Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 31 Matching Results

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Analysis of spark-ignition engine knock as seen in photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second

Description: Report discussing a motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs per second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph.
Date: 1946~
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr. & Osterstrom, Gordon E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressibility effects on the longitudinal stability and control of a pursuit-type airplane as measured in flight

Description: Measurements of the longitudinal stability and control of a pursuit-type airplane were made in flight up to a Mach number of 0.78. The data are presented in the form of curves showing the variation, with center-of-gravity position, dynamic pressure, and Mach number, of the stick-fixed and stick-free stability, control, and balance of the airplane.
Date: 1946
Creator: Turner, William N.; Steffen, Paul J. & Clousing, Lawrence A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consideration of dynamic loads on the vertical tail by the theory of flat yawing maneuvers

Description: Dynamic yawing effects on vertical-tail loads are considered by a theory of flat yawing maneuvers. A comparison is shown between computed loads and the loads measured in flight on a fighter airplane. The dynamic effects were investigated on a large flying boat for both an abrupt rudder deflection and sinusoidal rudder deflection. Only a moderate amount of control deflection was found to be necessary to attain the ultimate design load on the tail. In order to take into account dynamic effects in design, specifications of yawing maneuverability or control movement are needed.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Boshar, John & Davis, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of wall interference upon the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel

Description: "The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of wall interference for an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel are presented. Analytical equations are derived which relate the characteristics of an airfoil in the tunnel at subsonic speeds with the characteristics in free air. The analysis takes into consideration the effect of fluid compressibility and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small as compared with the diameter of the tunnel" (p. 225).
Date: 1946
Creator: Vincenti, Walter G. & Graham, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and theoretical studies of surging in continuous-flow compressors

Description: Experiments have been conducted to determine the conditions that cause surging in compressors and to determine the effect of various installations and operating conditions on the character of the velocity and pressure variations occurring during surging. These investigations were made on three compressor units and the variation of static, total, and velocity pressure with time was recorded. In addition to the experimental studies, a simplified analysis was made to determine how instability of flow may occur in a compressor. Based on this analysis, an examination was made of several possible methods of inhibiting the occurrence of surging.
Date: 1946
Creator: Bullock, Robert O.; Wilcox, Ward W. & Moses, Jason J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a twin-engine transport airplane

Description: Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. The thermal system investigated was based upon the transfer of heat from the engine exhaust gas to air, which is then caused to flow along the inner surface of any portion of the airplane for which protection is desired.
Date: 1946
Creator: Jones, Alun R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

Description: The theory of Lagrangian multipliers is applied to the problem of finding both upper and lower limits to the true compressive buckling stress of a clamped rectangular plate. The upper and lower limits thus bracket the truss, which cannot be exactly found by the differential-equation approach. The procedure for obtaining the upper limit, which is believed to be new, presents certain advantages over the classical Raleigh-Rite method of finding upper limits. The theory of the lower-limit procedure has been given by Trefftz but, in the present application, the method differs from that of Trefftz in a way that makes it inherently more quickly convergent. It is expected that in other buckling problems and in some vibration problems problems the Lagrangian multiplier method finding upper and lower limits may be advantageously applied to the calculation of buckling stresses and natural frequencies.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Hu, Pai C. & Budiansky, Bernard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

Description: The theory of Lagrangian multipliers is applied to the problem of finding both upper and lower limits to the true compressive buckling stress of a clamped rectangular plate. The upper and lower limits thus bracket the true stress, which cannot be exactly found by the differential-equation approach. The procedure for obtaining the upper limit, which is believed to be new, presents certain advantages over the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method of finding upper limits. The theory of the lower-limit procedure has been given by Trefftz, but, in the present application, the method differs from that of Trefftz in a way that makes it inherently more quickly convergent. It is expected that in other buckling problems and in some vibration problems the Lagrangian multiplier method of finding upper and lower limits may be advantageously applied to the calculation of buckling stresses and natural frequencies.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Budiansky, Bernard & Hu, Pai C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements in flight of the pressure distribution on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at several values of Mach number

