Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 31 Matching Results

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Attenuation in a Shock Tube Due to Unsteady-Boundary-Layer Action

Description: "A method is presented for obtaining the attenuation of a shock wave in a shock tube due to the unsteady boundary layer along the shock-tube walls. It is assumed that the boundary layer is thin relative to the tube diameter and induces one-dimensional longitudinal pressure waves whose strength is proportional to the vertical velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The contributions of the various regions in a shock tube to shock attenuation are indicated. The method is shown to be in reasonably good agreement with existing experimental data" (p. 1).
Date: 1957
Creator: Mirels, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C. & Hibbard, Robert R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation, Evaluation, and Extension of Linearized Theories for Tire Motion and Wheel Shimmy

Description: An evaluation is made of the existing theories of a linearized tire motion and wheel shimmy. It is demonstrated that most of the previously published theories represent varying degrees of approximation to a summary theory developed in this report which is a minor modification of the basic theory of Von Schlippe and Dietrich. In most cases where strong differences exist between the previously published theories and summary theory, the previously published theories are shown to possess certain deficiencies. A series of systematic approximations to the summary theory is developed for the treatment of problems too simple to merit the use of the complete summary theory, and procedures are discussed for applying the summary theory and its systematic approximations to the shimmy of more complex landing-gear structures than have previously been considered. Comparisons of the existing experimental data with the predictions of the summary theory and the systematic approximations provide a fair substantiation of the more detailed approximate theories.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Smiley, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of longitudinal stability and control characteristics from free-flight model tests with results at transonic speeds for three airplane configurations

Description: From Summary: "A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation."
Date: 1957
Creator: Gillis, Clarence L. & Mitchell, Jesse L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and predicted longitudinal and lateral-directional response characteristics of a large flexible 35 degree swept-wing airplane at an altitude of 35,000 feet

Description: Measured and predicted dynamic response characteristics of a large flexible swept-wing airplane to control surface inputs are presented for flight conditions of 0.6 to 0.85 Mach number at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the response of the airplane to elevator control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the longitudinal short-period mode and several symmetrical structural modes. The second part deals with the response of the airplane to aileron and rudder control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the dutch roll mode, the rolling mode, and three antisymmetrical structural modes.
Date: 1957
Creator: Cole, Henry A., Jr.; Brown, Stuart C. & Holleman, Euclid C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

Description: "An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated" (p. 1).
Date: 1957
Creator: Callaghan, Edmund E. & Coles, Willard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight and analytical methods for determining the coupled vibration response of tandem helicopters

Description: Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.
Date: 1957
Creator: Yeates, John E., Jr.; Brooks, George W. & Houbolt, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy

Description: The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Ewing, John F. & Freeman, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of single- and dual-rotation propellers at positive and negative thrust, and in combination with an NACA 1-series D-type cowling at Mach numbers up to 0.84

Description: From Summary: "An investigation has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 4-(5)(05)-041 four-blade, single-relation propeller and the NACA 4-(5)(05)-037 six- and eight-blade, dual-rotation propellers in combination with various spinners and NACA d-type spinner-cowling combinations at Mach numbers up to 0.84. Propeller force characteristics, local velocity distributions in the propeller planes, inlet pressure recoveries, and static-pressure distributions on the cowling surfaces were measured for a wide range of blade angles, advance ratios, and inlet-velocity ratios. Included are data showing: (a) the effect of extended cylindrical spinners on the characteristics of the single-rotation propeller, (b) the effect of variation of the difference in blade angle setting between the front and rear components of the dual-rotation propellers, (c) the negative- and static-thrust characteristics of the propellers with 1 series spinners, and (d) the effects of ideal- and platform-type propeller-spinner junctures on the pressure-recovery characteristics of the single-rotation propeller-spinner-cowling combination."
Date: 1957
Creator: Reynolds, Robert M.; Sammonds, Robert I. & Walker, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Laminar Aerodynamic Heat-Transfer Characteristics of a Hemisphere-Cylinder in the Langley 11-inch Hypersonic Tunnel at a Mach Number of 6.8

Description: A program to investigate the aerodynamic heat transfer of a nonisothermal hemisphere-cylinder has been conducted in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8 and a Reynolds number from approximately 0.14 x 10(6) to 1.06 x 10(6) based on diameter and free-stream conditions. The experimental heat-transfer coefficients were slightly less over the whole body than those predicted by the theory of Stine and Wanlass (NACA technical note 3344) for an isothermal surface. For stations within 45 degrees of the stagnation point the heat-transfer coefficients could be correlated by a single relation between local Stanton number and local Reynolds number. Pitot pressure profiles taken at a Mach number of 6.8 on a hemisphere-cylinder have verified that the local Mach number or velocity outside the boundary layer required in the theories may be computed from the surface pressures by using isentropic flow relations and conditions immediately behind a normal shock. The experimental pressure distribution at Mach number of 6.8 is closely predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Crawford, Davis H. & McCauley, William D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linearized Lifting-Surface and Lifting-Line Evaluations of Sidewash Behind Rolling Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds

Description: The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bobbitt, Percy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

Description: From Summary: "Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit."
Date: 1957
Creator: Howes, Walton L.; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Coles, Willard D. & Mull, Harold R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

