Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 71 Matching Results

Search Results

Report on behavior of aeroplanes in gusts

Description: Part 1 presents the results of a wind tunnel test of a biplane model with an 18 inch span. The lift, drift, and pitching moment were measured for a series of angles of incidence corresponding to the maximum possible changes of flight attitude. Only the discussion of symmetrical or longitudinal changes is given. From the observed rate of variation of the forces and pitching moment, it was possible to calculate the derivatives needed in the complete theory of longitudinal stability in still air. The damping of the pitching oscillation was also determined experimentally. Part 2 presents a theoretical method for determining the effects of gusts on aeroplanes in the following cases: (1) head-on gusts rising from 0 to j feet per second with various degrees of sharpness, (2) up gusts of the same type, (3) rotary gusts of the same type, (4) rear gusts and down gusts are included by merely changing the sign of j.
Date: October 7, 1915
Creator: Hunsaker, Jerome C. & Wilson, Edward Bidwell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of an Airplane Encountering Gusts 3

Description: Report presents a new method for solving linear equations developed by Bromwich, which is suited to determine the motion for any particular gust, when the machine started from equilibrium, without the trouble of determining the constants of integration in the complementary function. (author).
Date: October 15, 1918
Creator: Wilson, Edwin Bidwell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Distribution Over a Rectangular Monoplane Wing Model Up to 90 Degree Angle of Attack

Description: "The pressure distribution tests described in this report, covering angles of attack up to 90 degrees, were made on a rectangular monoplane wing model in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. These tests indicate that a rectangular wing, by reason of its large tip loads, is uneconomical aerodynamically and structurally, has pronounced lateral instability above maximum lift, and is not adaptable to accurate calculation based on the classical wing theory" (p. 197).
Date: October 27, 1927
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Loeser, Oscar, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag and Cooling With Various Forms of Cowling for A "Whirlwind" Radial Air-Cooled Engine - 1

Description: "This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken in the 20-foot Propeller Research Tunnel at Langley Field on the cowling of radial air-cooled engines. A portion of the investigation has been completed, in which several forms and degrees of cowling were tested on Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine mounted in the nose of a cabin fuselage. The cowlings varied from the one extreme of an entirely exposed engine to the other in which the engine was entirely inclosed. Cooling tests were made and each cowling modified, if necessary, until the engine cooled approximately as satisfactorily as when it was entirely exposed" (p. 165).
Date: October 5, 1928
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on rolling and yawing moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an extension to higher angles of attack of the investigation of the rolling and yawing moments due to ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and U. S. A. 27 wings. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis. In the case of the Clark Y airfoil the measurements have been extended to a pitch angle of 40 degrees, using ailerons of span equal to 67 per cent of the wing semispan and chord equal to 20 and 30 per cent of the wing chord. The work was conducted on wing models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord.
Date: October 7, 1929
Creator: Heald, R. H.; Strother, D. H. & Monish, B. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: From Summary: "In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the Reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber."
Date: October 21, 1929
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Anderson, Raymond F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of flight measurement of spins

Description: A method is described involving the use of recording turn meters and accelerometers and a sensitive altimeter, by means of which all of the physical quantities necessary for the complete determination of the flight path, motion, attitude, forces, and couples of a fully developed spin can be obtained in flight. Data are given for several spins of two training type airplanes which indicate that the accuracy of the results obtained with the method is satisfactory.
Date: October 7, 1930
Creator: Soulé, Hartley A. & Scudder, Nathan F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of full-scale propellers having R.A.F.-6 and Clark Y airfoil sections

Description: In this report the efficiencies of two series of propellers having two types of blade sections are compared. Six full-scale propellers were used, three having R. A. F.-6 and three Clark Y airfoil sections with thickness/chord ratios of 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10. The propellers were tested at five pitch setting, which covered the range ordinarily used in practice. The propellers having the Clark Y sections gave the highest peak efficiency at the low pitch settings. At the high pitch settings, the propellers with R. A. F.-6 sections gave about the same maximum efficiency as the Clark Y propellers and were more efficient for the conditions of climb and take-off.
Date: October 8, 1930
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static, drop, and flight tests on Musselman type airwheels

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to obtain quantitative information on the shock-reducing and energy-dissipating qualities of a set of 30 by 13-6 Musselman type airwheels. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests. The static tests were made with inflation pressures of approximately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings up to 9,600 pounds. The drop tests were with the inflation pressures approximately 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings of 1,840, 2,440, 3,050, and 3,585 pounds. The flight tests were made with VE-7 airplane weighing 2,153 pounds, with the tires inflated to 5, 10, and 15 pounds per square inch. The landing gears used in conjunction with airwheels were practically rigid structures. The results of the tests showed that the walls of the tires carried a considerable portion of the load, each tire supporting a load of 600 pounds with a depression of approximately 6 inches. The shock-reducing qualities, under severe tests, and the energy dissipating characteristics of the tires, under all tests, were poor. The latter was evidenced by the rebound present in all landings made. In the severe drop tests, the free rebound reached as much as 60 per cent of the free drop. The results indicate that a shock-reducing and energy-dissipating mechanism should be used in conjunction with airwheels.
Date: October 8, 1930
Creator: Peck, William C. & Beard, Albert P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Present Status of Aircraft Instruments

Description: This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.
Date: October 9, 1930
Creator: Subcommittee on Instruments
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastic Instability of Members Having Sections Common in Aircraft Construction

