Office of Technology Assessment - 72 Matching Results

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Quarterly Report to the Technology Assessment Board, October 1 - December 31, 1988
This is a quarterly report detailing the budget and progress of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Quarterly Report to the Technology Assessment Board, April 1 - June 30, 1989
This is a quarterly report detailing the budget and progress of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Quarterly Report to the Technology Assessment Board, January 1 - March 31, 1989
This is a quarterly report detailing the budget and progress of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Process, Prescience, and Pragmatism: The Office of Technology Assessment
This report discusses the history and function of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) as it stood in November 1989, focusing on the benefit of the OTA's function as a practical analysis tool concerning technological issues.
Quarterly Report to the Technology Assessment Board, July 1 - September 30, 1989
This is a quarterly report detailing the budget and progress of the Office of Technology Assessment.
Office of Technology Assessment Fiscal Year 1991 Justification of Estimates, December 20, 1989
This report contains justification for the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) estimated FY1991 budget request.
Quarterly Report to the Technology Assessment Board, October 1 - December 31, 1989
This quarterly report includes formal assessments, technical memoranda, background papers, testimony, staff papers, and administrative documents for the Technology Assessment Board.
OTA Vertical File
Indexing document by file number.
Statistical Needs for a Changing U.S. Economy
The background paper does not attempt to provide a comprehensive critique of national statistics and does not introduce new research designed to solve the technical problems. It is, instead, designed to show how defects in the existing statistical system can limit our understanding of key economic issues and to demonstrate the ways that better management and coordination of America’s statistical agencies can lead to concrete improvements.
Big Dumb Boosters: A Low-Cost Space Transportation Option?
This background paper describes and examines a launch vehicle concept commonly known as the “Big Dumb Booster,” a concept that derives from efforts first made in the 1960s to minimize costs of space launch systems. Some launch system analysts believe that the use of this concept, when applied to existing technology, could markedly reduce space transportation costs. Other analysts disagree.
Biological Effects of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields
This background report responds to a request by the Subcommittee on Water and Power Resources of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. The subcommittee asked that OTA review the health effects of high-voltage transmission lines. To provide background information for its assessment on electric power wheeling, OTA contracted with the Carnegie-Mellon University.
Federal Scientific and Technical Information in an Electronic Age: Opportunities and Challenges
This report addresses several questions regarding the dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). The paper answers these questions within a framework for an overall strategy on STI dissemination, and identifies key elements that could be useful in such a strategy.
High Performance Computing and Networking for Science
This background paper explores key issues concerning the Federal role in supporting national high performance computing facilities and in developing a national research and education network.
Higher Education for Science and Engineering
This background paper focuses on the end point of educational preparation for science and engineering careers — undergraduate and graduate study. It places the issue of future supply in the broad cultural context of changing demographics, labor market adjustments, and intervention policies.
Performance Standards for Secondary School Vocational Education
This Background Paper contains the results of OTA’s analysis. Throughout the study OTA sought and received the assistance of many individuals and organizations in the business, education, and government communities. Their thoughtful contributions and criticisms were invaluable, although their participation does not necessarily reflect their endorsement of the contents of the report, for which OTA bears sole responsibility.
Safer Skies with TCAS: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System: A Special Report
This special report contains the results of OTA’s assessment. It also provides an admirable example of cooperative effort on the part of all segments of the aviation community in providing information to OTA and working to develop a common solution for a number of difficult issues.
Advanced Vehicle/Highway Systems and Urban Traffic Problems
A report on Advanced Vehicle/Highway Systems (AVHS),as an umbrella term for several interdependent vehicle and road technologies, that offers potential for reducing congestion and the air pollution it engenders, and for improving highway safety.
A Computerized Database of Information on OTA Publications
This document describes a computerized database for OTA collection called index QuOTAtion.
Polar Prospects: A Minerals Treaty for Antarctica
This report identifies U.S. interests in Antarctica and evaluates the Minerals Convention relative to these interests. It examines the status of knowledge about the resources of Antarctica, the potential impacts of minerals development, and the technical, economic, environmental, geological, and political constraints to development in Antarctica.
Round Trip to Orbit: Human Spaceflight Alternatives
This special report examines a wide range of potential improvements to the Space Shuttle, explores the future of space transportation for humans, and presents policy options for congressional consideration. It is one of a series of products from abroad assessment of space transportation technologies undertaken by OTA, requested by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology.