Description: "A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed" (p. 1).
Date: 1957
Creator: Pinkel, I. Irving & Rosenberg, Edmund G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Second-Order Shock-Expansion Method Applicable to Bodies of Revolution Near Zero Lift

Description: "A second-order shock-expansion method applicable to bodies of revolution is developed by the use of the predictions of the generalized shock-expansion method in combination with characteristics theory. Equations defining the zero-lift pressure distributions and the normal-force and pitching-moment derivatives are derived. Comparisons with experimental results show that the method is applicable at values of the similarity parameter, the ratio of free-stream Mach number to nose fineness ratio, from about 0.4 to 2" (p. 1).
Date: 1957
Creator: Syverston, Clarence A. & Dennis, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Subsonic-Flow Fields Beneath Swept and Unswept Wings with Tables or Vortex-Induced Velocities

Description: The flow-field characteristics beneath swept and unswept wings as determined by potential-flow theory are compared with the experimentally determined flow fields beneath swept and unswept wing-fuselage combinations. The potential-flow theory utilized considered both spanwise and chordwise distributions of vorticity as well as the wing-thickness effects. The perturbation velocities induced by a unit horseshoe vortex are included in tabular form. The theoretical predictions of the flow-field characteristics were qualitatively correct in all cases considered, although there were indications that the magnitudes of the downwash angles tended to be overpredicted as the tip of the swept wing was approached and that the sidewash angles ahead of the unswept wing were underpredicted. The calculated effects of compressibility indicated that significant increases in the chordwise variation of flow angles and dynamic-pressure ratios should be expected in going from low to high subsonic speeds.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-Scale Investigation of Several Jet-Engine Noise-Reduction Nozzles

Description: "A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands" (p. 1249).
Date: January 22, 1957
Creator: Coles, Willard D. & Callaghan, Edmund E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

Description: The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
Date: February 1957
Creator: Houbolt, John C. & Brooks, George W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground Simulator Studies of the Effects of Valve Friction, Stick Friction, Flexibility, and Backwash on Power Control System Quality

Description: Report presents results of tests made on a power control system by means of a ground simulator to determine the effects of various combinations of valve friction and stick friction on the ability of the pilot to control the system. Various friction conditions were simulated with a rigid control system, a flexible system, and a rigid system having some backlash. For the tests, the period and damping of the simulated airplane were held constant.
Date: February 8, 1957
Creator: Brown, B. Porter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A phenomenological relation between stress, strain rate, and temperature for metals at elevated temperatures

Description: Report presenting a phenomenological relation between stress, strain rate, and temperature to account for the behavior of polycrystalline metals above the equicohesive temperature. This is because the behavior of metals at elevated temperatures is constantly becoming a more important problem. The validity of the relation suggested in the equation appears to be accurate for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy.
Date: February 18, 1957
Creator: Stowell, Elbridge Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A variational theorem for creep with applications to plates and columns

Description: A variational theorem is presented for a body undergoing creep. Solutions to problems of the creep behavior of plates, columns, beams, and shells can be obtained by means of the direct methods of the calculus of variations in conjunction with the stated theorem. The application of the theorem is illustrated for plates and columns by the solution of two sample problems.
Date: March 5, 1957
Creator: Sanders, J. Lyell, Jr.; McComb, Harvey G., Jr. & Schlechte, Floyd R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On flow of electrically conducting fluids over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

Description: The use of a magnetic field to control the motion of electrically conducting fluids is studied. The incompressible boundary-layer solutions are found for flow over a flat plate when the magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate or to the fluid. The equations are integrated numerically for the effect of the transverse magnetic field on the velocity and temperature profiles, and hence, the skin friction and rate of heat transfer. It is concluded that the skin friction and the heat-transfer rate are reduced when the transverse magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate and increased when fixed relative to the fluid. The total drag is increased in all of the areas.
Date: March 13, 1957
Creator: Rossow, Vernon J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer Over a Yawed Infinite Cylinder With Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Prandtl Number

Description: "The equations are presented for the development of the compressible laminar boundary layer over a yawed infinite cylinder. For compressible flow with a pressure gradient the chordwise and spanwise flows are not independent. Using the Stewartson transformation and a linear viscosity-temperature relation yields a set of three simultaneous ordinary differential equations in a form yielding similar solutions. These equations are solved for stagnation-line flow for surface temperatures from zero to twice the free-stream stagnation temperature and for a wide range of yaw angle and free-stream Mach number" (p. 1017).
Date: April 4, 1957
Creator: Reshotko, Eli & Beckwith, Ivan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of hydrogen combustion properties

Description: This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.
Date: April 26, 1957
Creator: Drell, Isadore L. & Belles, Frank E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximate analysis of effects of large deflections and initial twist on torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to thermal stresses

Description: From Summary: "An approximate analysis of the nonlinear effects of initial twist and large deflections on the torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to a nonuniform temperature distribution is presented. The Von Karman large-deflection equations are satisfied through the use of a variational principle. The results show that initial twist and applied moments can have significant effects on the changes in stiffness produced by nonuniform heating, particularly in the region of the buckling temperature difference. Results calculated by this approximate analysis are in satisfactory agreement with measured torsional deformations and changes in natural frequency."
Date: May 15, 1957
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R. & Vosteen, Louis F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department