Office of Technology Assessment - 183 Matching Results

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The Office of Technology Assessment and Congressional Policymaking
This paper describes the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and its relationship with Congress in developing technology-related policy.
Office of Technology Assessment List of Publications, September 1985
A catalog of Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) documents published through 1985.
Technology Assessment Seminar
Summary of the Technology Assessment Seminar proceedings held on September 21 and 22, 1968, regarding the importance of technology assessment, development, and responsibility in an increasingly technology-dependent society. Attendees consisted of Members of Congress and various technology experts and scholars .
An Experiment in Technology Policy-Making: Fifteen Years of the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, September 30, 1987
This report discusses the history and function of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and how, by the year of publication, the OTA had become very beneficial to Members of the U.S. Congress.
OTA Management Retreat
Report by the OTA staff development group at the Wye retreat.
Informational Technology and Its Impact on American Education : summary
This report documents two sets of conclusions: the impact of the information revolution driven by rapid advances in communication and computer technology, and how information technology can improve and enrich education.
MEDLARS and Health Information Policy
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the arguments for and against NLM's (National Library of Medicine) creation and dissemination of health-related bibliographic information" and "provides information designed to help Congress in decisions regarding the appropriate mix of NLM and private sector activities that might serve the public interest most efficiently" (p. iii).
Mental Disorders and Genetics: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Society
The report reviews data concerning the contribution of genetic factors to several severe mental disorders; described methodologies used in the studies, and broached several policy issues relevant to this area of research.
Multinationals and the U.S. Technology Base
This report discusses globalization in perspective, U.S. technology policy in international economic perspective, and other aspects of technological developments. The most technologically sophisticated and economically significant sectors of the U.S. economy are now characterized by high levels of international production, foreign direct investment, trade among affiliated companies, and complex forms of international financial and technological collaboration.
MX Missile Basing
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines a new intercontinental ballistic missile known as the MX, identifies MX basing modes and assesses "the major advantages, disadvantages, risks, and uncertainties of each" (p. 3).
Education and Technology: Future Visions
This paper summarizes the workshop discussion and contains the commissioned papers in their entirety. In June 1995, the contractors and a number of other prominent educators were invited to OTA for an all-day workshop to discuss these papers and the issues more broadly.
The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts
The report discusses trends in numbers of AIDS cases, approaches to AIDS prevention--changing behavior, efforts designed for the American people as a whole, and preventing AIDS among different groups.
The Effectiveness of Research and Experimentation Tax Credits
This report assesses how well the research and experimentation R&E tax credit is currently understood, identifies inadequacies in the existing data and analyses, investigates implementation issues, considers the tax credit in the context of corporate R&D trends and Federal R&D policy more broadly, draws appropriate international comparisons, and specifies important avenues for further research.
The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: Implications for Controlling AIDS/HIV Infection
This Background Paper examines the evidence of the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment; it also evaluates the role that such treatment might play in reducing the spread of HIV. Because most intravenous drug users are not in treatment, the paper also examines other approaches to HIV prevention among this high-risk group.
Effects of Information Technology on Financial Services Systems
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "describes the technologies now and likely to be available to providers and users of financial services" (p. iii).
Electronic Bulls and Bears: U.S. Securities Markets and Information Technology
This report responds to requests by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the House Committee on Government Operations to assess the role that communication and information technologies play in the securities markets. The Committee desired a benchmark for gauging progress made toward the national market system envisioned by the 1975 Act. This report assesses the current use of information technology by U.S. securities exchanges and over-the-counter dealers, by related futures and options markets, and by associated industries and regulatory agencies.
Replacing Gasoline: Alternative Fuels for Light-Duty Vehicles
In this report OTA gives a broad overview of the qualities of the competing fuels and examines in depth some of the most contentious issues associated with the wisdom of active Federal support for introducing the fuels. Areas of uncertainty that affect the debate on Federal support include fuel cost (including costs of building new infrastructure and modifying vehicles); the air quality effects of the new fuels; effects on energy security; other environmental impacts of the fuels; and consumer acceptance of the changes in vehicle performance, refueling procedures, costs, and other facets of the transportation system that would follow a large-scale introduction of any of the fuels. The report singles out for special examination the arguments concerning the costs, energy security implications, and air quality impacts of introducing methanol fuels into the fleet.
Renewing Our Energy Future
This report evaluates the potential for cost-effective renewable energy in the coming decades and the actions that have to be taken to achieve the potential.