Rural Emergency Medical Services: special report
This report finds that many State EMS systems are fragmented and lacking resources to remedy EMS problems in rural areas. Many rural EMS programs lack specialized EMS providers, have inadequate EMS transportation and communications equipment, and are not part of a planned regional EMS system. The report describes the availability and distribution of emergency medical service (EMS) resources (e.g., personnel, transportation, facilities) and examines how limited Federal resources can be used to improve rural EMS. In addition, the report discusses how Federal EMS resources might be targeted to States’ rural areas.
Technologies for Reducing Dioxin in the Manufacture of Bleached Wood Pulp
As analytical technology improves, we are discovering dioxins associated with many products commonly found in the home and workplace. This report provides an assessment of these technologies; it does not address the policy issues related to regulating dioxin in paper products and controlling environmental release.
Technology Transfer to the United States: The MIT-Japan Science and Technology Program
On September 13, 1988, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Japan Science and Technology Program (JSTP) held a one-day workshop to discuss MIT’s Japan Science and Technology Program’s internship program and its technical language workshop. This document gives a brief description the MIT-Japan Science and Technology of Program. It then reports the principal themes and issues raised at the workshop.
Electric Power Wheeling and Dealing: Technological Considerations for Increasing Competition
This assessment analyzes how the Nation’s power systems could accommodate various proposals for competition intended to make the electric power industry more responsive to market forces. Operation of an electric power system is extremely complex, and increased competition could have serious effects on costs and reliability if not implemented carefully. The assessment identifies the technical requirements that must be met to keep the system working well as the level of competition increases, and determines how competitive enterprises could meet these requirements.
Enhancing the Quality of U.S. Grain for International Trade
Congress amended the Food Security Act of 1985 and directed the Office of Technology Assessment to conduct a comprehensive study of the technologies, institutions, and policies that affect U.S. grain quality and to prepare a comparative analysis of the grain quality systems of major export competitors of the United States. It focuses on the U.S. grain system and possible changes within that system to enhance grain quality.
Facing America's Trash: What Next for Municipal Solid Waste?
This report discusses options for a national policy based on the dual strategies of MSW prevention and better management. It also presents options to address immediate problems such as increased interstate shipments of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and unfinished Federal guidelines for landfills and incinerators.
Grain Quality in International Trade: A Comparison of Major U.S. Competitors
This report is one of two that the Office of Technology Assessment completed in an assessment of the issues in grain quality for Congress. The first, Enhancing the Quality of U.S. Grain in International Trade, focuses on the U.S. grain system and possible changes within that system to enhance grain quality. To consider this issue fully, it is important to understand the grain systems of major competitors, a subject covered in this report.
Adolescent Health Insurance Status: Analyses of Trends in Coverage and Preliminary Estimates of the Effects of an Employer Mandate and Medicaid Expansion on the Uninsured
This report examines the health insurance status of adolescents (10 to 18 years of age) based on census data. It considers the reasons that some adolescents are insured and others are not, changes in the number of uninsured adolescents over time, and the effects of various approaches to ensure that more adolescents have insurance.
Assessing Contractor Use in Superfund: a background paper of OTA's assessment on Superfund implementation
This report addresses five key questions; to what extent is superfund dependent on contractors? Why depend on contracting to such a great extent? Is the extent of superfund’s dependence on contracting appropriate? Does the extent of superfund’s dependence on contracting reduce environmental effectiveness? Is superfund’s heavy dependence on contracting cost effective?
Catching Our Breath: Next Steps for Reducing Urban Ozone
This report on urban ozone was requested by the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, and its Subcommittee on Health and the Environment in anticipation of the upcoming reauthorization of the Clean Air Act. Of the air pollutants that the Act covers, ozone has been the most difficult to bring under control; it may well be the most expensive.
Coming Clean: Superfund Problems Can Be Solved...
In this report, OTA concludes that there is ample reason to be optimistic about the potential of the Superfund program and presents a number of possible strategic initiatives and incremental program changes in some detail. As difficult as the national cleanup job is, there are many ways to build a better balance between health and environmental needs and the limitations that technology, experience, and economics will always impose.
Linking for Learning: A New Course for Education
This report discusses the development of telecommunications technologies and the study of distance learning. OTA was asked to analyze various technological options, examine current development, and identify how Federal, State and local policies could encourage more efficient and effective use.
Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: The Technology and the Alaskan Oil Context
This report presents the results of an assessment of a subset of these issues focusing in particular on: the oilfield technology being used to develop the Alaskan North Slope’s oil resources and the likely configuration of that technology as it might be applied in the future to the coastal plain; and the prospects for future North Slope oil production, especially the likelihood that the flow of oil through the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System will suffer a serious decline during the next decade.
Partnerships Under Pressure: Managing Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste
This report provides an overview of progress made by nine compacts and the remaining unaffiliated States in developing disposal facilities. Disposal costs have more than tripled while LLW volumes have dropped by more than half over the last decade. Since many costs associated with developing and operating a disposal facility are fixed, unit disposal costs will increase substantially as new facilities open. This may lead States to consider the economics of cooperative arrangements, which would permit them to trade waste services and construct fewer full-service disposal facilities.
New Developments in Biotechnology: Patenting Life
This report reviews U.S. patent law as it relates to the patentability of micro-organisms, cells, plants, and animals; as well as specific areas of concern, including deposit requirements and international considerations. The report includes a range of options for congressional action related to the patenting of animals, intellectual property protection for plants, and enablement of patents involving biological material.
Competition in Coastal Seas: An Evaluation of Foreign Maritime Activities in the 200-Mile EEZ
This background paper reviews the status of the major sectors of the maritime industry engaged in EEZ activities and notes the significant trends. Basic data on the major sectors were first prepared for OTA by the Maritime Administration. OTA then conducted a survey of industry and other interested parties and prepared the analyses in the paper.
The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions
This special report reviews the safety of the nuclear testing program and assesses the technical procedures used to test nuclear weapons and ensure that radioactive material produced by test explosions remains contained underground. An overall evaluation considers the acceptability of the remaining risk and discusses reasons for the lack of public confidence.
Copyright and Home Copying: Technology Challenges the Law
This report first examines home recording technologies. Then—focusing primarily on audiotaping—we examine the ambiguous legal status of home copying. Our report considers the economic effects that home audiotaping may have on the recording industry, contrasted to the effects that restricting home taping might have on consumers. Finally, we identify a range of actions that either Congress or the industry might pursue.
Defining "Rural" Areas: Impact on Health Care Policy and Research
This paper examines dichotomous designations used to define rural and urban areas and discusses how they are applied in certain Federal programs. In addition, several topologies are described that are useful in showing the diversity that exists within rural areas.
Holding the Edge: Maintaining the Defense Technology Base
This report examines the management of DoD technology base programs and laboratories. It also analyzes the process through which technology is introduced into defense systems, in order to understand why it takes so long and what might be done to speed the process up. Finally, this report examines the exploitation of civilian commercial sector technology for defense needs. It concentrates on the dual questions of expediting military access to civilian technology and keeping the necessary base of technology alive and well in the United States.
Costs and Effectiveness of Cholesterol Screening in the Elderly
This paper reviews the evidence that elevation of serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the elderly and that the detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in an elderly individual who does not have clinically apparent heart disease will diminish overall morbidity or mortality. It also estimates health care expenditures associated with screening and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in the elderly.
The Use of Preventive Services by the Elderly
This paper reviews both new and previously published data on the proportions of elderly currently receiving a variety of preventive health services; we examine factors associated with whether the elderly receive these services; and we analyze the likely implications for Medicare if preventive health services were offered as covered benefits.
Life sustaining technologies and the elderly: legal issues: Federal Republic of Germany
This report discusses the legal issues in regard to life sustaining technologies and the elderly in the Federal Republic of Germany.
New developments in neuroscience: neural transplants and nerve regeneration technologies: ethical issues: final draft
The focal point of this report is elaboration of the metaphysical and ethical issues raised by neural transplants.
Legal and regulatory issues for neural grafts
This report discusses the use of neural grafts from fetuses that is showing some success for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
The immunological aspects of neural grafting
This report starts out with an overview of the immune system, describes the central nervous system (CNS), and future consideration.
Composting technologies, costs, programs, and markets
This report provides an overview of the technology of composting which involves three major steps: 1) the preparation of the raw material, 2) the compost process itself, and 3) the grading of the final product.
Transplantation of adrenal tissue into the nervous system
This report the transplantation of adrenal medullary tissue to the nervous system.
Reconstructing the brain: new strategies for brain disease
This report the use of new methods in molecular biology in the transplant process to arrest or correct brain disease. The report discusses the nature and consequences of these new methods for brain transplant technology.
New developments in neuroscience: historical and ethical issues in neural transplants
This report investigates neuroscience, it explores the social and intellectual context surrounding advances in neurosciences.