Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 40 Matching Results

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An analysis of the effects of aeroelasticity on static longitudinal stability and control of a swept-wing airplane

Description: From Introduction: "The results of the aforementioned study are presented in this report together with the method of analysis employed. The net stability change is shown together with the individual contributions due to flexibility of wing, tail, and fuselage, both including and neglecting the effect of inertial loads."
Date: 1957?~
Creator: Skoog, Richard B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attenuation in a shock tube due to unsteady-boundary-layer action

Description: A method is presented for obtaining the attenuation of a shock wave in a shock tube due to the unsteady boundary layer along the shock-tube walls. It is assumed that the boundary layer is thin relative to the tube diameter and induces one-dimensional longitudinal pressure waves whose strength is proportional to the vertical velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The contributions of the various regions in a shock tube to shock attenuation are indicated. The method is shown to be in reasonably good agreement with existing experimental data.
Date: 1957
Creator: Mirels, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C & Hibbard, Robert R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cloud-droplet ingestion in engine inlets with inlet velocity ratios of 1.0 and 0.7

Description: The paths of cloud droplets into two engine inlets have been calculated for a wide range of meteorological and flight conditions. The amount of water in droplet form ingested by the inlets and the amount and distribution of water impinging on the inlet walls are obtained from these droplet-trajectory calculations. In both types of inlet, a prolate ellipsoid of revolution represents either part or all of the forebody at the center of an annular inlet to an engine. The configurations can also represent a fuselage of an airplane with side ram-scoop inlets. The studies were made at an angle of attack of 0 degree. The principal difference between the two inlets studied is that the inlet-air velocity of one is 0.7 that of the other. The studies of the two velocity ratios lead to some important general concepts of water ingestion in inlets.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation, evaluation, and extension of linearized theories for tire motion and wheel shimmy

Description: An evaluation is made of the existing theories of a linearized tire motion and wheel shimmy. It is demonstrated that most of the previously published theories represent varying degrees of approximation to a summary theory developed in this report which is a minor modification of the basic theory of Von Schlippe and Dietrich. In most cases where strong differences exist between the previously published theories and summary theory, the previously published theories are shown to possess certain deficiencies. A series of systematic approximations to the summary theory is developed for the treatment of problems too simple to merit the use of the complete summary theory, and procedures are discussed for applying the summary theory and its systematic approximations to the shimmy of more complex landing-gear structures than have previously been considered. Comparisons of the existing experimental data with the predictions of the summary theory and the systematic approximations provide a fair substantiation of the more detailed approximate theories.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Smiley, Robert F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of longitudinal stability and control characteristics from free-flight model tests with results at transonic speeds for three airplane configurations

Description: A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation. The analysis procedure has been set forth in some detail and the feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by data measured through the transonic speed range on several airplane configurations. It was shown that the flight conditions and dynamic similitude factors for the tests described were reasonably close to typical full-scale airplane conditions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Gillis, Clarence L & Mitchell, Jesse L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of vortex paths by series expansion technique with application to cruciform wings

Description: A series method of determining two-dimensional vortex paths is considered and applied to the computation of vortex positions behind a slender equal-span cruciform wing at any angle of bank as a function of the distance behind the trailing edge. Calculated paths are shown for four bank angles. For a bank angle of 45 degrees comparison is made with the results of a closed expression given in NACA-TN-2605. For other bank angles water-tank experiments provide qualitative comparison. Satisfactory agreement is found for a sufficient distance downstream to include most practical missile-tail positions. The interference forces on an equal-span cruciform wing are calculated for five angles of bank (including the trivial case of zero bank) from the vortex positions found by use of the series.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alksne, Alberta Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and predicted longitudinal and lateral-directional response characteristics of a large flexible 35 degree swept-wing airplane at an altitude of 35,000 feet

Description: Measured and predicted dynamic response characteristics of a large flexible swept-wing airplane to control surface inputs are presented for flight conditions of 0.6 to 0.85 Mach number at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the response of the airplane to elevator control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the longitudinal short-period mode and several symmetrical structural modes. The second part deals with the response of the airplane to aileron and rudder control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the dutch roll mode, the rolling mode, and three antisymmetrical structural modes.
Date: 1957
Creator: Cole, Henry A., Jr.; Brown, Stuart C. & Holleman, Euclid C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Callaghan, Edmund E & Coles, Willard D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight and analytical methods for determining the coupled vibration response of tandem helicopters

Description: Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W & Houbolt, John C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation of the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device for personal airplanes

Description: A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A & Whitten, James B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Induced velocities near a lifting rotor with nonuniform disk loading

Description: A method is given for converting known uniformly loaded rotor induced velocities to correspond with arbitrary axisymmetric nonuniform disk load distributions. Numerical results for two specific distributions are given in chart form. Symmetry relations and relations between radial disk loading and wake velocities are developed. Experimental flow measurements are presented and compared with theory. Reasonable agreement is shown in the forward part of the flow when nonuniform loading is assumed, but far behind the rotor the flow is more like that of a wing.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Heyson, Harry H & Katzoff, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Alloying upon Grain-Boundary Creep

Description: Grain-boundary displacement, occurring in bicrystals during creep at elevated temperature (350 degrees c), has been measured as a function of the copper content (0.1 to 3 percent) in a series of aluminum-rich aluminum-copper solid-solution alloys. The minimums in stress and temperature, below which grain-boundary motion does not occur, increase regularly with the copper content as would be expected if recovery is necessary for movement. Otherwise, the effects, if any, of the copper solute upon grain-boundary displacement and its rate are too small for identification by the experimental technique employed. It was shown, additionally, that grain-boundary displacement appears regular and proceeds at a constant rate if observed parallel to the stress axis, whereas the motion is seen to occur in a sequence of surges and the rate to diminish with time if the observations are made perpendicular to the stress axis.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Rhines, F N; Bond, W E & Kissel, M A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy

