Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 34 Matching Results

Search Results

Aircraft speed instruments

Description: From Summary: "This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the Pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report."
Date: 1933
Creator: Beij, K. Hilding
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of practical hydrodynamics to airship design

Description: The purpose of the first two parts of this report is to present in concise format all the formulas required for computation of the hydrodynamic forces, so that they can be easily computed for either straight or curvilinear flight. Improved approximations are also introduced having a high degree of accuracy throughout the entire range of practical proportions. The remaining two parts of the report are devoted respectively to stability and skin friction, as functions of the same hydrodynamic forces.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Upson, Ralph H & Klikoff, W A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of humidity on engine power at altitude

Description: From tests made in the altitude chamber of the Bureau of Standards, it was found that the effect of humidity on engine power is the same at altitudes up to 25,000 feet as at sea level. Earlier tests on automotive engines, made under sea-level conditions, showed that water vapor acts as an inert diluent, reducing engine power in proportion to the amount of vapor present. By combining the effects of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity, it is shown that the indicated power obtainable from an engine is proportional to its mass rate of consumption of oxygen. This has led the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to adopt a standard basis for the correction of engine performance, in which the effect of humidity is included.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Brooks, D G & Garlock, E A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The elimination of fire hazard due to back fires

Description: A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Freeman, Ira M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General formulas and charts for the calculation of airplane performance

Description: This report presents general formulas for the determination of all major airplane performance characteristics. A rigorous analysis is used, making no assumption regarding the attitude of the airplane at which maximum rate of climb occurs, but finding the attitude at which the excess thrust horsepower is maximum. Equations and charts are developed which show the variation of performance due to a change in any of the customary design parameters. Performance determination by use of the formulas and charts is rapid and explicit. The results obtained by this performance method have been found to give agreement with flight tests that is, in general, equal or superior to results obtained by present commonly used methods.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Oswald, W Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Differential and Total Thrust and Torque of Six Full-Scale Adjustable-Pitch Propellers

Description: Force measurements giving total thrust and torque, and propeller slip stream surveys giving differential thrust and torque were simultaneously made on each of six full-scale propellers in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They were adjustable-pitch metal propellers 9.5 feet in diameter; three had modified Clark Y blade sections and three had modified RAF-6 blade sections. This report gives the differential thrust and torque and the variation caused by changing the propeller tip speed and the pitch setting. The total thrust and torque obtained from integration of the thrust and torque distribution curves are compared with those obtained by direct force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Stickle, George W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The mechanism of atomization accompanying solid injection

Description: A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Castleman, R A , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NACA apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests

Description: This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2,000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place the light of the combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. The report includes the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of modifications to conventional airplanes to give nonstalling and short-landing characteristics

Description: This report describes flight and landing tests made on a group of conventional airplanes. The upward deflection of the elevators was limited to the point where the airplanes could not be made to spin without the aid of power. With the elevator travel thus limited, the airplane in every case had good lateral stability and good aileron effectiveness up to the highest angles of attack which could be obtained in a glide, although this was not true in any case without the limited control. All ordinary flight maneuvers could be performed with the elevator displacement limited, but usually there was not sufficient control to get the tail down for a normal 3-point landing.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The theory of wind-tunnel wall interference

Description: This report outlines the development of a general theory for the calculation of the effect of the boundaries of the air stream on the flow past an airfoil. Analytical treatments are given for tunnels with horizontal boundaries only, with vertical boundaries only, and with a bottom boundary only. Formulas are developed for the tunnel wall interference in each case for an airfoil located at the center of the tunnel. The correction is given as a function of the width to height ratio of the tunnel. The formulas are exact for infinitely small airfoils only, but give good approximation for spans up to about three-quarters of the tunnel width.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of wing sections of arbitrary shape

Description: This report presents a solution of the problem of the theoretical flow of a frictionless incompressible fluid past airfoils of arbitrary forms. The velocity of the 2-dimensional flow is explicitly expressed for any point of the surface, and for any orientation, by an exact expression containing a number of parameters which are functions of the form only and which may be evaluated by convenient graphical methods. The method is particularly simple and convenient for bodies of streamline forms. The results have been applied to typical airfoils and compared with experimental data.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack I : ordinary ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report is the first in a series in which it is intended to compare the relative merits of all ordinary and some special forms of ailerons and other lateral control devices in regard to their effect on lateral controllability, lateral stability, and airplane performance. The comparisons are based on wind-tunnel test data, all the control devices being fitted to model wings having the same span, area, and airfoil section, and being subjected to the same series of force and rotation tests. The results are given for five different aileron movements: one with equal up-and-down deflection, one with average and one with extreme differential motion, one with upward deflection only, and one with the ailerons arranged to float with respect to the wing.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack III : ordinary ailerons rigged up 10 degrees when neutral