Description: "Two fundamental problems of elastic stability are discussed in this report. In part one formulas are given for calculating the critical stress at which a thin, outstanding flange of a compression member will either wrinkle into several waves or form into a single half wave and twist the member about its longitudinal axis. In part two the lateral buckling of beams is discussed" (p. 373).
Date: October 15, 1930
Creator: Trayer, George W. & March, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Theory of Wind-Tunnel Wall Interference

Description: This report outlines the development of a general theory for the calculation of the effect of the boundaries of the air stream on the flow past an airfoil. Analytical treatments are given for tunnels with horizontal boundaries only, with vertical boundaries only, and with a bottom boundary only. Formulas are developed for the tunnel wall interference in each case for an airfoil located at the center of the tunnel. The correction is given as a function of the width to height ratio of the tunnel.
Date: October 9, 1931
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Elimination of Fire Hazard Due to Back Fires

Description: "A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor" (p. 211).
Date: October 13, 1931
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Freeman, Ira M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution tests on a series of Clark Y biplane cellules with special reference to stability

Description: "The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing" (p. 315).
Date: October 15, 1931
Creator: Noyes, Richard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.
Date: October 22, 1931
Creator: Harris, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wing Characteristics as Affected by Protuberances of Short Span

Description: "The drag and interference caused by short-span protuberances from the surface of an airfoil have been investigated in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 3,100,000, based on the chord length of the airfoil. The effects of variations of protuberance span length, span position, and shape were measured by determining how the wing characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances" (p. 155).
Date: October 24, 1932
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Sherman, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber

Description: Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.
Date: October 1933
Creator: Draper, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of the Field of View From Airplane Cockpits

Description: "A method has been devised for the angular measurement and graphic portrayal of the view obtained from the pilot's cockpit of an airplane. The assumption upon which the method is based and a description of the instrument, designated a "visiometer", used in the measurement are given. Account is taken of the fact that the pilot has two eyes and two separate sources of vision. The view is represented on charts using an equal-area polar projection, a description and proof of which are given" (p. 167).
Date: October 3, 1934
Creator: Gough, Melvin N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of the Robinson-type cup anemometer

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Robinson-type anemometer. The investigation covered force measurements on individual cups, as well as static and dynamic torque measurements and calibrations on complete cup wheels. In the tests on individual cups 5 cup forms were used and in the measurements on complete cup wheels 4 cup wheels with 3 arm lengths for each cup wheel were tested. All the results are presented in graphical form.
Date: October 10, 1934
Creator: Brevoort, M. J. & Joyner, U. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a PCA-2 autogiro rotor

Description: This report presents the results of force tests on and air-flow surveys near PCA-2 autogiro rotor in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel. The force tests were made at three pitch settings and several rotor speeds; the effect of fairing protuberances on the rotor blade was determined. Induced downwash and yaw angles were determined at low tip-speed ratios in a plane 1 1/2 feet above the path of the blade tips. The results show that the maximum l/d of the rotor cannot be appreciably increased by increasing the blade pitch angle above about 4.5 degrees at the blade tip; that the protuberances on the blades cause more than 5 percent of the total rotor drag; and that the rotor center-of-pressure travel is very small.
Date: October 12, 1934
Creator: Wheatley, John B. & Hood, Manley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Ordinary and Split Flaps on Airfoils of Different Profile

Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of the Clark Y, the NACA 23012 and the NACA 23021 airfoils equipped with full-span ordinary flaps and with full-span simple split flaps. The principal object of the tests was to determine the characteristics of the airfoils with ordinary flaps and in addition, to determine the relative merits of the various airfoils when equipped with either ordinary flaps or with simple split flaps. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with 3 widths of ordinary flap, 10, 20, and 30 percent of the airfoil chord.
Date: October 25, 1935
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary tests in the NACA free-spinning wind tunnel

Description: Typical models and the testing technique used in the NACA free-spinning wind tunnel are described in detail. The results of tests on two models afford a comparison between the spinning characteristics of scale models in the tunnel and of the airplanes that they represent.
Date: October 29, 1935
Creator: Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Diesel Fuel in a Constant-Volume Bomb

Description: Report presents the results of a study of variations in ignition lag and combustion associated with changes in air temperature and density for a diesel fuel in a constant-volume bomb. The test results have been discussed in terms of engine performance wherever comparisons could be drawn. The most important conclusions drawn from this investigation are: the ignition lag was essentially independent of the injected fuel quantity. Extrapolation of the curves for the fuel used shows that the lag could not be greatly decreased by exceeding the compression-ignition engines. In order to obtain the best combustion and thermal efficiency, it was desirable to use the longest ignition lag consistent with a permissible rate of pressure rise.
Date: October 5, 1937
Creator: Selden, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Flight and Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Measurements of the Maximum Lift of an Airplane

Description: "Determinations of the power-off maximum lift of a Fairchild 22 airplane were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel and in flight. The results from the two types of test were in satisfactory agreement. It was found that, when the airplane was rotated positively in pitch through the angle of stall at rates of the order of 0.1 degree per second, the maximum lift coefficient was considerably higher than that obtained in the standard tests, in which the forces are measured with the angles of attack fixed. Scale effect on the maximum lift coefficient was also investigated" (p. 161).
Date: October 26, 1937
Creator: Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S. & Hootman, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department