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Environmental Technology: Analysis of Selected Federal R&D Programs
This report discusses estimates of environmental technology R&D spending, interagency coordination mechanisms, and major federal programs, including programs administered by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, and several other agencies.
EPA Superfund Actions and ATSDR Public Health Data
This paper discusses how EPA sets Superfund cleanup priorities based on Superfund site health ranking data provided by ATSDR. It examines several parameters by which EPA site prioritization might be measured, including timeliness, cost, and use of special removal actions at the worst sites.
International Partnerships in Large Science Projects
This report assesses the factors that facilitate international partnerships in big science projects and those that, conversely, favor the pursuit of purely national projects. The paper also reviews and identifies several important issues to consider in structuring future collaborations.
A History of the Department of Defense Federally Funded Research and Development Centers
The focus of this paper is the history of Department of Defense (DoD) Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) over the past 50 years, which forms part of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) study of defense modeling and simulation.
Reducing the Costs of Collecting Meteorological Data: A Workshop
A report on information about the Earth obtained from satellite systems assists the National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in conducting its legislatively mandated programs to provide weather and flood forecasts and warnings for the American public, improve public safety, and provide weather information for commerce and science.
State of the States on Brownfields: Programs for Cleanup and Reuse of Contaminated Sites
This paper first presents an overview of the nature and extent of the brownfields problem and discusses several key issues relating to their cleanup and redevelopment. Next, it examines three primary state approaches for addressing brownfields, with a particular focus on state voluntary cleanup programs. It then presents more detailed information on the voluntary programs in Minnesota, California, and Ohio.
Agriculture, Trade, and Environment: Achieving Complementary Policies
This report provides information that can help align agricultural legislation with emerging needs and trends. Current policies do not ameliorate conflicts between agricultural production and environmental quality, between trade and the environment, and between agriculture and competitive trade.
Costs and Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Screening in Elderly Men
The background paper summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness and costs of prostate cancer screening and treatment in elderly men and explores the implications for Medicare of offering this preventive technology as a Medicare benefit.
Hospital Financing in Seven Countries
This report discusses a seven-country study of hospital financing is an attempt to find lessons for the United States. The individual experiences over the past decade of the United States and six of its international peers—Canada, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden—in hospital financing and payment systems are reviewed by experts in each country.
The National Space Transportation Policy: Issues for Congress
This report is the first in a broad assessment of the health and future prospects of the U.S. space transportation technology and industrial base. The report focuses on the Clinton Administration’s National Space Transportation Policy. It examines administration policy in light of the implementation plans prepared by NASA, DOD, and the Transportation and Commerce Departments.
The Cost-Effectiveness of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Adults
This paper presents an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in average-risk adults beginning at age 50. It examines the relative cost effectiveness of competing CRC screening technologies and schedules.
Nuclear Safeguards and the International Atomic Energy Agency
This report analyzes what International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards can and cannot be expected to accomplish, identifies areas where they might be broadened and improved, and presents options for doing so.
Teachers and Technology: Making the Connection
This report discusses the major issues in the public school system, providing information, and contributing a broad range of perspectives that helped shape the issues regarding education and technology. The report shows that helping schools to make the connection between teachers and technology may be one of the most important steps to making the most of past, present, and future investments in educational technology and in our children’s future.
U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Space
This report surveys the potential benefits and drawbacks of expanded cooperation with Russia and other nations of the Former Soviet Union in space activities, and examines the impacts of closer cooperation on U.S. industry and U.S. national security concerns.
Annual Report to the Congress: Fiscal Year 1994
This report includes statements form OTA Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Director, as well as TAAC Chairman. The report also discusses industry, commerce, and international security division, as well as health, life sciences and the environment division.
Office of Technology Assessment FY1994 Annual Report to Congress, March 1995
The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) is a nonpartisan congressional support agency of the United States congress. OTA is charged with advising the Congress on a wide range of critical issues involving science and technology. This report to Congress is required under Sec. 11 of the Technology Assessment Act of 1972, Public Law 92-484 (see p. 55). It describes the activities of the Office in Fiscal Yaer 1994 within the context of the legislative agenda of the 103rd congress and the events in the United States and the world during 1994.
