Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 38 Matching Results

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The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.
Date: 1933
Creator: Harris, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft speed instruments

Description: From Summary: "This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the Pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report."
Date: 1933
Creator: Beij, K. Hilding
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of practical hydrodynamics to airship design

Description: The purpose of the first two parts of this report is to present in concise format all the formulas required for computation of the hydrodynamic forces, so that they can be easily computed for either straight or curvilinear flight. Improved approximations are also introduced having a high degree of accuracy throughout the entire range of practical proportions. The remaining two parts of the report are devoted respectively to stability and skin friction, as functions of the same hydrodynamic forces.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Upson, Ralph H & Klikoff, W A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The characteristics of a Clark y wing model equipped with several forms of low-drag fixed slots

Description: This investigation was undertaken to develop a low-drag fixed slot for an airplane wing which would avoid the complications and maintenance difficulties of the present movable-type Handley Page slot. Tests were conducted on a series of fixed slots in an attempt to reduce the minimum drag coefficient without decreasing the maximum lift coefficient or the stalling angle of the slotted wing. The tests were made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel on a Clark Y basic section having a 10-inch chord.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of Clark Y airfoils of small aspect ratios

Description: This report presents the results of a series of wind tunnel tests showing the force, moment, and autorotational characteristics of Clark Y airfoils having aspect ratios varying from 0.5 to 3. An airfoil of rectangular plan form was tested with rectangular tips, flared tips, and semicircular tips. Tests were also made on one airfoil of circular plan form and two airfoils of elliptical plan form. The tests revealed a marked delay of the stall and a decided increase in values of maximum lift coefficient and maximum resultant force coefficient for aspect ratios of the order of 1 as compared with values for aspect ratios of 2 and 3.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Zimmerman, C H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Description: An investigation conducted to determine the factors which control the combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine is presented. Indicator cards were taken with the Farnboro indicator and analyzed according to the tangent method devised by Schweitzer. The analysis show that in a quiescent combustion chamber increasing the time lag of auto-ignition increases the maximum rate of combustion. Increasing the maximum rate of combustion increases the tendency for detonation to occur. The results show that by increasing the air temperature during injection the start of combustion can be forced to take place during injection and so prevent detonation from occurring. It is shown that the rate of fuel injection does not in itself control the rate of combustion.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drop and flight tests on NY-2 landing gears including measurements of vertical velocities at landing

Description: This investigation was conducted to obtain quantitative information on the effectiveness of three landing gears for the NY-2 (consolidated training) airplane. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests on landing gears of the oleo-rubber-disk and the mercury rubber-chord types, and flight tests only on a landing gear of the conventional split-axle rubber-cord type. The results show that the oleo gear is the most effective of the three landing gears in minimizing impact forces and in dissipating the energy taken.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Peck, W. D. & Beard, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of humidity on engine power at altitude

Description: From tests made in the altitude chamber of the Bureau of Standards, it was found that the effect of humidity on engine power is the same at altitudes up to 25,000 feet as at sea level. Earlier tests on automotive engines, made under sea-level conditions, showed that water vapor acts as an inert diluent, reducing engine power in proportion to the amount of vapor present. By combining the effects of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity, it is shown that the indicated power obtainable from an engine is proportional to its mass rate of consumption of oxygen. This has led the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to adopt a standard basis for the correction of engine performance, in which the effect of humidity is included.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Brooks, D G & Garlock, E A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of multiple fixed slots and a trailing-edge flap on the lift and drag of a Clark Y airfoil

Description: Lift and drag tests were made on a Clark Y wing equipped with four fixed slots and a trailing-edge flap in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. All possible combinations of the four slots were tested with the flap neutral and the most promising combinations were tested with the flap down 45 degrees. Considering both the maximum lift coefficient and the speed-range ratio with the flap neutral no appreciable improvement was found with the use of more than the single leading-edge slot. With the flap down 45 degrees a maximum lift coefficient of 2.60 was obtained but the particular slot combination used had a rather large minimum drag coefficient with the flap neutral. With the flap down 45 degrees the optimum combination, considering both the maximum lift coefficient and the speed-range ratio, was obtained with only the two rearmost slots in use. For this arrangement the maximum lift coefficient was 2.44.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Shortal, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of orifice length-diameter ratio on fuel sprays for compression-ignition engines

Description: Experimental results on the effect of the length-diameter ratio of the orifice on the spray characteristics, together with a brief analysis of the factors affecting these characteristics, are presented in this report. The length-diameter ratios tested ranged from 0.5 to 10; the orifice diameters from 0.008 to 0.040 inch; and the injection pressures from 2,000 to 8,000 pounds per square inch. The density of the air into which the fuel was discharged was varied from 0.38 to 1.35 pounds per cubic foot.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Gelalles, A G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The elimination of fire hazard due to back fires

Description: A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Freeman, Ira M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General formulas and charts for the calculation of airplane performance

Description: This report presents general formulas for the determination of all major airplane performance characteristics. A rigorous analysis is used, making no assumption regarding the attitude of the airplane at which maximum rate of climb occurs, but finding the attitude at which the excess thrust horsepower is maximum. Equations and charts are developed which show the variation of performance due to a change in any of the customary design parameters. Performance determination by use of the formulas and charts is rapid and explicit. The results obtained by this performance method have been found to give agreement with flight tests that is, in general, equal or superior to results obtained by present commonly used methods.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Oswald, W Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ice prevention on aircraft by means of engine exhaust heat and a technical study of heat transmission from a Clark y airfoil

