Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) - 24 Matching Results

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The air forces on a model of the sperry messenger airplane without propeller

Description: From Summary: "This is a report on a scale effect research which was made in the variable-density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service. While the present report is of a preliminary nature, the work has progressed far enough to show that the scale effect is almost entirely confined to the drag."
Date: 1926?~
Creator: Munk, Max M. & Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of a boat type seaplane during take-off

Description: This report, on the planing and get-away characteristics of the F-5-L, gives the results of the second of a series of take-off tests on three different seaplanes conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the suggestion of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department. The single-float seaplane was the first tested and the twin-float seaplane is to be the third. The characteristics of the boat type were found to be similar to the single float, the main difference being the increased sluggishness and relatively larger planing resistance of the larger seaplane. At a water speed of 15 miles per hour the seaplane trims aft to about 12 degrees and remains in this angular position while plowing. At 2.25 miles per hour the planing stage is started and the planing angle is immediately lowered to about 10 degrees. As the velocity increases the longitudinal control becomes more effective but over control will produce instability. At the get-away the range of angle of attack is 19 degrees to 11 degrees with velocities from the stalling speed through about 25 per cent of the speed range.
Date: January 1926
Creator: Crowley, J. W. & Ronan, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of tests on air propellers in flight with wind tunnel model tests on similar forms

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance, characteristics, and coefficients of full-sized air propellers in flight and to compare these results with those derived from wind-tunnel tests on reduced scale models of similar geometrical form. The full-scale equipment comprised five propellers in combination with a VE-7 airplane and Wright E-4 engine. This part of the work was carried out at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, between May 1 and August 24, 1924, and was under the immediate charge of Mr. Lesley. The model or wind-tunnel part of the investigation was carried out at the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Stanford University and was under the immediate charge of Doctor Durand. A comparison of the curves for full-scale results with those derived from the model tests shows that while the efficiencies realized in flight are close to those derived from model tests, both thrust developed and power absorbed in flight are from 6 to 10 per cent greater than would be expected from the results of model tests.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and laboratory tests of a Roots type aircraft engine supercharger

Description: This report describes a roots type aircraft engine supercharger and presents the results of some tests made with it at the Langley Field Laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The supercharger used in these tests was constructed largely of aluminum, weighed 88 pounds and was arranged to be operated from the rear of a standard aircraft engine at a speed of 1 1/2 engine crankshaft speed. The rotors of the supercharger were cycloidal in form and were 11 inches long and 9 1/2 inches in diameter. The displacement of the supercharger was 0.51 cubic feet of air per revolution of the rotors. The supercharger was tested in the laboratory, independently and in combination with a Liberty-12 aircraft engine, under simulated altitude pressure conditions in order to obtain information on its operation and performance. From these tests it seems evident that the Roots blower compares favorably with other compressor types used as aircraft engine superchargers and that it has several features that make it particularly attractive for such use.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Ware, Marsden
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuels for high-compression engines

Description: From theoretical considerations one would expect an increase in power and thermal efficiency to result from increasing the compression ratio of an internal combustion engine. In reality it is upon the expansion ratio that the power and thermal efficiency depend, but since in conventional engines this is equal to the compression ratio, it is generally understood that a change in one ratio is accompanied by an equal change in the other. Tests over a wide range of compression ratios (extending to ratios as high as 14.1) have shown that ordinarily an increase in power and thermal efficiency is obtained as expected provided serious detonation or preignition does not result from the increase in ratio.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Sparrow, Stanwood W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertia factors of ellipsoids for use in airship design

Description: This report is based on a study made by the writer as a member of the Special Committee on Design of Army Semirigid Airship RS-1 appointed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The increasing interest in airships has made the problem of the potential flow of a fluid about an ellipsoid of considerable practical importance. In 1833 George Green, in discussing the effect of the surrounding medium upon the period of a pendulum, derived three elliptic integrals, in terms of which practically all the characteristics of this type of motion can be expressed. The theory of this type of motion is very fully given by Horace Lamb in his "Hydrodynamics," and applications to the theory of airships by many other writers. Tables of the inertia coefficients derived from these integrals are available for the most important special cases. These tables are adequate for most purposes, but occasionally it is desirable to know the values of these integrals in other cases where tabulated values are not available. For this reason it seems worth while to assemble a collection of formulae which would enable them to be computed directly from standard tables of elliptic integrals, circular and hyperbolic functions and logarithms without the need of intermediate transformations. Some of the formulae for special cases (elliptic cylinder, prolate spheroid, oblate spheroid, etc.) have been published before, but the general forms and some special cases have not been found in previous publications. (author).
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Tuckerman, L B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the coefficient of discharge of liquids through small round orifices

