Students make many choices over a long period, and choose a career through a complicated process. This process includes formal instruction in mathematics and science, and the opportunity for informal education in museums, science centers, and recreational programs. The influence of family, teachers, peers, and the electronic media can make an enormous difference. This memorandum analyzes these influences. Because education is “all one system, ” policymakers interested in nurturing scientists and engineers must address the educational environment as a totality; changing only one part of the system will not yield the desired result.
This technical memorandum explains, the United States has spent relatively little effort in applying them to operations. Just as important as cost saving technologies are appropriate management methods, or strategies, to put these technologies to work. In some cases, OTA has found, cost savings could be achieved by streamlining operations and reducing the burden of documentation and reporting requirements that have slowly expanded over the years.
This technical memorandum concludes that although the technology is available to create a mediasat system, the high cost and current low demand for remotely sensed data will limit media efforts to own and operate a dedicated remote sensing satellite system.
This technical memorandum is about problems arising out of success. Recent advances in medical technology have permitted sick children who once would have died to survive with the assistance of sophisticated equipment and intensive nursing care. Often, the assistance is needed for just a short time, but sometimes the dependence on life-sustaining technology is permanent. As technology for helping keep children alive has improved, a new population of technology-dependent children has emerged.
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the arguments for and against NLM's (National Library of Medicine) creation and dissemination of health-related bibliographic information" and "provides information designed to help Congress in decisions regarding the appropriate mix of NLM and private sector activities that might serve the public interest most efficiently" (p. iii).
A report on the mounting intensity of global competition in the 1980s that underscores the critical role played by the basic research enterprise of the United States. Basic research is the backbone of much of the technological development that has provided not only our economic prosperity, but improvements in health, a strong national defense, and exciting and fundamental advances in knowledge.
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "estimates plausible levels of world oil production to the year 2000 and assesses the factors likely to determine which levels are actually reached" (p. iii).
This memorandum is part of a larger assessment which will address the impact of advanced structural materials on the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing sector, and offer policy options for accelerating the commercial utilization of these materials.
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technical Assessment (OTA) that reviews the quality and relevance of activities at GML (Gorgas Memorial Laboratory), based on Gorgas' publishing record, an OTA-commissioned survey of GML's scientific reputation, a critical review of recent articles and current manuscripts, a comparison of GML's areas of effort with health problems in tropical America and with scientific opportunity, and a review of past scientific evaluations of GML (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the opportunities for the transfer of various energy technologies to China" and also "reviews the motivations for U.S. companies and other institutions for transferring technology and the vehicles for doing so" (p. iii).
This technical memorandum, requested by the Task Force on Science Policy of the House Committee on Science and Technology, provides a “snapshot” of factors affecting science in the 1980s, and focuses on emerging issues that will require consideration by Congress.
A technical memorandum prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that :is designed to help Congress determine the appropriate requirements and conditions for private sector ownership of the U.S. land remote-sensing system" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "identifies the participants in the Federal coal leasing program between 1950 and 1980, traces the ownership on a lease-by-lease basis, and discusses the business activities and organizational structures of the lessees [sic]" (p. iii).
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the nature and development of automation technologies (such as robotics, computer-aided design, and manufacturing, and automated materials handling, storage, and retrieval)" (p. iii).
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the future potential for production of all forms of natural gas in the U.S. Lower 48 States, emphasizing the time frame 1990-2000" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) published after UNISPACE '82, the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, that "constitutes a portion of a major assessment of international cooperation and competition in civilian space activities that was requested by these same committees" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "describes Federal activities that have taken place since 1979; reevaluates the 1979 cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia, including new information on vaccine efficacy; and discusses policy implications" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that presents "findings and conclusions regarding the role of the public and private research participants in the PHTME (postharvest technology and marketing economics) research, the benefits and burdens of PHTME research, trends in PHTME research funding, quality of PHTME research, and management of PHTME research in the public sector (p. iii).
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that addresses "basic issues surrounding a degree-of-hazard classification approach" and "various methods for applying a degree-of-hazard classification system" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that reviews "the present plan for the Ocean Margin Drilling program and addresses questions on the merits of the program and alternatives to it" and discusses "the institutional capability of the Federal agencies which are to manage this program; the technology development aspects, and the problems and opportunities associated with industry participation" (p. 3).
A report on fuel cell technology is one of the most promising of the new electric power technologies currently undergoing development. Fuel cell power systems have attracted attention because of their potential for high efficiency, low emissions, flexible use of fuels, and quietness. The Federal Government and the private sector have been funding fuel cell R&D for more than 20 years. The state-of-the-art has advanced to the point that fuel cell manufacturers hope to begin marketing fuel cells in just a few years. Full-scale demonstration plants are currently being designed.
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the "activities of the Veterans Administration (VA) regarding device development and procurement," specifically of medical devices (p. iii).
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) addressing "the major technical, economic, environmental and social factors related to production and use" (Issues and Findings). Gasohol is a mixture of one part ethanol and nine parts unleaded gasoline.
A case study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the technical basis for, and validity of, the habitability decision for the emergency declaration area near Love Canal" (p. iii).
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that specifies what a federal program that compensates "vaccinees injured as a result of being vaccinated in public immunization programs" might look like (p. iii).
A memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that reviews the "United States Postal Service (USPS) decision to utilizes single-line optical character readers (OCRs) instead of multi-line OCRs" and conducts "a comparative technical and economic analysis of the two technologies in the context of the overall postal automation program" (Foreward).
A review by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of "the recent and proposed activities of the Public Health Service (PHS) in response to AIDS" and an evaluation of "the planning, resources and staffing of PHS's efforts to control AIDS" (p. iii).
This OTA technical memorandum reviews key factors that influence U.S. trade in agriculture. It is part of a larger OTA project that analyzes the effects of technological change on both international trade and the structure of the domestic economy. Despite basic structural changes in the economy of the United States in recent years, agriculture and food production remain important parts of this country’s economic framework.
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), which "has undertaken a study of the presence of Soviets in space and their Salyut space stations, in order to provide Congress with an informed view of Soviet capabilities and intentions" (p. iii).
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that discusses the "major issues constraining the development and transfer of sustainable technologies for low-resource food producers" (p. iii).
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