Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 40 Matching Results

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Report on behavior of aeroplanes in gusts

Description: Part 1 presents the results of a wind tunnel test of a biplane model with an 18 inch span. The lift, drift, and pitching moment were measured for a series of angles of incidence corresponding to the maximum possible changes of flight attitude. Only the discussion of symmetrical or longitudinal changes is given. From the observed rate of variation of the forces and pitching moment, it was possible to calculate the derivatives needed in the complete theory of longitudinal stability in still air. The damping of the pitching oscillation was also determined experimentally. Part 2 presents a theoretical method for determining the effects of gusts on aeroplanes in the following cases: (1) head-on gusts rising from 0 to j feet per second with various degrees of sharpness, (2) up gusts of the same type, (3) rotary gusts of the same type, (4) rear gusts and down gusts are included by merely changing the sign of j.
Date: October 7, 1915
Creator: Hunsaker, Jerome C. & Wilson, Edward Bidwell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of an Airplane Encountering Gusts 3

Description: Report presents a new method for solving linear equations developed by Bromwich, which is suited to determine the motion for any particular gust, when the machine started from equilibrium, without the trouble of determining the constants of integration in the complementary function. (author).
Date: October 15, 1918
Creator: Wilson, Edwin Bidwell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on rolling and yawing moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an extension to higher angles of attack of the investigation of the rolling and yawing moments due to ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and U. S. A. 27 wings. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis. In the case of the Clark Y airfoil the measurements have been extended to a pitch angle of 40 degrees, using ailerons of span equal to 67 per cent of the wing semispan and chord equal to 20 and 30 per cent of the wing chord. The work was conducted on wing models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord.
Date: October 7, 1929
Creator: Heald, R. H.; Strother, D. H. & Monish, B. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: From Summary: "In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the Reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber."
Date: October 21, 1929
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Anderson, Raymond F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of flight measurement of spins

Description: A method is described involving the use of recording turn meters and accelerometers and a sensitive altimeter, by means of which all of the physical quantities necessary for the complete determination of the flight path, motion, attitude, forces, and couples of a fully developed spin can be obtained in flight. Data are given for several spins of two training type airplanes which indicate that the accuracy of the results obtained with the method is satisfactory.
Date: October 7, 1930
Creator: Soulé, Hartley A. & Scudder, Nathan F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of full-scale propellers having R.A.F.-6 and Clark Y airfoil sections

Description: In this report the efficiencies of two series of propellers having two types of blade sections are compared. Six full-scale propellers were used, three having R. A. F.-6 and three Clark Y airfoil sections with thickness/chord ratios of 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10. The propellers were tested at five pitch setting, which covered the range ordinarily used in practice. The propellers having the Clark Y sections gave the highest peak efficiency at the low pitch settings. At the high pitch settings, the propellers with R. A. F.-6 sections gave about the same maximum efficiency as the Clark Y propellers and were more efficient for the conditions of climb and take-off.
Date: October 8, 1930
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static, drop, and flight tests on Musselman type airwheels

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to obtain quantitative information on the shock-reducing and energy-dissipating qualities of a set of 30 by 13-6 Musselman type airwheels. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests. The static tests were made with inflation pressures of approximately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings up to 9,600 pounds. The drop tests were with the inflation pressures approximately 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 pounds per square inch and loadings of 1,840, 2,440, 3,050, and 3,585 pounds. The flight tests were made with VE-7 airplane weighing 2,153 pounds, with the tires inflated to 5, 10, and 15 pounds per square inch. The landing gears used in conjunction with airwheels were practically rigid structures. The results of the tests showed that the walls of the tires carried a considerable portion of the load, each tire supporting a load of 600 pounds with a depression of approximately 6 inches. The shock-reducing qualities, under severe tests, and the energy dissipating characteristics of the tires, under all tests, were poor. The latter was evidenced by the rebound present in all landings made. In the severe drop tests, the free rebound reached as much as 60 per cent of the free drop. The results indicate that a shock-reducing and energy-dissipating mechanism should be used in conjunction with airwheels.
Date: October 8, 1930
Creator: Peck, William C. & Beard, Albert P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution tests on a series of Clark Y biplane cellules with special reference to stability

Description: "The pressure distribution data discussed in this report represents the results of part of an investigation conducted on the factors affecting the aerodynamic safety of airplanes. The present tests were made on semispan, circular-tipped Clark Y airfoil models mounted in the conventional manner on a separation plane. Pressure readings were made simultaneously at all test orifices at each of 20 angles of attack between -8 degrees and +90 degrees. The results of the tests on each wing arrangement are compared on the bases of maximum normal force coefficient, lateral stability at a low rate of roll, and relative longitudinal stability. Tabular data are also presented giving the center of pressure location of each wing" (p. 315).
Date: October 15, 1931
Creator: Noyes, Richard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber

Description: Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.
Date: October 1933
Creator: Draper, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of the Robinson-type cup anemometer

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Robinson-type anemometer. The investigation covered force measurements on individual cups, as well as static and dynamic torque measurements and calibrations on complete cup wheels. In the tests on individual cups 5 cup forms were used and in the measurements on complete cup wheels 4 cup wheels with 3 arm lengths for each cup wheel were tested. All the results are presented in graphical form.
Date: October 10, 1934
Creator: Brevoort, M. J. & Joyner, U. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a PCA-2 autogiro rotor

Description: This report presents the results of force tests on and air-flow surveys near PCA-2 autogiro rotor in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel. The force tests were made at three pitch settings and several rotor speeds; the effect of fairing protuberances on the rotor blade was determined. Induced downwash and yaw angles were determined at low tip-speed ratios in a plane 1 1/2 feet above the path of the blade tips. The results show that the maximum l/d of the rotor cannot be appreciably increased by increasing the blade pitch angle above about 4.5 degrees at the blade tip; that the protuberances on the blades cause more than 5 percent of the total rotor drag; and that the rotor center-of-pressure travel is very small.
Date: October 12, 1934
Creator: Wheatley, John B. & Hood, Manley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Auto-ignition and combustion of diesel fuel in a constant-volume bomb

Description: Report presents the results of a study of variations in ignition lag and combustion associated with changes in air temperature and density for a diesel fuel in a constant-volume bomb. The test results have been discussed in terms of engine performance wherever comparisons could be drawn. The most important conclusions drawn from this investigation are: the ignition lag was essentially independent of the injected fuel quantity. Extrapolation of the curves for the fuel used shows that the lag could not be greatly decreased by exceeding the compression-ignition engines. In order to obtain the best combustion and thermal efficiency, it was desirable to use the longest ignition lag consistent with a permissible rate of pressure rise.
Date: October 5, 1937
Creator: Selden, Robert F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Normal-pressure tests of circular plates with clamped edges

Description: A fixture is described for making normal-pressure tests of flat plates 5 inches in diameter in which particular care was taken to obtain rigid clamping at the edges. Results are given for 19 plates, ranging in thickness form 0.015 to 0.072 inch. The center deflections and the extreme-fiber stresses at low pressures were found to agree with theoretical values; the center deflections at high pressures were 4 to 12 percent greater than the theoretical values. Empirical curves are derived of the pressure for the beginning of the permanent set as a function of the dimensions of the plate and the tensile properties of the material.
Date: October 10, 1941
Creator: McPherson, Albert E.; Ramberg, Walter & Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propellers in yaw

Description: It was realized as early as 1909 that a propeller in yaw develops a side force like that of a fin. In 1917, R. G. Harris expressed this force in terms of the torque coefficient for the unyawed propeller. Of several attempts to express the side force directly in terms of the shape of the blades, however, none has been completely satisfactory. An analysis that incorporates induction effects not adequately covered in previous work and that gives good agreement with experiment over a wide range of operating conditions is presented. The present analysis shows that the fin analogy may be extended to the form of the side-force expression and that the effective fin area may be taken as the projected side area of the propeller.
Date: October 11, 1943
Creator: Ribner, Herbert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preignition-limited performance of several fuels

Description: Preignition-limited performance data were obtained on a supercharged CFR engine at two sets of operating conditions over a wide range of fuel-air ratios to determine the preignition characteristics for the following five fuels: s-3 reference fuel, s-3 plus 4 ml. tel per gallon, afd-33(140-p), benzene, and diisobutylene. Maximum thermal-plug temperatures at constant intake-air pressures were also determined to correlate the preignition characteristics of each fuel with its ability to increase general engine-temperature levels. Additional runs were made to compare the preignition-limited performance of triptane, triptane plus 4 ml. tel per gallon, and an-f-28r fuel.
Date: October 1, 1944
Creator: Male, Donald W. & Evvard, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of hinge-moment parameters on elevator stick forces in rapid maneuvers

Description: "The importance of the stick force per unit normal acceleration as a criterion of longitudinal stability and the critical dependence of this gradient on elevator hinge-moment parameters have been shown in previous reports. The present report continues the investigation with special reference to transient effects for maneuvers of short duration" (p. 449).
Date: October 12, 1944
Creator: Jones, Robert T. & Greenberg, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and valve design in an air-cooled cylinder