Description: The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Ewing, John F & Freeman, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of downwash, sidewash, and Mach number distribution behind a rectangular wing at a Mach number of 2.41

Description: An investigation of the nature of the flow field behind a rectangular wing of circular arc cross section has been conducted in the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Pitot- and static-pressure surveys covering a region of flow behind the wing have been made together with detailed pitot surveys throughout the region of the wake. In addition, the flow direction has been measured by means of a weathercocking vane. Theoretical calculations have been made to obtain the variation of both downwash and sidewash with angle of attack by using the superposition method of Lagerstrom, Graham, and Grosslight. In addition, the effect of wing thickness on the sidewash with the wing at 0 degree angle of attack has been evaluated.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Adamson, David & Boatright, William B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of single- and dual-rotation propellers at positive and negative thrust, and in combination with an NACA 1-series D-type cowling at Mach numbers up to 0.84

Description: From Summary: "An investigation has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 4-(5)(05)-041 four-blade, single-relation propeller and the NACA 4-(5)(05)-037 six- and eight-blade, dual-rotation propellers in combination with various spinners and NACA d-type spinner-cowling combinations at Mach numbers up to 0.84. Propeller force characteristics, local velocity distributions in the propeller planes, inlet pressure recoveries, and static-pressure distributions on the cowling surfaces were measured for a wide range of blade angles, advance ratios, and inlet-velocity ratios. Included are data showing: (a) the effect of extended cylindrical spinners on the characteristics of the single-rotation propeller, (b) the effect of variation of the difference in blade angle setting between the front and rear components of the dual-rotation propellers, (c) the negative- and static-thrust characteristics of the propellers with 1 series spinners, and (d) the effects of ideal- and platform-type propeller-spinner junctures on the pressure-recovery characteristics of the single-rotation propeller-spinner-cowling combination."
Date: 1957
Creator: Reynolds, Robert M.; Sammonds, Robert I. & Walker, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the laminar aerodynamic heat-transfer characteristics of a hemisphere-cylinder in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8

Description: A program to investigate the aerodynamic heat transfer of a nonisothermal hemisphere-cylinder has been conducted in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8 and a Reynolds number from approximately 0.14 x 10(6) to 1.06 x 10(6) based on diameter and free-stream conditions. The experimental heat-transfer coefficients were slightly less over the whole body than those predicted by the theory of Stine and Wanlass (NACA technical note 3344) for an isothermal surface. For stations within 45 degrees of the stagnation point the heat-transfer coefficients could be correlated by a single relation between local Stanton number and local Reynolds number. Pitot pressure profiles taken at a Mach number of 6.8 on a hemisphere-cylinder have verified that the local Mach number or velocity outside the boundary layer required in the theories may be computed from the surface pressures by using isentropic flow relations and conditions immediately behind a normal shock. The experimental pressure distribution at Mach number of 6.8 is closely predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Crawford, Davis H & Mccauley, William D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linearized lifting-surface and lifting-line evaluations of sidewash behind rolling triangular wings at supersonic speeds

Description: The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bobbitt, Percy J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of aerodynamic forces for various mean angles of attack on an airfoil oscillating in pitch and on two finite-span wings oscillating in bending with emphasis on damping in the stall

Description: The oscillating air forces on a two-dimensional wing oscillating in pitch about the midchord have been measured at various mean angles of attack and at Mach numbers of 0.35 and 0.7. The magnitudes of normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients were much higher at high angles of attack than at low angles of attack for some conditions. Large regions of negative damping in pitch were found, and it was shown that the effect of increasing the Mach number 0.35 to 0.7 was to decrease the initial angle of attack at which negative damping occurred. Measurements of the aerodynamic damping of a 10-percent-thick and of a 3-percent-thick finite-span wing oscillating in the first bending mode indicate no regions of negative damping for this type of motion over the range of variables covered. The damping measured at high angles of attack was generally larger than that at low angles of attack. (author).
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Rainey, A Gerald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minimum wave drag for arbitrary arrangements of wings and bodies

Description: Studies of various arrangements of wings and bodies designed to provide favorable wave interference at supersonic speeds lead to the problem of determining the minimum possible valve of the wave resistance obtainable by any disposition of the elements of an aircraft within a definitely prescribed region. Under the assumptions that the total lift and the total volume of the aircraft are given, conditions that must be satisfied if the drag is to be a minimum are found. The report concludes with a discussion of recent developments of the theory which lead to an improved understanding of the drag associated with the production of lift.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

Description: From Summary: "Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit."
Date: 1957
Creator: Howes, Walton L.; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Coles, Willard D. & Mull, Harold R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlifting wing-body combinations with certain geometric restraints having minimum wave drag at low supersonic speeds

Description: Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Lomax, Harvard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On panel flutter and divergence of infinitely long unstiffened and ring-stiffened thin-walled circular cylinders

Description: A preliminary theoretical investigation of the panel flutter and divergence of infinitely long, unstiffened and ring-stiffened thin-walled circular cylinders is described. Linearized unsteady potential-flow theory is utilized in conjunction with Donnell's cylinder theory to obtain equilibrium equations for panel flutter. Where necessary, a simplified version of Flugge's cylinder theory is used to obtain greater accuracy. By applying Nyquist diagram techniques, analytical criteria for the location of stability boundaries are derived. A limited number of computed results are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Leonard, Robert W & Hedgepeth, John M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Childs, J Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W & Graves, Charles C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department