Description: Pressure-distribution measurements were made on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at values of Mach number up to 0.80. The results showed that a considerable portion of the lift was carried by components of the airplane other than the wings, and that the proportion of lift carried by the wings may vary considerably with Mach number, thus changing the bending moment at the wing root whether or not there is a shift in the lateral position of the center of pressure. It was also shown that the center of pressure does not necessarily move outward at high Mach numbers, even though the wing-thickness ratio decreases toward the wing tip. The wing pitching-moment coefficient increased sharply in a negative direction at a Mach lift-curve slope increased with Mach number up to values of above the critical value. Pressures inside the wing were small and negative.
Date: 1946
Creator: Clousing, Lawrence A.; Turner, William N. & Rolls, L. Stewart
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative Treatment of the Creep of Metals by Dislocation and Rate-Process Theories

Description: "An equation for the steady-state rate of creep has been derived by applying the theory of dislocations to the creep of pure metals. The form of this equation is in agreement with empirical equations describing creep rates. The theory was also used to predict the dependence of steady-state rate of creep on physical constants of the material and good agreement was obtained with data in the literature for pure annealed metals" (p. 169).
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Nowick, A. S. & Machlin, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stalling of helicopter blades

Description: Theoretical studies have predicted that operation of helicopter rotor beyond certain combinations of thrust, forward speed, and rotational speed might be prevented by rapidly increasing stalling of the retreating blade. The same studies also indicate that the efficiency of the rotor will increase until these limits are reached or closely approached, so that it is desirable to design helicopter rotors for operation close to the limits imposed by blade stalling. Inasmuch as the theoretical predictions of blade stalling involve numerous approximations and assumptions, an experimental investigation was needed to determine whether, in actual practice, the stall did occur and spread as predicted and to establish the amount of stalling that could be present without severe vibration or control difficulties being introduced. This report presents the results of such an investigation.
Date: 1946
Creator: Gustafson, F. B. & Myers, G. C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin oblique airfoils at supersonic speed

Description: The well-known methods of thin-airfoil theory have been extended to oblique or sweptback airfoils of finite aspect ratio moving at supersonic speeds. The cases considered thus far are symmetrical airfoils at zero lift having plan forms bounded by straight lines. Because of the conical form of the elementary flow fields, the results are comparable in simplicity to the results of the two-dimensional thin-airfoil theory for subsonic speeds. In the case of untapered airfoils swept back behind the Mach cone the pressure distribution at the center section is similar to that given by the Ackeret theory for a straight airfoil. With increasing distance from the center section the distribution approaches the form given by the subsonic-flow theory. The pressure drag is concentrated chiefly at the center section and for long wings a slight negative drag may appear on outboard sections. (author).
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Jone, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank tests to determine the effect on planing-tail hulls of varying length, width, and plan-form taper of afterbody

Description: Tests were conducted in Langley Tank no. 2 on models of an unconventional flying-boat hull called a planing-tail hull to determine the effects on resistance of varying a number of afterbody parameters. The effects of varying length, width, and plan-form taper of the afterbody are presented. Tests were made with afterbodies of two widths, two lengths, and two tapers. In the tests the depth of step and the angle of afterbody keel were held constant.(author).
Date: January 7, 1946
Creator: Dawson, John R.; Walter, Robert C. & Hay, Elizabeth S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jet-boundary and plan-form corrections for partial-span models with reflection-plane, end-plate, or no end-plate in a closed circular wind tunnel

Description: A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.
Date: February 4, 1946
Creator: Sivells, James C. & Deters, Owen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of lateral-control research

Description: "A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed" (p. 1).
Date: February 14, 1946
Creator: Toll, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of cooling limitations and effect of engine-cooling improvements on level-flight cruising performance of four-engine heavy bomber

Description: From Introduction: "The difficulties experienced in cooling the exhaust-valve seats of the rear-row cylinders have been overcome to a considerable extent by improving the mixture distribution through application of the injection impeller (reference 1) and by augmenting the flow of cooling air to the critical baffles (reference 2). Flight tests of this airplane (reference 3) indicated that the temperatures of exhaust-valve seats on rear-row cylinders were markedly lowered by these modifications and that airplane range, altitude, and gross weight previously limited by these temperatures could be greatly increased."
Date: March 14, 1946
Creator: Marble, Frank E.; Miller, Marlon A. & Bell, E. Barton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Method of Characteristics to Supersonic Rotational Flow