Description: The work covered by this report was undertaken in connection with a general investigation of fuel injection engine principles as applied to engines for aircraft propulsion, the specific purpose being to obtain information on the coefficient of discharge of small round orifices suitable for use as fuel injection nozzles. Values for the coefficient were determined for the more important conditions of engine service such as discharge under pressures up to 8,000 pounds per square inch, at temperatures between 80 degrees and 180 degrees F. And into air compressed to pressures up to 1,000 pounds per square inch. The results show that the coefficient ranges between 0.62 and 0.88 for the different test conditions between 1,000 and 8,000 pounds per square inch hydraulic pressure. At lower pressures the coefficient increases materially. It is concluded that within the range of these tests and for hydraulic pressures above 1,000 pound per square inch the coefficient does not change materially with pressure or temperature; that it depends considerably upon the liquid, decreases with increase in orifice size, and increases in the case of discharge into compressed air until the compressed-air pressure equals approximately three-tenths of the hydraulic pressure, beyond which pressure ratio it remains practically constant.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Joachim, W F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of turbulence in wind tunnels by a study of the flow about cylinders

Description: With the assistance and cooperation of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics the Bureau of Standards has been engaged for the past year in an investigation of turbulence in wind tunnels, especially in so far as turbulence affects the results of measurements in different wind tunnels. Two methods of making such studies are described in this report together with the results of the use in the 54-inch wind tunnel of the Bureau of Standards. The first method consists in measuring the drag of circular cylinders; the second in measuring the static pressure at some fixed point. Both methods show that the flow is not entirely free from irregularities.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Dryden, H L & Heald, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model tests with a systematic series of 27 wing sections at full Reynolds number

Description: A systematic series of 27 wing sections, characterized by a small travel of the center or pressure, have been investigated at 20 atmospheres pressure in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results are consistent with each other, and indicate that for such "stable" sections a small effective camber, a small effective S-shape and a thickness of 8 to 12 per cent lead to good aerodynamic properties.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Munk, Max M. & Miller, Elton W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary wing model tests in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report contains the results of a series of tests with three wing models. By changing the section of one of the models and painting the surface of another, the number of models tested was increased to five. The tests were made in order to obtain some general information on the air forces on wing sections at a high Reynolds number and in particular to make sure that the Reynolds number is really the important factor, and not other things like the roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge. The few tests described in this report seem to indicate that the air forces at a high Reynolds number are not equivalent to respective air forces at a low Reynolds number (as in an ordinary atmospheric wind tunnel). The drag appears smaller at a high Reynolds number and the maximum lift is increased in some cases. The roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge do not materially change the results, so that we feel confident that tests with systematic series of different wing sections will bring consistent results, important and highly useful to the designer.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution on the C-7 airship

Description: This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the aerodynamic pressure distribution encountered on a "C" class airship in flight. It was conducted in two parts: (a) tests on the tail surfaces in which the pressures at 201 points were measured and (b) tests on the envelope in which 190 points were used, both tests being made under as nearly identical flight conditions as possible, so that the results could be combined and the pressure distribution over the entire airship obtained.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Crowley, J W , Jr & Defrance, S J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution over thick tapered airfoils, NACA 81, USA 27c modified and USA 35

Description: At the request of the United States Army Air Service, the tests reported herein were conducted in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The object was the measurment of pressures over three representative thick, tapered airfoils which are being used on existing or forthcoming army airplanes. The results are presented in the form of pressure maps, cross-plan load and normal force coefficient curves and load contours. The pressure distribution along the chord was found very similar to that for thin wings, but with a tendency toward greater negative pressures. The characteristics of the loading across the span of the U. S. A. 27 C modified are inferior to those of the other two wings; in the latter the distribution is almost exactly elliptical throughout the usual range of flying angles. The form of tip incorporated in these models is not completely satisfactory and a modification is recommended. (author).
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Reid, Elliott G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The reduction of airplane flight test data to standard atmosphere conditions

Description: This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply the need of practical methods of reducing observed performance to standard conditions with a minimum of labor. The first part gives a very simple approximate method of reducing performance in climb, and is particularly adapted to work not requiring extreme accuracy. The second part gives a somewhat more elaborate and more accurate method which is well suited to general flight test reduction. The third part gives the conventional method of calibrating air-speed indicators and reducing the indicated speeds to true air speeds. An appendix gives working tables and charts for the standard atmosphere. (author).
Date: January 1926
Creator: Diehl, Walter S. & Lesley, E. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A resume of the advances in theoretical aeronautics made by Max M. Munk

Description: In order to apply profitably the mathematical methods of hydrodynamics to aeronautical problems, it is necessary to make simplifications in the physical conditions of the latter. To begin with, it is allowable in many problems, as Prandtl has so successfully shown, to treat the air as having constant density and as free of viscosity. But this is not sufficient. It is also necessary to specify certain shapes for the solid bodies whose motion through the air is discussed, shapes suggested by the actual solids - airships or airfoils - it is true, but so chosen that they lead to solvable problems. In a valuable paper presented by Dr. Max M. Munk, of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, to the Delft Conference in April, 1924, these necessary simplifying assumptions are discussed in detail. It is the purpose of the present paper to present in as simple a manner as possible some of the interesting results obtained by Dr. Munk's methods.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Ames, Joseph S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some aspects of the comparison of model and full-scale tests