Other Approaches to Civil-Military Integration: The Chinese and Japanese Arms Industries
The paper is divided into two sections, one on the PRC and one on Japan. Each section describes the structure and management of the respective defense industrial base and then compares it with its U.S. counterpart. The paper then assesses the degree to which lessons from the PRC and Japanese cases can be applied to the U.S. defense technology and industrial base (DTIB).
Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries
This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Health care technology and its assessment in eight countries
This report is a part of a larger study on International Differences in Health Care Technology and Spending. It discusses health care technology as a policy issue, healthcare technology in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States, as well as the lessons from the eight countries.
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Resources, February 1995
This collection of Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Resources information briefs details assessments and documents completed by OTA and categorized into a variety of topics, including the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, defense technology, and energy research and development.
Catalog of OTA Publications, 1972 - 1994
A cumulative catalog of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) documents published from 1972 through 1994.
Insider's Guide to OTA
An informal orientation to the OTA. Addresses new employees' frequently asked questions; intended as a complimentary document to the official Employee Handbook.
Insider's Guide to OTA, January 1995
This guide is intended as an informal orientation to some aspects of life at the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), and to answer some of the questions frequently asked about OTA. This guide was created in the hopes of acquainting new employees with the procedures, materials, information, and expertise that lie within OTA.
OTA Role & Function, 1995
This pamphlet briefly outlines the function and purpose of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Other approaches to civil-military integration: background paper: the Chinese and Japanese arms industries
This report is divided into two sections, one of the PRC and one on Japan. Each section describes the structure and management of the respective defense industrial base and then compares it with its U.S. counterpart. The paper then assesses the degree to which lesson from the PRC and Japanese cases can be applied to the U.S. defense technology and industrial base (DTIB).
Office of Technology Assessment Fiscal Year 1996 Justification of Estimates, December 1994
This report contains justification for the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) estimated FY1996 budget request.
Assessing the Potential for Civil-Military Integration: Technologies, Processes, and Practices
This report responds to requests by the Senate and the House Armed Services Committees to investigate the potential for civil-military integration and the implications of such integration. It is divided into six chapters and five appendices.
Civilian Satellite Remote Sensing: A Strategic Approach
This report analyzes the case for developing a long-term, comprehensive strategic plan for civilian satellite remote sensing, and explores the elements of such a plan, if it were adopted. The report also enumerates many of the congressional decisions needed to ensure that future data needs will be satisfied.
The Department of Defense Kuwait Oil Health Fire Risk Assessment (The "Persian Gulf Veterans' Registry")
This paper describes briefly the work on DoD’s Kuwait Oil Fire Health Risk Assessment to date, including the results of a pilot study of health risks, and then answers the questions addressed to OTA in PL 102-585.
External Review of the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV Prevention Program: Summary and Overview
This report discusses the process for developing a comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention plan. Phase I established four general goals: 1) assess risks; 2) develop prevention technologies; 3) build p revention capacities; and 4) implement prevention programs. Phase II focused on four groups at increased risk for HIV infection: women and infants; injecting drug users; youth in high-risk situations; and men who have sex with men.
Federal Research and Technology for Aviation
This report focuses on research and technology policy issues for aviation operations: safety, security, environmental protection, and the air traffic system.
Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age 50 and Over
This background paper is one of four documents resulting from OTA’s study of policy issues in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Identifying Health Technologies That Work: Searching for Evidence
The purpose of this report is to examine two crucial questions: 1. What are we getting out of this investment? 2. How can we improve it?
Information Security and Privacy in Network Environments
This report focuses on policy issues in three areas: 1 ) national cryptography policy, including federal information processing standards and export controls; 2) guidance on safeguarding unclassified information in federal agencies; and 3) legal issues and information security, including electronic commerce, privacy, and intellectual property.