Description: A semiempirical equation correlating exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and exhaust-valve design has been developed. The correlation is based on the theory correlating engine and cooling variables developed in a previous NACA report. In addition to the parameters ordinarily used in the correlating equation, a term is included in the equation that is a measure of the resistance of the complex heat-flow paths between the crown of the exhaust valve and a point on the outside surface of the cylinder head. A means for comparing exhaust valves of different designs with respect to cooling is consequently provided. The necessary empirical constants included in the equation were determined from engine investigations of a large air-cooled cylinder. Tests of several valve designs showed that the calculated and experimentally determined exhaust-valve temperatures were in good agreement.
Date: October 1, 1945
Creator: Zipkin, M. A. & Sanders, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of several methods of predicting the pressure loss at altitude across a baffled aircraft-engine cylinder

Description: Several methods of predicting the compressible-flow pressure loss across a baffled aircraft-engine cylinder were analytically related and were experimentally investigated on a typical air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder. Tests with and without heat transfer covered a wide range of cooling-air flows and simulated altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet. Both the analysis and the test results showed that the method based on the density determined by the static pressure and the stagnation temperature at the baffle exit gave results comparable with those obtained from methods derived by one-dimensional-flow theory. The method based on a characteristic Mach number, although related analytically to one-dimensional-flow theory, was found impractical in the present tests because of the difficulty encountered in defining the proper characteristic state of the cooling air. Accurate predictions of altitude pressure loss can apparently be made by these methods, provided that they are based on the results of sea-level tests with heat transfer.
Date: October 9, 1945
Creator: Neustein, Joseph & Schafer, Louis J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report on the high-speed characteristics of six model wings having NACA 65(sub1)-series sections

Description: A summary of the results of wind-tunnel tests to determine the high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of six model wings having NACA 65sub1-series sections is presented in this report. The 8-percent-thick wings were superior to the 10-percent and 12-percent-thick wings from the standpoint of power economy during level flight for Mach numbers above 0.76. However, airplanes that are to fly at Mach numbers below 0.76 will gain aerodynamically if the percentage thickness of the wing and the aspect ratio are both increased. The lift-curve slopes for the 8-percent-thick wings at 0.85 Mach number were roughly twice their low-speed values.
Date: October 19, 1945
Creator: Hamilton, William T. & Nelson, Warren H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cylinder-temperature correlation of a single-cylinder liquid-cooled engine

Description: "An analysis based on nonboiling forced-convection heat-transfer theory is made of the cooling processes in liquid-cooled engine cylinders. Semiempirical equations that relate the average head and barrel temperatures with the primary engine and coolant parameters are derived. A correlation method based on these equations is applied to data obtained from previously reported investigations, which were conducted over large ranges of engine and coolant conditions with two liquid-cooled cylinders using water and various aqueous ethylene glycol solutions as coolants" (p. 285)
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin; Manganiello, Eugene J. & Bernardo, Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight measurements of the lateral control characteristics of narrow-chord ailerons on the trailing edge of a full-span slotted flap

Description: From Summary: "Results are presented of light tests made to determine the effect of flap deflection on the lateral control characteristics of a modified Brewster F2A-2 airplane equipped with partial-span narrow-chord ailerons on the trailing edge of a full-span NACA slotted flap. The investigation included determination of the rolling and yawing characteristics of the airplane in abrupt aileron rolls with the slotted flap at various settings ranging from 0 degree to about 40 degrees. The results showed that the effectiveness of the ailerons was greatly reduced at flap deflections greater than about 20 degrees. For flap deflections up to about 20 degrees, the aileron effectiveness was about the same as with flaps retracted, but the adverse yawing velocity developed in the abrupt aileron rolls was somewhat increased."
Date: October 25, 1946
Creator: Sawyer, Richard H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of family of diffusing scrolls with mixed-flow impeller and vaneless diffuser

Description: A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.
Date: October 1947
Creator: Brown, W. Byron & Bradshaw, Guy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical comparison of several methods of thrust augmentation for turbojet engines

Description: "A theoretical investigation of tail-pipe burning, water injection at the compressor inlet, combination tail-pipe burning plus water injection, bleedoff, and rocket-assist methods thrust augmentation for turbojet engines was made for an engine representative of those in current use. The effect of augmented liquid ratio on augmented thrust ratio and the effects of altitude and flight Mach number on the performance of various methods were determined. The additional take-off weight involved by the use of the different thrust augmentation methods, as well as the effect of the various thrust augmentation methods on the range of a representative aircraft was also investigated" (p. 727).
Date: October 27, 1948
Creator: Hall, Eldon W. & Wilcox, E. Clinton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department