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Analysis and Summary of Reports and Data From the Freeport, Texas, Test Bed Plant (1961-1969)
Report issued by the Office of Saline over a summary of all work conducted at the Freeport, Texas test bed plant. The work done at the plant between 1961 and 1969 is presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Annual Report (FY 1968): Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report that presents "information, findings, and recommendations concerning the multiple-effect falling-film-evaporation method of desalination" (p. 1).
Annual Report (FY 1968): Webster Test Facility and Electrodialysis Test-Bed Plant, Webster, South Dakota
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Test-Bed Plant in Webster, South Dakota, and the economics of its operation.
Annual Report (FY 1969): Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant, Freeport, Texas
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Freeport Test Facility and Vertical-Tube-Evaporator Test-Bed Plant in Freeport, Texas, and the economics of its operation. Includes information regarding the LTV multiple-effect evaporation method of desalination.
Annual Report (FY 1969): Webster Test Facility and Electrodialysis Test-Bed Plant, Webster, South Dakota
Report presenting progress in saline water conversion at the Test-Bed Plant in Webster, South Dakota, and the economics of its operation.
Case Studies of Desalted Water for Irrigation
Report studying the use of desalinated water for irrigation at three locations in Arizona and California. Costs and benefits are measured among several different areas, including multiple concentrations of desalinated water, different desalting methods, and the desalting process.
Comparison Study of a 2.5 MGD VTE Upflow Versus Downflow
Report comparing "the capital and operating costs of an upflow and downflow plant" (p. 2). Cost saving recommendations are made.
Conceptual Design Study of a One Million Gallon Per Day MSM Desalination Plant-Replacement for Demonstration Plant No. 2 at Point Loma, San Diego, California
From foreward: "This is another of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress on saline water conversion with the expectation that the exhange of such data will contribute to the long range development of economical processes applicable to large scale desalination plants for conversion of sea and other saline waters." This particular report describes various aspects of a demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Development of a Thin-Liquid-Film Membrane Device for Reverse Osmosis
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on reverse-osmosis plants. The results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
The Economics of Desalting Brackish Waters for Regional, Municipal and Industrial Water Supply in West Texas
"This report presents the results of a study of the preliminary feasibility and economics of desalting brackish waters for municipal and industrial watter supply in candidate regions of West Texas" (p. ii).
An Engineering Evaluation of the Long-Tube Vertical Falling-Film Distillation Process
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over engineering studies on the long-tube vertical falling-film distillation process. As stated in the introduction, "it is the objective of this report to study the falling-film distillation and to prepare an engineering evaluation of the process and the design of major items of equipment, with particular emphasis upon improving production and operational reliability and upon reducing product cost" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Engineering Study of the Potentialities and Possibilities of Desalting for Northern New Jersey and New York City
Report that includes results and methodology from an engineering study regarding drought in Northern New Jersey and New York City. Topics include the area's water systems, the possible integration of desalting plants, and the potential costs of such plants.
Evaluation of Brine Desulfating Process As Applied To Desalination Phase 1
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the desulfating process at desalination plants. As stated in the introduction, "the explicit purpose of this study is to determine whether or not application of the feed-water desulfating process to the feed to a desalting plant will reduce the overall cost of desalted water" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
The Feasibility of Siting an 8 MGD Vapor Compression Distillation Desalting Plant at Brownsville, Texas
Report regarding the feasibility of placing a desalting plant at Brownsville, Texas, at one of three possible locations.
First Annual Report - Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), San Diego, California
Annual report discussing the activities and operation of the Senator Clair Engle Plant (CEP), a multi-effect multi-stage flash (MEMS) distillation plant for converting sea water, located in San Diego, California.
Freon-12 Hydrate Desalting Process
Report that "evaluates an operation program of a hydrate process for the desalination of sea water in a 10,000 GPD plant located at the Office of Saline Water Research and Development Test Station (Wrightsvile Beach Test Facility at Wrightsville Beach, New Carolina) for the period march 1967 through July 1968" (p. i).
Investigation of Multistage Flash Phenomena in a Three-Stage Test System
From Introduction: "This report covers the information resulting from these tasks and additionally the solution to a serious difficulty in obtaining stable operation and reasonable distillate purity due to foaming and priming which was much more serious in three stage test device than it had been in the original two-stage unit."
Investigation of the Availability of Geothermal Energy for the Demineralization of Saline Water
From Introduction: "The purpose of this investigation was to examine the question of the availability of geothermal energy and in particular the availability of geothermal energy from the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1969
From Summary: "This report summarizes the down-flow heat transfer performance of enhanced surface tubes and operations at the four-effect Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant at the Office of Saline Water East Coast Test Station, Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The period from July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969 is covered in this report."
