Office of Technology Assessment - 80 Matching Results

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Infertility: Medical and Social Choices

Description: This report illustrates a range of options for congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: collecting data on reproductive health; preventing infertility; information to inform and protect consumers; providing access to infertility services; reproductive health of veterans; transfer of human eggs, sperm, and embryos; recordkeeping; surrogate motherhood; and reproductive research.
Date: May 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Informing the Nation: Federal Information Dissemination in an Electronic Age

Description: This report addresses the opportunities to improve the dissemination of Federal information. It also highlights two major problems: maintaining equity in public access to Federal information in electronic formats, and defining the respective roles of Federal agencies and the private sector in the electronic dissemination process. The report focuses on current and future roles of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) and Superintendent of Documents, the Depository Library Program (administered by GPO), and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). In addition, this report examines electronic dissemination of congressional information, the Freedom of Information Act in an electronic environment, and electronic dissemination of government information to the press.
Date: October 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional Protocols for Decisions About Life-Sustaining Treatments: special report

Description: This report focuses on the formal policies and guidelines’ through which health care institutions articulate decision making procedures and identify permissible options regarding the use of life-sustaining treatments for adult patients in their care.
Date: July 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Launch Options for the Future: : special report

Description: Adequate, reliable space transportation is the key to this Nation’s future in space. Over the next several years, Congress must make critical decisions regarding the direction and funding of U.S. space transportation systems. These decisions include improving existing launch systems, designing and procuring new launch systems, and developing advanced technologies. America’s constrained budgetary environment and the lack of a national consensus about the future of the U.S. space program make Congress’s role in this process more difficult and important than ever.
Date: July 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping Our Genes—Genome Projects: How Big? How Fast?

Description: Scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate that involves science, technology, and politics, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the U.S. Congress.
Date: April 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Testing and Health Insurance

Description: Tests to identify individuals who are likely to develop serious diseases are being rapidly developed. Some of these tests are directed at diseases for which there are presently no known therapies, thereby raising questions over the social consequences of identifying susceptible persons. This assessment examines existing and developing medical tests and their current and potential uses by health insurers and employers.
Date: August 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elementary and Secondary Education for Science and Engineering

Description: Students make many choices over a long period, and choose a career through a complicated process. This process includes formal instruction in mathematics and science, and the opportunity for informal education in museums, science centers, and recreational programs. The influence of family, teachers, peers, and the electronic media can make an enormous difference. This memorandum analyzes these influences. Because education is “all one system, ” policymakers interested in nurturing scientists and engineers must address the educational environment as a totality; changing only one part of the system will not yield the desired result.
Date: December 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing Agriculture in Africa: A Role for U.S. Development Assistance

Description: This report has gathered information on agricultural production throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, looked closely at specific, promising technologies such as agroforestry, small-scale irrigation, soil and water management, and the improved use of animals. As a result, it seems clear that low-resource agriculture has a sizable potential to contribute to increased African food security. Also, it is clear that low-resource agriculture must be enhanced in order to reach its full potential. This report identifies ways that U.S. development assistance can aid this process.
Date: September 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Developments in Biotechnology: Field-Testing Engineered Organisms: Genetic and Ecological Issues

Description: This report in the series illustrates a range of options for congressional action in three major areas of public policy related to this application of biotechnology: the criteria for review of planned introductions for potential risk, the administrative mechanisms for applying such review criteria, and the research base supporting planned introductions.
Date: May 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gearing Up for Safety: Motor Carrier Safety in a Competitive Environment

Description: This report contains the results of that analysis. A review of critical intergovernmental issues for the Department of Transportation and State Governments has been added to the basic questions about the adequacy of Federal standards and programs. During the course of the study, it became clear that the report would have to consider how policy is implemented, and consequently, the relationship between the Department of Transportation and the States, which have become important partners in Federal safety programs.
Date: September 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paying the Bill: Manufacturing and America's Trade Deficit

Description: This special report analyzes the causes of the deterioration in America’s trade performance and examines the importance of U.S. manufacturing in helping the nation improve its position in international trade. The report was requested by Senator John Heinz as part of an assessment of technology, innovation and U.S. trade requested by the Senate Committee on Finance; the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs; and the House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs. A final report will be published in 1989.
Date: June 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pesticide Residues in Food: Technologies for Detection