International Comparisons of Administrative Costs in Health Care
This paper examines what is known about administrative costs in the health care systems of the United States and several other countries. In addition to exploring the types of activities that constitute health care administration, it reviews studies that measure and compare these activities in different countries, and it explores the potential usefulness of such comparisons.
International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States
This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
Mental Disorders and Genetics: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Society
The report reviews data concerning the contribution of genetic factors to several severe mental disorders; described methodologies used in the studies, and broached several policy issues relevant to this area of research.
Multinationals and the U.S. Technology Base
This report discusses globalization in perspective, U.S. technology policy in international economic perspective, and other aspects of technological developments. The most technologically sophisticated and economically significant sectors of the U.S. economy are now characterized by high levels of international production, foreign direct investment, trade among affiliated companies, and complex forms of international financial and technological collaboration.
Perspectives on the Role of Science and Technology in Sustainable Development
This report examines an array of sustainable development definitions and discusses their common elements. Current agriculture, energy, and industry technologies are described as well as the strides being made in education, communication, and information technologies that could support sustainable development.
Perspectives on the role of science and technology in sustainable development
This report examines an array of sustainable development definitions and discusses their common elements.
Proliferation and the Former Soviet Union
This report is the fifth publication from OTA’S assessment on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of the Soviet Union’s breakup.
Public Information About Osteoporosis: What's Available, What's Needed?
This paper describes the existing public information about osteoporosis and discusses problems that limit its usefulness, including problems in the dissemination and targeting of information to different types of people who have or are at risk of the disease. It also discusses problems that arise because of the way research findings are presented in the mass media and the widespread dissemination of information about medications that are available on the market but have not been approved by the FDA for osteoporosis.
Remotely Sensed Data: Technology, Management and Markets
This report examines U.S. plans for managing the prodigious quantities of data expected from current, planned, and future remote sensing satellites. In particular, it explores the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, which NASA is developing to manage and process the data from its Earth Observing System of satellites. It also analyzes the factors affecting the growth of the market for privately generated remotely sensed data.
Review of the Medical Follow-Up Agency
This Background Paper summarizes OTA’s findings with regard to the three questions asked based on the workshop discussion as well as background information and discussions with various individuals before and after the workshop.
Studies of the Environmental Costs of Electricity
This report examines a set of environmental cost studies, compares and contrasts their methods and assumptions, and discusses how they could be made more useful to federal policy makers.
Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance Abuse and Addiction
This report has four parts. The first part focuses on several factors that are necessary for substance abuse and addiction to occur, including an examination of the biological research regarding the phenomenon of addiction to a variety of substances. The second part describes individual risk and protective factors that contribute to the abuse of, and addiction to, alcohol and drugs. The third part, looks at how risk and protective factors play out in subcultures and in major activity settings (home, school, workplace, and recreation), and assesses the effectiveness of various substance abuse prevention initiatives. The fourth section, addresses a range of legislative issues and options for Congress arising from an understanding of the factors leading to substance abuse and addiction.
Tools for Evaluating Health Technologies: Five Background Papers
This paper deals with one of the most basic questions in any health research endeavor: how to measure the outcomes associated with whatever is being studied. The paper describes in greater detail some of the research techniques discussed.
Universal Health Insurance and Uninsured People: Effects on Use and Cost
This report provides point estimates of the “access gap” in ambulatory health services contacts and inpatient hospital days per person using the best available data from three recent large national surveys of the U.S. population. The report also estimates the aggregate access gap for the U.S. and it estimates the implications for national health spending of providing universal health insurance coverage.
Virtual Reality and Technologies for Combat Simulation
This paper describes applications of synthetic-environment technologies in simulating combat. This background paper is the first of several publications of the OTA’S assessment of combat modeling and simulation.
Defensive Medicine and Medical Malpractice
This report discusses the medical malpractice system that has frequently been cited as a contributor to increasing health care costs and has been targeted in many health care reform proposals as a potential source of savings. The report first examines the nature of defensive medicine, adopting a working definition of defensive medicine that embraces the complexity of the problem from both the physician and broader public policy perspectives. Finally, it comments on the potential impact of a variety of medical malpractice reforms on the practice of defensive medicine.