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1970
From Introduction: "This report covers the work done in fiscal 1970 and the small amount of work done in the early part of fiscal 1971; the inclusive dates covered are July 1, 1969 through July 10, 1970. A four effect VTE train operating in the downflow mode. A single effect VTE unit operating in the downflow mode. A mixed phase high pressure water and steam jet compression unit complete with a boiler to supply high pressure motive steam."
Operation of a Reverse Osmosis Desalination Unit at Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This report covers the operation at Webster, South Dakota of an Aerojet Model 1-56OB-2 reverse osmosis (RO) unit purchased by the office of Saline Water (OSW) from Aerojet-General Corporation under Contract 14-0100001-1112."
Operation of Pilot Plant LTV Evaporator at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina
From Introduction: "The primary objective in the development of the W. L. Badger Long Tube Vertical Multiple Effect Evaporator for saline water conversion is to minimize the ultimate cost of producing potable water. To accomplish the primary objective, it is necessary to (1) prevent formation of scale on heating surfaces, and (2) minimize corrosion to permit use of inexpensive materials of construction. The work done leading to this report was guided in the direction of accomplishing the two secondary objectives."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Fourth Report (Semi-Annual), San Diego, California
From Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations: "The operation and development programs carried out in the CEP, E-1A and LMC plant during the period July 1, 1970 to December 31, 1970 are described in this report. Data was developed on several development tasks as follows. A summary is presented of material evaluation studies made over the past three and a half years. Data on the experiences with coatings, mortar linings, elastomers, and nonferrous and ferrous metals are included. Details are presented of coatings and linings installed in the CEP II Effect including methods of surface preparation and costs."
Operation of the Multi-Effect Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant (Clair Engle), Third Report (Annual), San Diego, California
From Introduction: "This report covers the activities by Catalytic, Inc., during the contract period from June 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970, a thirteen month period."
Operation of the Multi-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the operation and economic considerations of the multi-stage flash distillation plant in San Diego, California.
Optimum Operation of Desalting Plants as a Supplemental Source of Safe Yield
From Summary: "The Operating Rule Program receives focus in this report. It is written in Fortran IV computer language and consists of about 1,700 statements. Principles results of the application of the program are summarized in Table 1 for the three systems analyzed."
The Potential Contribution of Desalting to Future Water Supply in Texas
From Forward: "This report presents the results of a study of the potential contribution of desalting to future water supply in the State of Texas."
Preliminary Community and Regional Water Supply Data in Support of Desalting Plant Projects
Purpose and Scope: "The purpose of this study is to provide basic water supply data needed for future evaluation and selection of promising saline water conversion opportunities. This report presents information regarding the present and future supply situation of individual communities. Also presented is information on regional water plans with respect to provisions for municipal water supply."
Reverse Osmosis for Water Desalination
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the reverse-osmosis program. The methods of desalination through osmosis are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Saline Ground-Water Resources of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico
From Abstract: "This report describes the location, extent, and quality of saline ground water in Tularosa Basin, a north-trending elongated, intermontane, desert basin in south-central New Mexico."
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 1, Freeport, Texas, Volume 2
Report documenting the ongoing progress and economic concerns of Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 1 in Freeport, Texas.
Saline Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 2, San Diego, California, Annual Report, Volume 1
Report documenting the ongoing progress and operations of the saline water conversion demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Sea Water Corrosion Test Program
From Introduction: "The first demonstration plant sponsored by the Office of Saline Water was located in Freeport, Texas, and came 'on stream" in 1961. The incoming sea water was deaerated since both Speller (6) and Uhlig (7) recognized that dissolved oxygen was usually the controlling factor in the corrosion of iron stream condensate at temperatures even as high 400 degrees F. The water was acidified prior to daeration with H2SO4 to decompose the carbonates which subsequently would cause scale when the water was heated. After the carbonates were removed, the pH was raised to the neutral point, again to provide a less corrosive environment."
Second Annual Report: Operation of the Muti-Stage Flash Distillation Plant, San Diego, California
From Introduction: "The Office of Saline Water (OSW) maintains the MSF Module at the San Diego Test Facility, Chula Vista, California, for the purpose of further advancing and developing the state of art of the multistage flash distillation process and thereby reduce the cost of seawater conversion. The MSF Module has been built and operated to obtain engineering design and operating data to serve as a basis for: a. Future process development. b. Improved full scale plant design. Improved full scale plant operating conditions."
Second Annual Report: Saline Water Demonstration Plant Number 3, Webster, South Dakota
From Introduction: "This Annual Report on the maintenance and operation of Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant No. 3, located in Webster, South Dakota, presents the Plant Maintenance and Operational History and the Technical, Economic and Administrative evaluations of the Plant's operation during the period 1 July 1963 through 30 June 1964. This Report is prepared in compliance with Management and Operations Contract No. 14-01-001-225 dated 2 October 1961."