Description: Federal monitoring and enforcement action is dependent on technical capability to detect pesticides. A major concern is that Federal regulatory agencies cannot practically monitor food for all pesticides of health concern. OTA was asked to assess whether existing and emerging technologies could improve Federal monitoring of pesticide residues in food. In addition, OTA examined the Federal research programs dedicated to improving Federal analytical capabilities for the detection of pesticides in food.
Date: October 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power On! New Tools for Teaching and Learning

Description: This report examines developments in the use of computer-based technologies, analyzes key trends in hardware and software development, evaluates the capability of technology to improve learning in many areas, and explores ways to substantially increase student access to technology. The role of the teacher, teachers’ needs for training, and the impact of Federal support for educational technology research and development are reviewed as well.
Date: September 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Quality of Medical Care: Information for Consumers

Description: Changes in how physicians and hospitals are paid have made individual consumers, health insurers, employers, and medical providers more sensitive to the cost implications of their decisions. At the same time, these policy changes have elevated the importance of having consumers be informed about the quality of medical providers. Purchasers of medical care (individual consumers, employers, health insurers) need to know about any differences in quality so that they can weigh quality along with cost in making decisions.
Date: June 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing Launch Operation Costs: New Technologies and Practices

Description: This technical memorandum explains, the United States has spent relatively little effort in applying them to operations. Just as important as cost saving technologies are appropriate management methods, or strategies, to put these technologies to work. In some cases, OTA has found, cost savings could be achieved by streamlining operations and reducing the burden of documentation and reporting requirements that have slowly expanded over the years.
Date: September 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safe Skies for Tomorrow: Aviation Safety in a Competitive Environment

Description: This report contains the results of that analysis, and a review of critical management issues for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been added to the basic questions about the adequacy of Federal standards and programs. During the course of the study, it became clear that a full report for Congress would have to consider how policy is determined and implemented, and thus the operation of FAA and the role of the Department of Transportation.
Date: July 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science, Technology, and the First Amendment: special report

Description: Part I of the report discusses how the meaning of “the press” has expanded from printed material to include a wide range of broadcast and electronic media. Satellites, computers, electronic bulletin boards, teletex, videotext, and other new ways of gathering, editing, and delivering news are blurring legal and regulatory distinctions between common carriers and “the press, ” thus changing arguments about the constitutional rights that they have each enjoyed. Part II addresses freedom of speech and press as they apply to scientific communications and technological know-how. As science and technology become ever more important to our economy and our military strength, the delicate balance between individual rights and the national interest becomes both more important and more difficult to maintain.
Date: January 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SDI: Technology, Survivability, and Software

Description: This report is the unclassified version of a classified document delivered to Congress at the end of August 1987. In attempting to reach agreement with the Department of Defense on what information could be included in an unclassified report, OTA found the wheels of bureaucracy to turn very slowly—when they turned at all. Only through the active intervention of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, beginning in late in November 1987, and extending to the end of March, 1988, was a partial resolution of the problem achieved.
Date: May 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic Verification of Nuclear Testing Treaties

Description: This report addresses the issues of detection, identification, yield estimation, and evasion to arrive at answers to the two critical questions: 1) Down to what size explosion can underground testing be seismically monitored with high confidence? 2) How accurately can the yields of underground explosions be measured?
Date: May 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and the American Economic Transition: Choices for the Future

Description: The report highlights strategic choices available to Americans as we negotiate a period of major transformation. The choices we make will have profound consequences for the quality of work and the amenities available to Americans and for America’s role of leadership in the free world.
Date: May 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology

Description: This special report is the fourth in a series of OTA studies being carried out under an assessment of “New Developments in Biotechnology, ” requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. This fourth report in the series describes the levels and types of investment currently being made by the Federal, State, and private sectors. Ten major issues that affect investment were identified.
Date: July 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Desalination Technologies for Water Treatment

Description: This study provides a technical assessment of traditional desalination techniques that can be used for water treatment. These techniques include distillation, as well as more recently developed membrane processes. As part of this effort OTA held a one-day workshop on July 29, 1987, with desalination and water treatment experts to review the initial draft of this background paper and to discuss other areas of interest. The conclusions of these discussions are included in this background report.
Date: March 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Materials by Design

Description: This assessment responds to a joint request from the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation to analyze the military and commercial opportunities presented by new structural materials technologies, and to outline the Federal policy objectives that are consistent with those opportunities.
Date: June 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department