Office of Technology Assessment - 1,030 Matching Results

Search Results

Renewable Ocean Energy Sources: Part 1 - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
A report in a series by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considering renewable ocean energy sources as a possible energy supply. This report focuses on ocean thermal energy conversion and analyzes the feasibility of using it and evaluates current research on the topic (p. iii).
Replacing Gasoline: Alternative Fuels for Light-Duty Vehicles
In this report OTA gives a broad overview of the qualities of the competing fuels and examines in depth some of the most contentious issues associated with the wisdom of active Federal support for introducing the fuels. Areas of uncertainty that affect the debate on Federal support include fuel cost (including costs of building new infrastructure and modifying vehicles); the air quality effects of the new fuels; effects on energy security; other environmental impacts of the fuels; and consumer acceptance of the changes in vehicle performance, refueling procedures, costs, and other facets of the transportation system that would follow a large-scale introduction of any of the fuels. The report singles out for special examination the arguments concerning the costs, energy security implications, and air quality impacts of introducing methanol fuels into the fleet.
Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace: Selected Aspects of Reproductive Health Hazards Regulations
A staff paper by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) assessing the workplace reproductive health hazards regulations.
Renewing Our Energy Future
This report evaluates the potential for cost-effective renewable energy in the coming decades and the actions that have to be taken to achieve the potential.
Research and Development in the Maritime Industry: A Supplement to an Assessment of Maritime Trade and Technology
An analysis by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that evaluates "long-term trends in global seaborne trade and maritime technology in relation to the U.S. maritime industry" (p. 3).
Research funding as an investment: can we measure the returns?
A report on the mounting intensity of global competition in the 1980s that underscores the critical role played by the basic research enterprise of the United States. Basic research is the backbone of much of the technological development that has provided not only our economic prosperity, but improvements in health, a strong national defense, and exciting and fundamental advances in knowledge.
Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "reviews current knowledge of hazards and suspected hazards to the reproductive health of American's working men and women and to the health and well-being of their children" (Foreword).
Researching Health Risks
This report describes the Federal Government’s research activities that are intended to improve health risk assessments. One of the findings of this Report is that the attention and resources allotted to health risk assessment research are not commensurate with its national impact.
Resource Analysis FY93
This is an OTA resource analysis report.
Retiring Old Cars: Programs To Save Gasoline and Reduce Emissions
This report examines the costs and benefits of vehicle retirement programs. With regulation of new vehicles above the 90 percent control level for the major pollutants and scheduled to become even stricter in the near future, emissions from older vehicles have drawn increasing attention.
Review of a Protocol for a Study of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Women Vietnam Veterans
This report discusses the study that has been proposed as a partial response to the mandate of Public Law 99-272; that law also requires approval from the Director of OTA before any such studies are undertaken, which is the reason for this review. This study is one of three that make up the full VA response to the mandate to look into the health of women Vietnam veterans.
Residential Energy Conservation
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes "the potential for conserving energy in homes in terms of energy and costs" and "reviews existing and promising technologies, and a broad set of issues affecting why these technologies are or are not used, how their level of use and effectiveness can be improved, and related Federal programs and policies" (p. iii).
A Review of Alternative Approaches to Federal Funding of Rail Rehabilitation
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that is part of a plan to restructure the railroads of the Northeast. It "provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of alternative approaches to federal assistance for the rehabilitation of the nation's railroad fixed plant" (p. xiv).
Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information
This report examines the impact of recent and anticipated advances in communication and information technologies on the intellectual property system. It focuses primarily on the Federal copyright system, and on the continuing effectiveness of copyright law as a policy tool in the light of technologies such as audioand videorecorders, computer programs, electronic databases, and telecommunications networks.
International competition in services: banking building software know-how--
The international competitiveness of American firms in most manufacturing industries has been in decline, in large part because of growing competence in other parts of the world. As this assessment shows, the United States remains highly competitive in many service industries, But trade in services will remain small compared to trade in goods, and many of the benefits from foreign investments by American service firms accrue to the host nations where U.S.-based banks, insurance companies, accounting firms, and other suppliers of services do business, Services cannot right the Nation’s trade balance, even granting the many ways in which a strongly competitive service sector benefits the competitiveness of American manufacturing firms.
