Office of Technology Assessment - 58 Matching Results

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Quality and Relevance of Research and Related Activities at the Gorges Memorial Laboratory
A technical memorandum by the Office of Technical Assessment (OTA) that reviews the quality and relevance of activities at GML (Gorgas Memorial Laboratory), based on Gorgas' publishing record, an OTA-commissioned survey of GML's scientific reputation, a critical review of recent articles and current manuscripts, a comparison of GML's areas of effort with health problems in tropical America and with scientific opportunity, and a review of past scientific evaluations of GML (p. iii).
Use of Models for Water Resources Management, Planning, and Policy
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of "the Nation's ability to use models more efficiently and effectively analyze and solve our water resource problems" (p. iii).
Review of the Federal Aviation Administration 1982 National Airspace System Plan
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines the January 1982 plan by the National Airspace System (NAS), which "attempts to integrate the various improvements into a single long-range program that addresses major shortcomings and reduces costs of the current system" (p. 3).
The Impact of Randomized Clinical Trials on Health Policy and Medical Practice: Background Paper
A background paper by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that brings together "the literature and current views about the actual and potential role of RCTS (randomized clinical trials) in decisionmaking about medical technologies" (Preface).
Open Shelf-Life Dating of Food
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes "consumers' perspectives on open-date labeling; benefits and costs; alternative systems and techniques; alternative criteria and scientific tests to establish open dates; enforcement mechanisms and liability related to open-date labeling; and options available to Congress" (p. 1).
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes the "feasibility, implications, and usefulness of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis in health care decisionmaking" (p. iii).
Impact of a Department of Education on Federal Science & Technology Activities
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examining "a range of congressional options available for ensuring the integrity of the educational process for professional scientists and engineers is maintained" during the creation of the Department of Education (p. iii).
Technology and the Future of the U.S. Construction Industry: Proceedings of the Panel on Technical Change and the U.S. Building Construction Industry
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the construction industry and technology that is reshaping the industry and what impacts these technologies might have.
Alternative Approaches to Cargo Policy: A Supplement to an Assessment of Maritime Trade and Technology
Proceedings from a conference that covers the topics "1) the effects of cargo policies now in force; 2) the status of new policies under consideration by the United States and its various trading partners; and 3) costs and benefits of existing, proposed and alternative policies" (p. iii)
Railroad Safety—U.S.-Canadian Comparison
This report represents a significant cooperative effort on the part of Canadian and U.S. Government agencies, railroads, and labor groups in creating mutual understanding of railroad safety policy and programs.
Police Body Armor Standards and Testing, Vol. I
This report discusses the standards for body-armor. The report describes the origin of the standard, the rationale for particular provisions, and the main points of controversy, which concern acceptable risks, the validity and discrimination of the test, and the reproducibility of results.
Accessibility and Integrity of Networked Information Collections
The paper begins with a survey of recent developments in networked information resources and tools to identify, navigate, and use such resources. The paper then discusses the changing legal framework that governs use of electronic information as contract law rather than simple sale within the context of copyright law becomes the dominant model for acquiring access to electronic information.
The Chemical Weapons Convention: Effects on the U.S. Chemical Industry
This paper explores the multifaceted challenge of integrating a private, primarily civil industry into the global arms-control regime established by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
U.S. Telecommunications Services in European Markets
This report discusses on telecommunications entering European markets as not just a set of tradable services, but also a basic function of society, essential for effective governance social cohesion, and economic viability’ and equity.
Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks
This report describes what nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons can do, analyzes the consequences of their spread for the United States and the world, and summarizes technical aspects of monitoring and controlling their production. This report also explains the array of policy tools that can be used to combat proliferation, identifying tradeoffs and choices that confront policymakers.
OTA Special Report: Continuing the Commitment: Agricultural Development in the Sahel
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the record of assistance to nine nations of the Sahel in West Africa, explores the lessons learned in a decade of efforts, and suggests policy implications for more effective U.S. assistance there and elsewhere in Africa" (p. iii).
Ocean incineration: its role in managing hazardous waste
This assessment of ocean incineration includes consideration of the adequacy of regulations; risks to human health and the marine environment relative to the risks of comparable activities; existing and emerging alternatives; the capabilities and limitations of ocean incineration in managing hazardous wastes; and how its use might affect efforts to develop superior waste treatment and reduction practices. Particular attention is addressed to areas of intense public concern over the use of this technology.
