verification of theory was obtained by means of air-flow measurements made with a ground-board and image-wing combination. Methods are given for estimating the effects and numerous examples are included to illustrate the nature of these effects and to show their order of magnitude.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Katzoff, S & Sweberg, Harold H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shear lag in box beams methods of analysis and experimental investigations

Description: The bending stresses in the covers of box beams or wide-flange beams differ appreciably from the stresses predicted by the ordinary bending theory on account of shear deformation of the flanges. The problem of predicting these differences has become known as the shear-lag problem. The first part of this paper deals with methods of shear-lag analysis suitable for practical use. The second part of the paper describes strain-gage tests made by the NACA to verify the theory. Three tests published by other investigators are also analyzed by the proposed method. The third part of the paper gives numerical examples illustrating the methods of analysis. An appendix gives comparisons with other methods, particularly with the method of Ebner and Koller.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Kuhn, Paul & Chiarito, Patrick T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections

Description: A theoretical analysis is given for the stresses and deflections of a square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections. Values of the bending stress and membrane stress at the center of the plate and at the midpoint of the edge are given for center deflections up to 1.9 times the plate thickness. The shape of the deflected surface is given for low pressures and for the highest pressure considered. Convergence of solution is considered and it is estimated that the possible error is less than 2 percent. The results are compared with the only previous approximate analysis known to the author and agrees within 5 percent. They are also shown to compare favorably with the known exact solutions for the long rectangular plate and the circular plate.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with 30 percent-chord venetian-blind flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a NACA 23012 airfoil with 30-percent-chord venetian-blind flaps having one, two, three, and four slats of Clark y section. The three-slat arrangements was aerodynamically the best of those tested but showed practically no improvement over the comparable arrangement used in the preliminary tests published in NACA Technical Report No. 689. The multiple-slat flaps gave slightly higher lift coefficients than the one-slat (Fowler) flap but gave considerably greater pitching-moment coefficients. An analysis of test data indicates that substitution of a thicker and more cambered section for the Clark y slats should improve the aerodynamic and the structural characteristics of the venetian-blind flap.
Date: 1942
Creator: Rogallo, F. M. & Spano, Bartholomew S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department