International Competitiveness in Electronics
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at the international competitiveness of the electronics technology industry.
International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities
The findings of an assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) on "international cooperation and competition in civilian space activities" (p. iii).
International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States
This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
International Partnerships in Large Science Projects
This report assesses the factors that facilitate international partnerships in big science projects and those that, conversely, favor the pursuit of purely national projects. The paper also reviews and identifies several important issues to consider in structuring future collaborations.
Issue Update on Information Security and Privacy in Network Environments
This paper updates and develops some key issues that OTA had identified in its earlier report, in light of recent developments in the private sector and in government.
Issues and Options in Flood Hazards Management
An analysis by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that identifies "information and knowledge gaps in the management of flood hazards" and proposes "policy options for further consideration that could beneficially affect such management" (p. 1).
The Impact of Randomized Clinical Trials on Health Policy and Medical Practice: Background Paper
A background paper by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that brings together "the literature and current views about the actual and potential role of RCTS (randomized clinical trials) in decisionmaking about medical technologies" (Preface).
Impacts of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: Thanks to penicillin-- He will come home!
This report discusses what is known about the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and describes research and development aimed at controlling those organisms. It concludes that efforts are necessary both to preserve the effectiveness of currently available antibiotics and to develop new antibiotics. It discusses issues that arise in these activities, and it presents options for taking action.
Impacts of Neuroscience: Background Paper
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "focuses on the status of basic neuroscience research, and was extended, in accordance, with the OTA mandate, to investigate not only the current status and potential medical applications, but also to include broad social and ethical issues that might arise from such research" (p. iii).
Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants, and Animals
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the application of classical and molecular genetic technologies to micro-organisms, plants, and animals" (Foreward).
Impacts of Technology on U.S. Cropland and Rangeland Productivity
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment that "describes the major processes degrading land productivity, assesses whether productivity is sustaining using current agricultural technologies, reviews a range of new technologies with potentials to maintain productivity and profitability simultaneously, and presents a series of options for congressional consideration" (p. iii).
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case 4: Cost Effectiveness of Automated Multichannel Chemistry Analyzers
A case study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "touches on only some of the aspects of technology assessment that might be undertaken with respect to multichannel chemistry analyzers" (p. 7).
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes the "feasibility, implications, and usefulness of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis in health care decisionmaking" (p. iii).
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 1: Methodological Issues and Literature Review
A background paper for an assessment for the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that closely looks at methodology and cost-effectiveness in the health care industry.
Impact of Advanced Air Transport Technology: Part 1 Advanced High-Speed Aircraft
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the economic, environmental, energy, societal, and safety impacts of advances in the technology of high-speed aircraft, commuter, aircraft, and air cargo" (p. iii).
Impact of Advanced Air Transport Technology: Part 2: The Air Cargo System
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "seeks to put in perspective the role and importance of aircraft technology in the total air cargo system" (p. iii).
Impact of Advanced Air Transport Technology: Part 3: Air Service to Small Communities
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at the current situation of the advances made in air transport technology.
Impact of Advanced Air Transport Technology: Part 4: Financing and Program Alternatives for Advanced High-Speed Aircraft
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the potential financial and managerial barriers to carrying out-at some future date-a large-scale program to create a new high-speed, long-range commercial air transport employing new technology" (p. iii).
Impact of Advanced Group Rapid Transit Technology
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of advanced group rapid transit (AGRT) that looks at possibilities for "further advances in automated guideway transit (AGT) technology, and evaluates their potential impacts on various stakeholder groups" (p. iii).
The Impact of AIDS on the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (Northern California Region)
The topic of this fourth paper in OTA’S series of AIDS-related issues is the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the Kaiser Permanence Medical Care Program’s (KPMCP) northern California region and was originally commissioned for OTA’s assessment of Medical Testing and Health Insurance. Key OTA staff involved in the oversight of the project were Jill Eden, Larry Miike, and Laurie Mount.
Impact of Health Reform on Rural Areas: Lessons From the States
This paper examines: 1) the effects of insurance market reforms--measures intended to make the market more equitable, or to make health care more affordable to those without insurance 2) the effects of reforms aimed at the health care delivery system.