Impacts of Technology on U.S. Cropland and Rangeland Productivity
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment that "describes the major processes degrading land productivity, assesses whether productivity is sustaining using current agricultural technologies, reviews a range of new technologies with potentials to maintain productivity and profitability simultaneously, and presents a series of options for congressional consideration" (p. iii).
Implications of Electronic Mail and Message Systems for the U.S. Postal Service
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at how "advances in technology and increased competition in the communications marketplace will significantly affect USPS finances, service levels, and labor force requirements over the next two decades" (p. xi).
The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 10: The Costs and Effectiveness of Neonatal Intensive Care
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at the cost effectiveness and policies of neonatal intensive care.
Patent-Term Extension and the Pharmaceutical Industry
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the relationships between patent-term extension and pharmaceutical innovation," paying special attention to social implications of patent-term extension (p. iii).
Impact of Advanced Air Transport Technology: Part 4: Financing and Program Alternatives for Advanced High-Speed Aircraft
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines the potential financial and managerial barriers to carrying out-at some future date-a large-scale program to create a new high-speed, long-range commercial air transport employing new technology" (p. iii).
Food Information Systems: Summary and Analysis
A study done by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) intended to "review food information systems in order to isolate and evaluate those significant to the development of food legislation and related congressional policymaking" (p. xi).
A Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Environmental Research Outlook FY 1976 Through 1980
A review by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of a previous report by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The review closely examines the proposals in the five-year plan regarding national environmental goals.
Analysis of the Proposed National Energy Plan
A report prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of an analysis of the proposed national energy plan.
An Assessment of Alternative Economic Stockpiling Policies
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that focuses on analyzing the "materials problems related to sudden discontinuities in the long-range supply/demand of a given material, resulting in complete or partial disruptions and abrupt price changes" (p. vii).
Development of Medical Technology: Opportunities for Assessment
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examining the human and financial costs to the healthcare system caused by research and development. It "discusses possibilities for and obstacles to assessing the social impacts of new medical technologies during the stages of research and development that precede their wiespread acceptance" (p. 3).
Government Involvement in the Innovation Process: A Contractor's Report to the Office of Technology Assessment
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment covering "the relationship between Government action and technological innovation in the civilian sector of the U.S. economy" (p. 3).
Wood Use: U.S. Competitiveness and Technology: Vol. 1
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "surveys the contribution of the forest products industry to the U.S. economy, the ability of the industry and the U.S. forest resource to satisfy expected domestic demands for wood, the competitiveness of U.S. Forest products on world markets, and the role of technology in stretching the U.S. forest resource and providing products that satisfy domestic needs as well as international markets" (p. iii).
Airport System Development
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "examines present conditions and future needs of the Nation's airports, with emphasis on possible solutions to problems of operational capacity and air travel delay" (p. iii).
Health Technology Case Study Twenty-four: Variations in Hospital Length of Stay: Their Relationship to Health Outcomes
A case study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines "the evidence on variations in lengths of hospital stay and their relation to health outcomes" (p. 3).
Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. II: Evidence on Benefits, Risks, and Costs
This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume provides the basis for the assumptions about the costs and effects of screening and hormonal replacement therapy used in the cost-effectiveness model.
Coverage of Laser Technology by Health Insurers
This paper presents some empirical information on how insurers consider payment for new medical devices. It describes the survey results of medical directors affiliated with private health insurers about their coverage decisions using, as examples, three applications of lasers: laser angioplasty for opening narrowed or blocked coronary arteries; laser discectomy for treating herniated intervertebral discs; and photodynamic therapy (using a light–sensitive dye) for bladder cancer.
Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology
These readings explore the historical, theoretical, methodological, and institutional aspects of assessment. Many of these publications represent early efforts to probe the concept and methodologies of the assessment function.
Telecommunications Technology and Native Americans: Opportunities and Challenges
The report discusses the opportunities for Native Americans to use telecommunications (including computer networking, videoconferencing, multimedia, digital and wireless technologies, and the like) in the realms of culture, education, health care, economic development, and governance.
The Lower Tiers of the Space Transportation Industrial Base
This background paper was prompted by a workshop held at OTA in early March 1995, at which a small group, representing a broad cross-section of lower-tier firms, discussed their views of the space transportation industry.