Description: "A system for calculating the physical properties of supersonic rotational flow with axial symmetry and supersonic rotational flow in a two-dimensional field was determined by use of the characteristics method. The system was applied to the study of external and internal flow for supersonic inlets with axial symmetry. For a circular conical inlet the shock that occurred at the lip of the inlet became stronger as it approached the axis of the inlet and became a normal shock at the axis" (p. 111).
Date: April 29, 1946
Creator: Ferri, Antonio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-altitude flight cooling investigation of a radial air-cooled engine

Description: "An investigation of the cooling of an 18-cylinder, twin-row, radial, air-cooled engine in a high-performance pursuit airplane has been conducted for variable engine and flight conditions at altitudes ranging from 5000 to 35,000 feet in order to provide a basis for predicting high-altitude cooling performance from sea-level or low altitude experimental results. The engine cooling data obtained were analyzed by the usual NACA cooling-correlation method wherein cylinder-head and cylinder-barrel temperatures are related to the pertinent engine and cooling-air variables. A theoretical analysis was made of the effect on engine cooling of the change of density of the cooling air across the engine (the compressibility effect), which becomes of increasing importance as altitude is increased" (p. 267).
Date: May 9, 1946
Creator: Manganiello, Eugene J.; Valerino, Michael F. & Bell, E. Barton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Compressibility at High Subsonic Velocities on the Lifting Force Acting on an Elliptic Cylinder

Description: An extended form of the Ackeret iteration method, applicable to arbitrary profiles, is utilized to calculate the compressible flow at high subsonic velocities past an elliptic cylinder. The angle of attack to the direction of the undisturbed stream is small and the circulation is fixed by the Kutta condition at the trailing end of the major axis. The expression for the lifting force on the elliptic cylinder is derived and shows a first-step improvement of the Prandtl-Glauert rule. It is further shown that the expression for the lifting force, although derived specifically for an elliptic cylinder, may be extended to arbitrary symmetrical profiles.
Date: May 16, 1946
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in two-dimensional supersonic flow

Description: A connected account is given of the Possio theory of non-stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to the determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron rotations. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for various values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are shown in figures and are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one-degree-of-freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.
Date: May 29, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I. E. & Rubinow, S. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation at High Speeds of the Drag of Three Airfoils and a Circular Cylinder Representing Full-Scale Propeller Shanks

Description: "Tests have been made at high speeds to determine the drag of models, simulating propeller shanks, in the form of a circular cylinder and three airfoils, the NACA 16-025, the NACA 16-040, and the NACA 16-040 with the rear 25 percent chord cut off. All the models had a maximum thickness of 4 1/2 inches to conform with average propeller-shank dimensions and a span of 20 1/4 inches. For the tests the models were supported perpendicular to the lower surface of the wing of an XP-51 airplane (p. 277).
Date: June 7, 1946
Creator: Barlow, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard nomenclature for airspeeds with tables and charts for use in calculation of airspeed

Description: Symbols and definition of various airspeed terms that have been adopted as standard by the NACA subcommittee on aircraft structural design are presented. The equations, charts, and tables required in the evaluation of true airspeed, calibrated airspeed, equivalent airspeed, impact and dynamic pressures, and Mach and Reynolds numbers have been compiled. Tables of the standard atmosphere to an altitude of 65,000 feet and a tentative extension to an altitude of 100,000 feet are given along with the basic equations and constants on which both the standard atmosphere and the tentative extension are based.
Date: July 17, 1946
Creator: Aiken, William S., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Jet-Propulsion-Engine Combustion-Chamber Pressure Losses

Description: From Summary: "The development and the use of a chart for estimating the pressure losses in jet-engine combustion chambers are described. By means of the chart, the pressure losses due to fluid friction and to momentum changes in the air flow accompanying combustion can be separately evaluated. The over-all pressure losses computed from the pressure-loss chart are within 7 percent of the experimental values for the three types of combustion chambers considered herein."
Date: July 31, 1946
Creator: Pinkel, I. Irving & Shames, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Analogy Between Water Flow With a Free Surface and Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow

Description: "The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized" (p. 311).
Date: August 21, 1946
Creator: Orlin, W. James; Lindner, Norman J. & Bitterly, Jack G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department