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests made on three model wings having different sizes of ordinary ailerons rigged up 10 degrees when neutral, the same models having previously been tested with the ailerons rigged even with the wings in the usual manner. One of the wings had ailerons of medium size, 25 per cent of the wing chord by 40 per cent of the semispan, one had long, narrow ailerons, and one had short, wide ones. These tests are part of a general investigation on lateral control devices, with particular reference to the control at high angles of attack, in which all the devices are being subjected to the same series of tests in the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Force tests of the usual type, free-autorotation tests, and forced-rotation tests were made showing the effect of the ailerons on the general performance of the wing, on the lateral controllability, and on the lateral stability.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel tests of a Clark Y wing with a narrow auxiliary airfoil in different positions

Description: Aerodynamic force tests were made on a combination of a Clark Y wing and a narrow auxiliary airfoil to find the best location of the auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. The auxiliary was a highly cambered airfoil of medium thickness having a chord 14.5 per cent that of the main wing. It was tested in 141 different positions ahead of, above, and behind the nose portion of the main wing, the range of the test points being extended until the best aerodynamic conditions were covered. A range of positions was found in which the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave substantially greater aerodynamic efficiency and higher maximum lift coefficients (based on total area) than the main Clark Y wing alone. In the optimum position tested, considering both the maximum lift and the speed-range ratio, the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave an increase in the maximum lift coefficient of 32 per cent together with an increase in the ratio of 21 per cent of the respective values for the main Clark Y wing alone.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Bamber, Millard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maneuverability investigation of an O3U-1 observation airplane

Description: From Summary: "This report presents the results of maneuverability tests of an O3U-1 observation airplane. This investigation is the third in a series of similar investigations requested by the Bureau of Aeronautics (Navy) for the purpose of comparing the maneuverability of different airplane types and to provide quantitative data for use in establishing a criterion or method for rating the maneuverability of an airplane. The two former investigations were conducted with the fighter types designated F6C-3 and F6C-4 and have been reported previously. Measurement of the air speed, the angular velocity, the linear acceleration, and positions of the controls were made during abrupt single-control maneuvers with three stop positions for each control, during steady horizontal turns for the determination of minimum radius, and during 180 degree turns by various methods."
Date: January 19, 1933
Creator: Thompson, F. L. & Kirschbaum, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces and Moments Exerted on a Spinning Model of the NY-1 Airplane as Measured by the Spinning Balance

Description: From Summary: "A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the "NY-1" airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane."
Date: February 7, 1933
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relative loading on biplane wings

Description: Recent improvements in stress analysis methods have made it necessary to revise and to extend the loading curves to cover all conditions of flight. This report is concerned with a study of existing biplane data by combining the experimental and theoretical data to derive a series of curves from which the lift curves of the individual wings of a biplane may be obtained.
Date: February 15, 1933
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The N.A.C.A. High-Speed Wind Tunnel and Tests of Six Propeller Sections

Description: "This report gives a description of the high-speed wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The operation of the tunnel is also described and the method of presenting the data is given. An account of an investigation of the aerodynamic properties of six propeller sections is included" (p. 399).
Date: March 28, 1933
Creator: Stack, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with reference to wings 3: Clark y wing - various radial-engine cowlings - tractor propeller

Description: From Summary: "This report is the third of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel on the interference drag, and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The second report gave the results for several engine cowlings and nacelles with tractor propeller located in four positions with reference to same wing. The present report gives results of tests of the same nacelles and cowlings in the same positions with reference to a smaller wing of Clark y section. The lift, drag, and propulsive efficiency were determined at several angles of attack for each cowling and in each nacelle location."
Date: April 20, 1933
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Verification of the Theory of Wind-Tunnel Boundary Interference

Description: "The results of an experimental investigation on the boundary-correction factor are presented in this report. The values of the boundary-correction factor from the theory, which at the present time is virtually completed, are given in the report for all conventional types of tunnels. With the isolation of certain disturbing effects, the experimental boundary-correction factor was found to be in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values, thus verifying the soundness and sufficiency of the theoretical analysis" (p. 79).
Date: May 18, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Silverstein, Abe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the theoretical pressure distribution for twenty airfoils

Description: This report gives the theoretical distribution of pressure at lift coefficients of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 for 20 airfoils, calculated on the basis of a rigorous potential theory of arbitrary airfoils. It also provides tables from which the characteristics of the airfoils for any angle of attack in 2-dimensional potential flow are readily calculable. The theoretical values of the angles of zero lift, the lift and moment coefficients, and the ideal angles of attack are listed and some comparisons with experiment are indicated. The results presented may be of value in predicting structural loads and also in a correlation of theoretical pressure gradients with profile resistance.
Date: June 2, 1933
Creator: Garrick, I. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The interference between struts in various combinations

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests made to determine the interference drag arising from various arrangements of streamline struts and round struts, or cylinders. Determinations were made of the interference drag of struts spaced side by side, struts in tandem, tandem struts encased in a single fairing, a strut intersecting a plane, and struts intersecting to form a v. Three sizes of struts were used for most of the tests. These tests show that the interference drag arising from struts in close proximity may be of considerable magnitude, in some instances amounting to more than the drag of the struts themselves.
Date: June 5, 1933
Creator: Biermann, David & Herrnstein, William H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department