Solar Power Satellites
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that assesses the potential of the solar power satellite (SPS) as a source of energy, looking at four alternative SPS systems and at their "technical characteristics, long-term energy supply potential, international and military implications, environmental impacts, and institutional effects" (p. iii).
Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. I: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume presents the results of a model that estimates the cost per year of life gained from osteoporosis screening and hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.
Cystic Fibrosis and DNA Tests: Implications of Carrier Screening
This report concludes that the value of the cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier test is the information it provides. No one can estimate in common terms what it means to an individual to possess information about his or her genetic status, especially when the value concerns reproductive decision-making. As our knowledge of the human genome increases, what we do with information such as CF carrier status will depend on the perceptions and beliefs of all Americans.
Round Trip to Orbit: Human Spaceflight Alternatives
This special report examines a wide range of potential improvements to the Space Shuttle, explores the future of space transportation for humans, and presents policy options for congressional consideration. It is one of a series of products from abroad assessment of space transportation technologies undertaken by OTA, requested by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology.
Medical Testing and Health Insurance
Tests to identify individuals who are likely to develop serious diseases are being rapidly developed. Some of these tests are directed at diseases for which there are presently no known therapies, thereby raising questions over the social consequences of identifying susceptible persons. This assessment examines existing and developing medical tests and their current and potential uses by health insurers and employers.
Artificial insemination: practice in the United States: summary of a 1987 survey
This background paper presents the results of a study of physician and sperm bank practice of artificial insemination in the United States. It documents the number of women undergoing artificial insemination each year, the annual cost, medical and social screening criteria for women seeking artificial insemination and men who donate semen, the genealogical recordkeeping available to the resulting children, and physician attitudes toward possible changes in artificial insemination practice.
Space stations and the law: selected legal issues
This report suggests that Congress need not wait for the completion of the current governmental negotiations in order to begin an examination of the legal issues resulting from space station development and operation. In the near term, Congress could: 1) begin to identify those Federal and State laws which already apply to space station activities and those that Congress believes should apply; 2) begin to resolve questions of power sharing between Federal and State laws and Federal and State courts as they relate to space station activities; and 3) monitor the space station negotiations to ensure that the final space station agreements protect the fundamental rights and interests of U.S. citizens and support U.S. policies, including those related to commercial activities in space.
A New Technological Era for American Agriculture
The report concludes that these technologies have the potential to provide new solutions to many agricultural problems. The challenge, however, will be whether government, industry, and the public can strike the proper balance of direction, oversight, and use to allow these technologies to flourish. Congress will be faced with many issues and choices as American agriculture moves into this new era.
Industrial Energy Efficiency
This report focuses on energy use in industry, and how government policy can affect it. Trends and patterns in industrial energy use are reviewed, energy-efficient industrial equipment and practices are described, and the factors that influence corporate investment in efficient technologies are explored. Lastly, past Federal efforts to improve industrial energy efficiency are reviewed, and policy options for encouraging the further development and adoption of efficient industrial technologies are discussed.
Police Body Armor Standards and Testing, Vol. II—Appendixes
This report is an extension of volume one, that discusses the standards for body-armor. The report describes the origin of the standard, the rationale for particular provisions, and the main points of controversy, which concern acceptable risks, the validity and discrimination of the test, and the reproducibility of results.
Special Care Units for People With Alzheimer's and Other Dementias: Consumer Education, Research, Regulatory, and Reimbursement Issues
This report analyzes the available information about special care units for people with dementia. It discusses ways in which the Federal Government could encourage and support what is positive about special care units and at the same time protect vulnerable patients and their families from special care units that actually provide nothing special for their residents.
Development Assistance, Export Promotion, and Environmental Technology
This background paper provides an overview of developing country environmental problems and markets for environmental technologies and services. It discusses preliminary estimates on the amount and purposes of environmental aid provided by donor countries in 1991. The paper discusses the commercial implications of other countries’ aid for U.S. environmental firms, and the Helsinki package adopted by the OECD in late 1991 to limit commercial advantage from use of tied aid credits.
Preparing for an uncertain climate: summary
This is the final report on climate change. OTA examines how the Nation can best prepare for an uncertain future climate.
Industrial support of university training and research: implications for scientific training in the "steady state"
This report considers the implications of industrial funding of research and training for the way in which universities train new scientists during this period of "steady state."