Second Two Years' Progress on Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "The investigation of solar distillation described in this Summary Report is part of the wide-ranging program of the Office of Saline Water to develop economical processes for the conversion of saline water to fresh water." From Summary: " Since the submission of the Summary Report which covered the first two years' progress, several new stills have been constructed, including four basin-type stills for the evaluation of basin liners and other materials."
Secondary Refrigerant Freezing Desalting Process: Operation of a 15,000 GPD Pilot Plant
Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over the development of the secondary refrigerant freeze desalination process. The process is presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Sixth Annual Report: Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas
From Introduction: "The Sixth Annual Report presents a wide variety of information findings and recommendations concerning the Multiple-Effect VTE evaporation method of desalination. The included data are derived from the results obtained from operation, maintenance, and development studies conducted for the the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water, at Freeport, Texas. Not only are the technical, logistical, and economical evaluations for the Fiscal Year 1967 operations presented herein, but also the process and mechanical development program results as related to the process in particular, and desalination in general."
A Study and Development of the Hickman Sea-Water Still
From Introduction: "The report is organized into three major sections and three appendixes. In first major section are presented a brief historical account of the work done by other organizations prior to November, 1957, and a detailed description of the experiments conducted by Battelle with the No.4 and No. 5 stills. The second major section summarizes the results of cost studies. The third major section gives data, calculations, and derivations pertaining to the heat-transfer aspects of the Hickman still."
Study and Field Evaluation of Solar Sea-Water Stills
From Introduction: "This report describes the progress of the study and field evaluation of solar sea-water stills during the first 2 years of a research program being conducted for the Office of Saline Water, United States Department of the Interior, by Battelle Memorial Institute. The period covered by the report extends from January 20, 1958, to January 31, 1960."
Summary of Roswell Test Bed Plant Reports (1963-1968)
From Summary: "This report summarizes the analyses of the operating data for the period 1963-1969 for the Test Bed Plant and the Auxiliary Test Unit (ATU) located at Roswell, New Mexico."
Third Annual Report: Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 4, Roswell, New Mexico
From Abstract: "Primary interest was placed on the scale formation problem. Significant improvements were made in the process and described in this report. Maintenance requirements were unusually high during the year, primarily as a result of cumulative corrosion damage over the last three years. The most significant damage was in the circulating pumps, the heat exchangers and feed piping. These and other failures are described."
Third Report on Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests
From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first portions of which were reported in References 1 and 2. A major purpose in the testing of the three-effect pilot plant was to demonstrate mutiple-effect operability of the the horizontal tube method, when utilizing basically the same construction methods and materials as those proposed for commercial HTME plants."
Transport-Depletion Desalination Pilot Plant
From Summary: "The transport-depletion data obtained by the Southern Research Institute and by the Bureau of Reclamation at Denver, Colorado and at Webster, South Dakota, was reviewed. This data review made it possible to develop a design methodology for the pilot plant, and to identify the additional data required to adequately predict the performance of a transport-depletion stack."
Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process: Evaluation on Brackish Water
From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression (VFVC) Process was evaluated on high salinity brackish water during the period from February 1968 through December 1969 by Colt Industries Inc., under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-967 at Roswell, New Mexico. The 15,000 gpd VFVC test plant is mounted on a mobile trailer which was built by Colt Industries Inc. in their factory at Beloit, Wisconsin. Prior to operation at Roswell, the plant was operated at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina to check out the system and to operate the trailer on sea water." Process Description: "A simplified diagram, Figure 2, shows both the essential components of the process and flow paths of the various streams in the system. Typical heat and mass balances are shown on Figures 3 and 4."
Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation
From Introduction: "This report contains the results of a research study on the "Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation" undertaken in January 1967 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Saline Water, United Sates Department of the Interior. The objectives of the study were: a. To determine, through application of desalting techniques, the costs and benefits associated with the progressive decreases in the salinity of irrigation water supplies. b. To identify the possible means of introducing desalted water into irrigation supply systems. To relate current desalting technology to potential applications in agriculture."
VTE Pilot Plant Annual Report for the Period Ending July 1, 1968
From Summary and Conclusions: "After a period of tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1966 and 1967, the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) Pilot Plant was moved to the OSW's East Coast Test Station at Wrightsville Beach, N.C. In the summer of 1967 it was installed and was started in upflow operation with seawater feed, using stem and other services provided by the station. The operation of the Pilot Plant at Wrightsville Beach was performed by Stearns-Roger Corporation under subcontract to ORNL. Operation was in the upflow mode during the entire reporting period."