Description: This investigation was conducted to study the practicability of employing heat as a means of preventing the formation of ice on airplane wings. The report relates essentially to technical problems regarding the extraction of heat from the exhaust gases and its proper distribution over the exposed surfaces. In this connection a separate study has been made to determine the variation of the coefficient of heat transmission along the chord of a Clark Y airfoil. Experiments on ice prevention both in the laboratory and in flight show conclusively that it is necessary to heat only the front portion of the wing surface to effect complete prevention. Experiments in flight show that a vapor-heating system which extracts heat from the exhaust and distributes it to the wings is an entirely practical and efficient method for preventing ice formation.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Clay, William C & Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the differential and total thrust and torque of six full-scale adjustable-pitch propellers

Description: Force measurements giving total thrust and torque, and propeller slip stream surveys giving differential thrust and torque were simultaneously made on each of six full-scale propellers in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They were adjustable-pitch metal propellers 9.5 feet in diameter; three had modified Clark Y blade sections and three had modified RAF-6 blade sections. This report gives the differential thrust and torque and the variation caused by changing the propeller tip speed and the pitch setting. The total thrust and torque obtained from integration of the thrust and torque distribution curves are compared with those obtained by direct force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Stickle, George W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The mechanism of atomization accompanying solid injection

Description: A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Castleman, R A , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NACA apparatus for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests

Description: This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows. When the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, motion pictures at the rate of 2,000 per second are taken of the spray formation by means of spark discharges. When combustion takes place the light of the combustion is recorded on the same photographic film as the spray photographs. The report includes the results of some tests to determine the effect of air temperature, air flow, and nozzle design on the spray formation.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of modifications to conventional airplanes to give nonstalling and short-landing characteristics

Description: This report describes flight and landing tests made on a group of conventional airplanes. The upward deflection of the elevators was limited to the point where the airplanes could not be made to spin without the aid of power. With the elevator travel thus limited, the airplane in every case had good lateral stability and good aileron effectiveness up to the highest angles of attack which could be obtained in a glide, although this was not true in any case without the limited control. All ordinary flight maneuvers could be performed with the elevator displacement limited, but usually there was not sufficient control to get the tail down for a normal 3-point landing.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

Description: Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Gelalles, A G & Marsh, E T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The theory of wind-tunnel wall interference

Description: This report outlines the development of a general theory for the calculation of the effect of the boundaries of the air stream on the flow past an airfoil. Analytical treatments are given for tunnels with horizontal boundaries only, with vertical boundaries only, and with a bottom boundary only. Formulas are developed for the tunnel wall interference in each case for an airfoil located at the center of the tunnel. The correction is given as a function of the width to height ratio of the tunnel. The formulas are exact for infinitely small airfoils only, but give good approximation for spans up to about three-quarters of the tunnel width.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of wing sections of arbitrary shape

Description: This report presents a solution of the problem of the theoretical flow of a frictionless incompressible fluid past airfoils of arbitrary forms. The velocity of the 2-dimensional flow is explicitly expressed for any point of the surface, and for any orientation, by an exact expression containing a number of parameters which are functions of the form only and which may be evaluated by convenient graphical methods. The method is particularly simple and convenient for bodies of streamline forms. The results have been applied to typical airfoils and compared with experimental data.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack I : ordinary ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report is the first in a series in which it is intended to compare the relative merits of all ordinary and some special forms of ailerons and other lateral control devices in regard to their effect on lateral controllability, lateral stability, and airplane performance. The comparisons are based on wind-tunnel test data, all the control devices being fitted to model wings having the same span, area, and airfoil section, and being subjected to the same series of force and rotation tests. The results are given for five different aileron movements: one with equal up-and-down deflection, one with average and one with extreme differential motion, one with upward deflection only, and one with the ailerons arranged to float with respect to the wing.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack III : ordinary ailerons rigged up 10 degrees when neutral

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests made on three model wings having different sizes of ordinary ailerons rigged up 10 degrees when neutral, the same models having previously been tested with the ailerons rigged even with the wings in the usual manner. One of the wings had ailerons of medium size, 25 per cent of the wing chord by 40 per cent of the semispan, one had long, narrow ailerons, and one had short, wide ones. These tests are part of a general investigation on lateral control devices, with particular reference to the control at high angles of attack, in which all the devices are being subjected to the same series of tests in the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Force tests of the usual type, free-autorotation tests, and forced-rotation tests were made showing the effect of the ailerons on the general performance of the wing, on the lateral controllability, and on the lateral stability.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack IV : floating tip ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report is the fourth of a series on systematic tests conducted which compares lateral control devices with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present report covers tests with floating tip ailerons on rectangular Clark y wings. Ailerons of two profiles were tested - symmetrical and Clark y, both with adjustable trailing-edge flaps. Each form was tested at three hinge-axis locations, both with and without vertical end plates between the ailerons and the wing proper. The results from these tests are compared with the results from tests on a wing of the same over-all size equipped with average-sized ordinary ailerons.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Harris, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack V : spoilers and ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report covers the fifth of a series of systematic investigations in which lateral control devices are compared with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present report deals with tests of spoilers and ordinary ailerons on rectangular Clark y wing models. In an effort to obtain satisfactory control throughout the entire angle-of-attack range that can be maintained in flight, various spoilers were tested in combination with two sizes of previously tested ordinary ailerons - one of average proportions and the other short and wide. In addition, one large spoiler was tested alone. It was found that when ailerons and spoilers are used together the full effect of both is not obtained if the spoilers are located directly in front of the ailerons. With the proper combination of spoiler and aileron, however, it is possible to obtain satisfactory rolling control up to high angles of attack (15 degrees to 20 degrees), together with favorable yawing moments and small control forces. A moderate amount of rolling control with favorable yawing moments and small control forces was obtained with the large spoiler alone.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Shortal, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department