Description: This paper was delivered before the Royal Aeronautical Society as the 1925 Wilbur Wright Memorial lecture. It treats the subject of scale effect from the standpoint of the engineer rather than the physicist, in that it shows what compromises are necessary to secure satisfactory engineering model test data and how these test data compare with full scale or with theoretical values. The paper consists essentially of three parts: (1) a brief exposition of the theory of dynamic similarity, (2) application of the theory to airplane model tests, illustrated by test data on airfoils from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics variable-density wind tunnel, and (3) application of the theory to propeller testing, illustrated by comparisons of model and full-scale results.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Taylor, D W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spray penetration with a simple fuel injection nozzle

Description: The purpose of the tests covered by this report was to obtain specific information on the rate of penetration of the spray from a simple injection nozzle, having a single orifice with a diameter of 0.015 inch when injecting into compressed gases. The results have shown that the effects of both chamber and fuel pressures on penetration are so marked that the study of sprays by means of high-speed photography or its equivalent is necessary if the effects are to be appreciated sufficiently to enable rational analysis. It was found for these tests that the negative acceleration of the spray tip is approximately proportional to the 1.5 power of the instantaneous velocity of the spray tip.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Miller, Harold E & Beardsley, Edward G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability equations for airship hulls

Description: In the text are derived simple formulae for determining, directly from the data of wind tunnel tests of a model of an airship hull, what shall be the approximate character of oscillation, in pitch or yaw, of the full-scale airship when slightly disturbed from steady forward motion. (author).
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Zahm, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard atmosphere - tables and data

Description: Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.
Date: January 1926
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the effect of a diving start on airplane speed

Description: Equations for instantaneous velocity and distance flown are derived for an airplane which crosses the starting line of a speed course at a speed higher than that which can normally be maintained in horizontal flight. A specific case is assumed and calculations made for five initial velocities. Curves of velocity, average velocity, and distance flown are plotted against time for each case and analyzed. It is shown that the increase in average velocity due to a diving start may be very large for short-speed courses.
Date: January 1926
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report contains an exact description of the new wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. This is the first american type wind tunnel. It differs from ordinary wind tunnels by its being surrounded by a strong steel shell, 35 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. A compressor system is provided to fill this shell - and hence the entire wind tunnel - with air compressed to a density up to 25 times the ordinary atmospheric density. It is demonstrated in the report that the increase of the air density makes up for a corresponding decrease in the scale of the model. Hence such american type wind tunnel is free from scale effect. The report is illustrated by many drawings and photographs. All construction details are described, and many dimensions given. The method of conducting tests is also described and some preliminary results given in the report. So far, the tests have confirmed the chief feature of this wind tunnel - absence of scale effect.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Munk, Max M. & Miller, Elton W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water model tests for semirigid airships

Description: The design of complicated structures often presents problems of extreme difficulty which are frequently insoluble. In many cases, however, the solution can be obtained by tests on suitable models. These model tests are becoming so important a part of the design of new engineering structures that their theory has become a necessary part of an engineer's knowledge. For balloons and airships water models are used. These are models about 1/30 the size of the airship hung upside down and filled with water under pressure. The theory shows that the stresses in such a model are the same as in the actual airship. In the design of the Army Semirigid Airship RS-1 no satisfactory way was found to calculate the stresses in the keel due to the changing shape of the bag. For this purpose a water model with a flexible keel was built and tested. This report gives the theory of the design, construction, and testing of such a water model.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Tuckerman, L B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wing spar stress charts and wing truss proportions

Description: In order to simplify the calculation of beams continuous over three supports, a series of charts have been calculated giving the bending moments at all the critical points and the reactions at all supports for such members. Using these charts as a basis, calculations of equivalent bending moments, representing the total stresses acting in two bay-wing trusses of proportions varying over a wide range, have been determined, both with and without allowance for column effect. This leads finally to the determination of the best proportions for any particular truss or the best strut locations in any particular airplane. The ideal proportions are found to vary with the thickness of the wing section used, the aspect ratio, and the ratio of gap to chord.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Warner, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils IV : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, and 182

Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading Aerodynamic Laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
Date: September 1926
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air force and moment for N-20 wing with certain cut-outs

Description: From Introduction: "The airplane designer often finds it necessary, in meeting the requirements of visibility, to remove area or to otherwise locally distort the plan or section of an airplane wing. This report, prepared for the Bureau of Aeronautics January 15, 1925, contains the experimental results of tests on six 5 by 30 inch N-20 wing models, cut out or distorted in different ways, which were conducted in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel of the Navy Aerodynamical Laboratory in Washington in 1924. The measured and derived results are given without correction for vl/v for wall effect and for standard air density, p=0.00237 slug per cubic foot."
Date: November 29, 1926
Creator: Smith, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department