Impact of Legal Reforms on Medical Malpractice Costs
This report discusses the indirect cost of medical malpractice, commonly referred to as “defensive medicine,” that may add to overall health care costs. The cost of defensive medicine remains unknown and is subject to much speculation because there are no sound empirical data.
World Petroleum Availability 1980-2000
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "estimates plausible levels of world oil production to the year 2000 and assesses the factors likely to determine which levels are actually reached" (p. iii).
Worker Training: Competing in the New International Economy
This report focuses on the training given to employed workers both from the standpoint of the competitiveness of U.S. industry and from the standpoint of the individual worker who may need training to advance. Most workers who get training get it from their employer, and much of the report looks at the employer provided training system. The message of this report is that the debate about national training policies needs to be broadened to encompass not only training programs for the economically disadvantaged, the displaced worker, or people with special needs, but also those who stand on the front line of American productivity-employed workers at all levels.
Elementary and Secondary Education for Science and Engineering
Students make many choices over a long period, and choose a career through a complicated process. This process includes formal instruction in mathematics and science, and the opportunity for informal education in museums, science centers, and recreational programs. The influence of family, teachers, peers, and the electronic media can make an enormous difference. This memorandum analyzes these influences. Because education is “all one system, ” policymakers interested in nurturing scientists and engineers must address the educational environment as a totality; changing only one part of the system will not yield the desired result.
Emerging Food Marketing Technologies: A Preliminary Analysis
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) on the "identification of new or emerging food marketing technologies that will have significant long-range impacts on society and the U.S. food system" (p. 3?).
World Population and Fertility Planning Technologies: The Next Twenty Years
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "covers the status of current and projected technologies that affect fertility change" (p. iii).
Energy Efficiency in Federal Facilities: Update on Funding and Potential Savings
There are two longstanding constraints to implementing more energy efficient practices: 1) a shortage of finds to invest in efficient equipment; and 2) a lack of information for program planning and budgeting about the extent of investment opportunities and about the best finding mechanisms. This paper reviews advances made in addressing these constraints since 1991.
Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Utilities
This report focuses on the opportunities for advancing the energy efficiency of the U.S. economy through technology improvements and institutional change in the electric utility sector. In particular, the report examines the prospects for energy savings through expansion of utility demand-side management and integrated resource planning programs and related Federal policy options.
Energy Efficiency in the Federal Government: Government by Good Example?
This report focuses on the Federal Government, the Nation’s largest single energy consumer, in terms of the opportunities and constraints for the use of energy efficient technologies. Energy efficient technologies could greatly reduce energy demand growth and spending in the United States and lessen environmental impacts while increasing productivity. Yet, in today’s public and private markets, adoption rates for many of these technologies are low. This report reviews past and current efforts to improve Federal energy efficiency and discusses policy options that could accelerate the adoption of these measures by the Federal Government.
Energy Efficiency Technologies for Central and Eastern Europe
This report focuses on the improvement of energy efficiency. It reviews how energy is used in the former centrally planned economies. Then it analyzes the potential effectiveness of modern technology in reducing energy waste and the factors that constrain improvements. The report also examines government programs assisting energy efficiency technology transfer and opportunities for U.S. businesses. Finally, it discusses congressional policy options to support technology transfer.
Energy Efficiency of Buildings in Cities
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the potential for increased energy efficiency in buildings found in cities from two perspectives: that of the energy expert who assesses technical opportunities for improved energy efficiency, and that of the real estate expert who evaluates the financial attractiveness of real estate investment opportunities" (p. iii).
Energy From Biological Processes
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment that examines the "energy potential of various sources of plant and animal matter (biomass)," giving an analysis of "prominent biomass issues, summaries of four biomass fuel cycles, a description of biomass' place in two plausible energy futures, and discussions of policy options for promoting energy from biomass" (p. iii).
Energy in Developing Countries
This report, the first of two, was prepared in response to the requesting committees’ interest in receiving an interim product. It examines how energy is supplied and used in developing countries, and how energy use is linked with economic and social development and environmental quality.
New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology
This special report is the fourth in a series of OTA studies being carried out under an assessment of “New Developments in Biotechnology, ” requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. This fourth report in the series describes the levels and types of investment currently being made by the Federal, State, and private sectors. Ten major issues that affect investment were identified.