A Review of Alternative Approaches to Federal Funding of Rail Rehabilitation
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that is part of a plan to restructure the railroads of the Northeast. It "provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of alternative approaches to federal assistance for the rehabilitation of the nation's railroad fixed plant" (p. xiv).
International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States
This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
Issue Update on Information Security and Privacy in Network Environments
This paper updates and develops some key issues that OTA had identified in its earlier report, in light of recent developments in the private sector and in government.
Impacts of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: Thanks to penicillin-- He will come home!
This report discusses what is known about the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and describes research and development aimed at controlling those organisms. It concludes that efforts are necessary both to preserve the effectiveness of currently available antibiotics and to develop new antibiotics. It discusses issues that arise in these activities, and it presents options for taking action.
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 1: Methodological Issues and Literature Review
A background paper for an assessment for the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that closely looks at methodology and cost-effectiveness in the health care industry.
Impact of Health Reform on Rural Areas: Lessons From the States
This paper examines: 1) the effects of insurance market reforms--measures intended to make the market more equitable, or to make health care more affordable to those without insurance 2) the effects of reforms aimed at the health care delivery system.
Worker Training: Competing in the New International Economy
This report focuses on the training given to employed workers both from the standpoint of the competitiveness of U.S. industry and from the standpoint of the individual worker who may need training to advance. Most workers who get training get it from their employer, and much of the report looks at the employer provided training system. The message of this report is that the debate about national training policies needs to be broadened to encompass not only training programs for the economically disadvantaged, the displaced worker, or people with special needs, but also those who stand on the front line of American productivity-employed workers at all levels.
New structural materials technologies: opportunities for the use of advanced ceramics and composites
This memorandum is part of a larger assessment which will address the impact of advanced structural materials on the competitiveness of the U.S. manufacturing sector, and offer policy options for accelerating the commercial utilization of these materials.
Public Information About Osteoporosis: What's Available, What's Needed?
This paper describes the existing public information about osteoporosis and discusses problems that limit its usefulness, including problems in the dissemination and targeting of information to different types of people who have or are at risk of the disease. It also discusses problems that arise because of the way research findings are presented in the mass media and the widespread dissemination of information about medications that are available on the market but have not been approved by the FDA for osteoporosis.
Pulling Together for Productivity: A Union-Management Initiative at US West, Inc.
This report is a case study which points to an alternative that benefits both workers and the firm. In this report OTA finds that the Home and Personal Services Division of U S WEST, Inc. has increased revenues, eliminated unnecessary work, and improved customer service.
Energy from Biological Processes: Volume 2-Technical and Environmental Analyses
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at the potential for biomass resources, which includes plant species and different types of human waste. This volume gives a technical and environmental analysis on the topic that complements the first volume.
Energy Technology Transfer to China
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the opportunities for the transfer of various energy technologies to China" and also "reviews the motivations for U.S. companies and other institutions for transferring technology and the vehicles for doing so" (p. iii).
Environmental Monitoring for Nuclear Safeguards
This report discusses the traditional mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s traditional mission, that is to detect the misuse of known nuclear materials and facilities addressed only part—and probably not the most important part—of the proliferation problem.
Reducing Earthquake Losses
This report assesses the state of the knowledge, identifies key future challenges in each of the three components of earthquake risk reduction—earth science, engineering, and implementation—and offers policy options to improve federal efforts.
Remotely Sensed Data: Technology, Management and Markets
This report examines U.S. plans for managing the prodigious quantities of data expected from current, planned, and future remote sensing satellites. In particular, it explores the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, which NASA is developing to manage and process the data from its Earth Observing System of satellites. It also analyzes the factors affecting the growth of the market for privately generated remotely sensed data.
External Review of the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV Prevention Program: Summary and Overview
This report discusses the process for developing a comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention plan. Phase I established four general goals: 1) assess risks; 2) develop prevention technologies; 3) build p revention capacities; and 4) implement prevention programs. Phase II focused on four groups at increased risk for HIV infection: women and infants; injecting drug users; youth in high-risk situations; and men who have sex with men.
Environmental Policy Tools: A User's Guide
This report describes 12 policy tools, and how and where they are currently used. This “user’s guide” presents a framework to help decision-makers narrow down the choice of instruments for addressing a particular problem.
Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance Abuse and Addiction
This report has four parts. The first part focuses on several factors that are necessary for substance abuse and addiction to occur, including an examination of the biological research regarding the phenomenon of addiction to a variety of substances. The second part describes individual risk and protective factors that contribute to the abuse of, and addiction to, alcohol and drugs. The third part, looks at how risk and protective factors play out in subcultures and in major activity settings (home, school, workplace, and recreation), and assesses the effectiveness of various substance abuse prevention initiatives. The fourth section, addresses a range of legislative issues and options for Congress arising from an understanding of the factors leading to substance abuse and addiction.
Technologies for underwater archaeology & maritime preservation
This background paper describes and assesses the role of technology in underwater archaeology and historic maritime preservation. As several underwater projects have recently demonstrated, advanced technology, often developed for other uses, plays an increasingly important role in the discovery and recovery of historic shipwrecks and their contents.
Technology Transfer to the Middle East
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "clarifies the policy issues surrounding technology transfer to developing countries, by highlighting tradeoffs among various commercial, political, and development assistance policy goals, and by suggesting options for more consistent policies affecting technology transfer to developing countries" (p. iii).
Biologically Based Technologies for Pest Control
This report covers technologies ranging from enhanced biological control of pests by their natural predators and parasites to commercial formulations of microbial pesticides. These technologies are grounded in an understanding of pest biology and have a relatively low probability of harmful effects on human health or the environment.
Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker
This report discusses biological rhythms: what they are, how they are controlled by the brain, and the role they play in regulating physiological and cognitive functions. The major focus of the report is the examination of the effects of nonstandard work hours on biological rhythms and how these effects can interact with other factors to affect the health, performance, and safety of workers.
Statistical Needs for a Changing U.S. Economy
The background paper does not attempt to provide a comprehensive critique of national statistics and does not introduce new research designed to solve the technical problems. It is, instead, designed to show how defects in the existing statistical system can limit our understanding of key economic issues and to demonstrate the ways that better management and coordination of America’s statistical agencies can lead to concrete improvements.
Status of Biomedical Research and Related Technology for Tropical Diseases
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examining the "status of biomedical research and technologies for controlling tropical diseases" (p. iii).
Strategies for Medical Technology Assessment
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the present system of identifying and testing medical technologies and of synthesizing and disseminating assessment information" (p. iii).
Ballistic Missile Defense Technologies
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the "opportunities and risks involved in an accelerated program of research on new ballistic missile defense technologies, including those that might lead to deployment of weapons in space" (Foreward).
Wireless Technologies and the National Information Infrastructure
This report examines the role wireless technologies will play in the emerging National Information Infrastructure (NII) and identifies the challenges that policymakers, regulators, and wireless service providers will face as they begin to more closely integrate wireless systems with existing wireline networks. The report also discusses some of the technical and social implications of the widespread use of wireless technologies— paying particular attention to the profound changes that wireless systems may cause in patterns of mobility.
U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the future potential for production of all forms of natural gas in the U.S. Lower 48 States, emphasizing the time frame 1990-2000" (p. iii).
U.S. Vulnerability to an Oil Import Curtailment: The Oil Replacement Capability
A report by Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes energy supply and demand technologies which can replace large amounts of oil within 5 years after the onset of a major oil supply shortfall, occurring within the next few years and accompanied by a large and enduring increase in oil prices" (p. iii).
Unconventional Cancer Treatments
This report describes the unconventional cancer treatments that are most used by U.S. cancer patients; it describes the way in which people find out about them and how much they pay for them; reviews the claims made for them and the information base in support of the claims; suggests possible ways of generating valid information about their safety and effectiveness; and presents the legal issues surrounding unconventional treatments that have brought civil and criminal litigation to bear on the subject.
Universal Health Insurance and Uninsured People: Effects on Use and Cost
This report provides point estimates of the “access gap” in ambulatory health services contacts and inpatient hospital days per person using the best available data from three recent large national surveys of the U.S. population. The report also estimates the aggregate access gap for the U.S. and it estimates the implications for national health spending of providing universal health insurance coverage.
The Use of Integrity Tests for Pre-Employment Screening
This report discusses the definition of honesty and integrity tests defined by OTA. The definition does not necessarily resolve ambiguities over the universe of tests that should be considered integrity tests. Controversy surrounds the meanings of integrity and honesty in the workplace; there is disagreement over whether integrity tests differ from other personnel tests in design or in the kinds of inferences they support; and there is little relative information on how integrity and honesty tests are actually used in hiring decisions.